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Occurrence, Quality, and Use of Ground Water in Orcas, San Juan, Lopez, and Shaw Islands, San Juan County, Washington

Description: From purpose and scope: The report has been designed in a format that will provide basic information to groups that are responsible for the planning and administration of water resources in the county (San Juan County), and to individuals as a guide in evaluating local ground-water conditions.
Date: 1983
Creator: Whiteman, K. J.; Molenaar, Dee; Bortleson, G. C. & Jacoby, J. M.

U.S. Geological Survey Research in Radioactive Waste Disposal--Fiscal Year 1981

Description: Abstract: The report summarizes progress on geologic and hydrologic research related to the disposal of radioactive wastes. The research is described according to whether it is related most directly to (1) high-level and transuranic wastes; (2) low-level wastes, or (3) uranium mill tailings. Included is research applicable to the identification and geohydrologic characterization of waste-disposal sites, to investigations of specific sites where wastes have been stored, and to studies of regions or environments where waste-disposal sites might be located. A significant part of the activity is concerned with techniques and methods for characterizing disposal sites and studies of geologic and hydrologic processes related to the transport and (or) retention of waste radionuclides.
Date: 1983
Creator: Schneider, Robert & Trask, N. J.

Impact of Changes in Land Use on the Ground-Water System in the Sequim-Dungeness Peninsula, Clallam County, Washington

Description: From purpose and scope: In 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the State of Washington Department of Ecology and the Board of Clallum County Commissioners, began a study that would (1) make a general assessment of the water resources of the developed area of the county, (2) identify present and potential water-resource problems in these areas, and (3) make in-depth analyses of selected problem areas. The first two items have been completed and documented in a forthcoming report by Drost.
Date: 1983
Creator: Drost, B. W.

Mudflow Hazards Along the Toutle and Cowlitz Rivers from a Hypothetical Failure of Spirit Lake Blockage

Description: From introduction: This report identifies mudflow flood hazards associated with a breach of the Spirit Lake debris blockage starting at a lake elevation of 3,475 feet. The report presents the results of an analysis of what would occur downstream if the blockage were to fail (according to a particular scenario) and if the ensuing flood were then to incorporate sediment to form a mudflow. Observations since the May 18 eruption indicate that in the event of a large flood a mudflow is likely to result.
Date: 1983
Creator: Swift, Charles H., III & Kresch, David L.

Water Resources of the Toppenish Creek Basin Yakima Indian Reservation, Washington

Description: Introduction: This report summarizes the results of the study and presents technical information on the water resources of the basin for hydrologists, engineers, planners, and water managers who need this knowledge to guide their endeavors. A brief lay-reader report describing this study is also in preparation for those who may be interested in the general findings and highlights of the investigation without the detail and data compilations contained in this report.
Date: January 1975
Creator: Geological Survey (U.S.)

Storm Runoff as Related to Urbanization in the Portland, Oregon-Vancouver, Washington Area

Description: From abstract: "A series of equations was developed to provide a better method of determining flood frequencies in the Portland-Vancouver urban area that is now available. The resulting regression equations can be used to compute peak discharge and storm runoff with a standard error of estimate of approximately thirty percent." This report contains captioned, black-and-white photographs and a colored map.
Date: 1980
Creator: Laenen, Antonius

Numerical Simulation of Ground-Water Flow in Lower Satus Creek Basin, Yakima Indian Reservation, Washington

Description: From abstract: "A multilayer numerical model of steady-state ground-water flow in lower Satus Creek basin was constructed, calibrated using time-avenged data, and used to estimate the long-term effects of proposed irrigation-water management plans on ground-water levels in the area." It contains maps, graphs, and tables.
Date: 1983
Creator: Prych, Edmund A.

Flood Elevations for the Soleduck River at Sol Duc Hot Springs, Clallam County, Washington

Description: Abstract: Elevations and inundation areas of a 100-year flood of the Soleduck River, Washington, were determined by the U.S. Geological Survey for the area in the vicinity of the Sol Duc Hot Springs resort, a public facility in the Olympic National Park that under Federal law must be located beyond or protected from damage by a 100-year flood. Results show that most flooding could be eliminated by raising parts of an existing dike. In general, little flood damage is expected, except at the southern end of an undeveloped airstrip that could become inundated and hazardous due to flow from s tributary. The airstrip is above the 100-year flood of the Soleduck River.
Date: 1983
Creator: Nelson, Leonard M.

Water Resources of Clallam County, Washington: Phase 1 Report

Description: From purpose and scope: The objectives of this study are (1) inventory the existing surface- and ground-water supplies of the county, and assess their quantity and quality; (2) determine the effects of irrigation on ground-water recharge in a northeastern part of the county (Sequim area); and (3) identify present and potential sources of contamination of the county's water resources and to determine if these present or potential contaminants will affect the quality of availability of water.
Date: 1986
Creator: Drost, B. W.

Geology and Mineral Resources of the Northern Part of the North Cascades National Park, Washington

Description: Introduction: This report was started as part of a study of the North Cascade Primitive Area, an area of about 830,000 acres, which adjoined the Canadian border on the north and which extended from Mount Shuksan on the west to Rock Mountain on the east. In the fall of 1968, Public Law 90-544, 90th Cong., reclassified the North Cascade Primitive Area and certain other national forest lands and created the North Cascades National Park, the Ross Lake National Recreation Area, and the Pasayten Wilderness. Ross Lake National Recreational Area, a corridor 21/2-4 miles wide along the Skagit River and its dammed portions, Ross, Diablo, and Gorge Lakes, separates the park into two parts and separates the northern part of the park from the Pasayten Wilderness. The present study concerns those parts of North Cascades National Park and the Ross Lake National Recreation Area that are north of Skagit River and west of Ross Lake (fig. 1), as well as part of the Mount Baker National Forest west of the park (pl. 2).
Date: 1972
Creator: Staatz, Mortimer Hay; Tabor, R. W.; Weis, Paul L.; Robertson, Jacques F.; Van Noy, Ronald M. & Pattee, Eldon C.

Reconnaissance for Radioactive Minerals in Washington, Idaho, and Western Montana, 1952-1955

Description: From abstract: Approximately fifty radioactive deposits and nearly fifty properties not abnormally radioactive were examined during a geologic reconnaissance for radioactive minerals in Idaho, Washington, and western Montana during the period July 1952 -- June 1955. The most important uranium deposits are in or near granitic to quartz monzonitic intrusions of probable Cretaceous age in central and northern Idaho, westernmost Montana, and northeastern Washington.
Date: May 1957
Creator: Weis, Paul L.; Armstrong, Frank C. & Rosenblum, Samuel

Surficial Geology of Mount Rainier National Park, Washington

Description: From introduction: Much of the ground surface around Mount Rainier volcano is directly underlain by loose geologic deposits that veneer the hard rock formations. Examples of these deposits are sand and gravel bars along the rivers, ridges of loose rock debris beside the glaciers, and sloping aprons of rock fragments beneath almost every cliff. Even though they are generally thin and inconspicuous when compared with the rock formations, these surficial deposits are clues to geologic events that. have profoundly influenced the shape of the park's landscape. Thus, from the character and extent of glacial deposits one can judge the age and size of former glaciers that carved the cirques and deep canyons of the park; from the mudflows which streamed down nearly every valley one can infer the age and size of huge landslides of the past that helped determine Mount Rainier's present shape; and from the pumice deposits some of the volcano's recent eruptive activity can be reconstructed.
Date: 1969
Creator: Crandell, Dwight Raymond

Preliminary Report of Reconnaissance for Uraniferous Granitic Rocks in Montana, Idaho, Oregon, Washington, and California

Description: From abstract: A reconnaissance to determine the uranium content of granitic rocks in the western states was made during parts of October and November 1951. The paucity of our knowledge of the granitic rocks that are most likely to contain significant quantities of uranium has prevented all but a very general isolation of areas or types of granitic rocks for reconnaissance examination.
Date: April 1952
Creator: Coats, Robert Roy

Reactivity in the South Spoils and Hillside Dump at the Midnite Mine

Description: The Midnite Mine is an inactive open-pit uranium mine located on the Spokane Indian Reservation in Washington State. Drill samples from two large waste rock dumps on the site, known as South Spoils and Hillside Dump, were collected with a Becker hammer drill and evaluated to determine potential of the rock to generate acid mine drainage (AMD). Waste rock at this mine contains both pyrite and uranium, and AMD effects are more complicated on this site than most in that uranium is soluble in both acidic and neutral aqueous solutions. Although AMD protocols identified 26% of the South Spoils samples as potentially acid, under 7% of the spoil samples were actually producing acid. Considerable calcite exists in the South Spoils, and weathering feldspars further contribute to acid neutralization. The Hillside Dump has low concentrations of pyrite and calcite that acid-base accounting protocols would predict to be non-acidic. Accumulation of sulfate in rocks with concentrations of less than 0.3% S causes some of those normally non-acid producing rocks to produce acid in the Hillside Dump.
Date: 1996
Creator: Moore, Bruce W.; Price, Jesse W. & Gardner, Ted

Data Dictionary and Discussion for the Midnite Mine GIS Database

Description: Abstract: A geographic information system (GIS) database has been developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) for the Midnite Mine and surroundings in northeastern Washington State (Stevens County) on the Spokane Indian Reservation. The mine is an open pit uranium mine which has been inactive since 1981. The GIS database was compiled to serve as a repository and source of historical and research information on the mine site. The database supported USBM hydrological and reclamation research on the mine site. The database also will be used by the Bureau of Land Management and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (as well as others) for environmental assessment and reclamation planning for future remediation and reclamation of the site. This report describes the data in the GIS database and their characteristics. The report also discusses known backgrounds on the data sets and any special considerations encountered by the USBM in developing the database. Most of the database also is planned to be available to the public as a two-CD-ROM set, although separately from this report.
Date: 1996
Creator: Peters, Douglas C.; Smith, M. Antoinette & Ferderer, David A.

1995 Midnite Mine Radiation Survey

Description: Abstract: During the week of September 4, 1995, personnel from the U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted a Ra-226 survey at the Midnite Mine. One hundred thirty measurements were made on a rectangular grid with 150-m spacings. Concurrently, Shepherd Miller, Inc., took gross gamma readings in gR/h at the same grid points. In addition, the USBM collected 17 soil samples to be analyzed for radium, thorium, and potassium. The results of this survey are summarized in this report.
Date: 1996
Creator: Stroud, William P. & Droullard, Robert F.

Groundwater Flow Model (GWFM) Development, Midnite Mine, Wellpinit, Washington

Description: This Report of Investigations (RI) is one of several describing work that has been completed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines at the Midnite uranium mine, Wellpinit, WA. Dean (in preparation) describes the entire project history. Four diskettes containing three archives compressed using WINZIP (or PKZIP) accompany the current RI. The ultimate purpose of this research effort was to develop a groundwater flow model (GWFM) for the Midnite Mine that can be utilized by the contractor preparing the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and by other interested parties. The objectives of this study were to (1) develop a shell model of the geology at the site, (2) develop the basis for a GWFM that will meet criteria described elsewhere in this RI and that can be updated with new information generated during the EIS process, and (3) present the results of two steady-state simulations of groundwater flow within the bedrock units. The current GWFM generates nonunique solutions because flow data for the bedrock units currently do not exist. However, the model provides useful results with respect to direction of flow. More data are required to model the bedrock aquifer system accurately. Volmnetric flow rates of the bedrock units should be measured or estimated. Measurements obtained from one or two drains completed in the bedrock in the southern portion of the site should yield these values.
Date: 1996
Creator: Kirschner, Frederick E.

U.S. Bureau of Mines Final Report : Midnite Mine Water Treatment Studies

Description: The U.S. Bureau of Mines reviewed and evaluated options for treatment of the approximately 500 million gallons of contaminated water in flooded pits at the Midnite Mine on the Spokane Indian Reservation. While current lime treatment produces discharge quality water, the resultant sludges are radioactive, presenting a disposal problem. Of the 24 commercial processes and seven emerging technologies evaluated, none demonstrated a significant advantage over ion exchange using a strong base anion exchange resin in either laboratory or field tests. Uranium was lowered from 22 ppm to 0.2 ppb in treated water. Radium was lowered from 44 pCi/L to <1 pCi/L using a modified precipitation with BaCl2 . The natural zeolite, clinoptilolite, lowered radium to 6-8 pCi/L when used as an ion exchanger.
Date: 1996
Creator: Schultze, L. E.; Nilsen, D. N.; Isaacson, A. E. & Lahoda, E. J.

Hydraulic Characterization of Midnite Mine, Wellpinit, Washington: Summary of 1994 Field Season

Description: The Midnite Mine is an inactive uranium mine on the Spokane Indian Reservation in Washington State. Oxidation of sulfide-containing minerals, primarily pyrite, produces acidic water. Uranium and other radioactive constituents are chemically leached and dissolved in ground and surface waters. The U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) has worked closely with the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the Bureau of Land Management, and the Spokane Tribe of Indians to address data needs for remediation of the disturbed area. As part of this effort, USBM personnel initiated research to determine water quality and define groundwater flow characteristics. Preliminary results of hydraulic stress tests performed in the bedrock at the site are described. Slug tests and pumping tests were conducted using preexisting USBM monitoring wells. Slug test results were used to generate hydraulic conductivity estimates for fractured and unfractured intrusives. The pumping tests demonstrated varying degrees of spatial continuity. Hydraulically continuous fractured zones along north-south planes were demonstrated in two cases for distances of 90 and 116 m (300 and 380 ft). The short-term pumping tests provided no evidence of east-west hydraulic continuity in fractured zones.
Date: 1996
Creator: Williams, Barbara C. & Riley, John A.