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Manual of Operations for the S-50 Plant

Description: It is recognized that the S-50 plant operations are far from standardized and therefore any manual will require continual revision to keep it up to date. Even during the period of writing this first edition, many changes occurred and were incorporated in the manual. Such revisions could delay indefinitely the issuance of the manual and it was felt that in its present form it could be useful in the training of new plant personnel. The specific purpose of the process employed by the Ferclave Corporation in the plant at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is one of secret information and cannot be released here. It can be stated, however, that the plant operation involves the processing of a chemical substance. This substance is not identified in the plant or in the process but is referred to only as 'material'. Its code designation is C-616. The process in general involves the separation of the raw material into constituents with more desirable properties. It is not necessary to know the name of the material nor the exact nature of the process in order to carry out the operations so this information will not be given in this Manual. The problem involved is to transport the material from the containers in which it is received by the plant into equipment set-up in the plant for carrying out the operation, to remove the various products from the process equipment and to do other auxiliary operations.
Date: June 1, 1945
Creator: R.T., Overman


Description: Welding is used to fabricate titanium and titanium-alloy components for air-frames, Jet engines, missiles, and chemical equipment. Annong the most important considerations in adapting titanium and its alloys to welded components is to use proper welding procedures and to select alloys that have the required weld-joint properties. The chemical and metallurgical characteristics that affect the selection of welding processes and alloys are discussed. Also, information is presented on surface preparation, welding procedures, and quality control. In addition, detailed data on the mechanical properties of welded joints in the commercial grades of titanium and titanium alloys and how these properties are affected by heat treatment and elevated temperatures are presented. (auth)
Date: March 23, 1945
Creator: Schwartz, D.L. & Kurland, L.

The Site B Foundry (Final Report on Part I of P.A. No. 151-ML-54-2, F.S. 41)

Description: The Site B Foundry is equipped for the melting and casting of tuballoy and its alloys. Castings weighing up to 750 pounds and as long as 40 inches can be made. Melting can be carried out in the vacuum, in inert gases or under fluxes. Heating is by high frequency induction. A description of the generally foundry layout, the furnace construction and operation, and of the auxiliary equipment is given in this report. The casting technique used in the Site B Foundry is designed to minimize piping and cold shuts in the billets. The top of the mold is kept hot and freezing of the billet takes place from the bottom. This hot topping minimizes piping. Controlled pouring into warm molds minimized cold shuts.
Date: February 12, 1945
Creator: Lauletta, Paul

Casting Uranium Bars as a Substitute for the Extrusion Process

Description: The usual method of producing uranium slugs for the reaction pile is to cast the metal into billets which are extruded into rod about 1.45 inches in diameter. Slugs are then machined from this to the final size of 1.359 inches in diameter by 8 inches long. Extrusion is done in the gamma range at a temperature of about 1000 C, where the metal is soft enough to be extruded at relatively low pressures. This operation is difficult and expensive and the product is not entirely satisfactory. The billets must be protected from oxidation during heating and extruding and the extruded rod must likewise be protected during cooling. Loss of metal due to oxidation is appreciable and a relatively large amount of scrap is produced. The production of dies suitable for use at the high temperatures involved is troublesome. The extruded rod must be straightened before machining and frequently contains stringers of oxide and voids or other internal defects.
Date: January 1, 1945
Creator: Lindlief, W. Earl

The Direct Pouring of Liquid Metal from the Reduction Bomb

Description: By the time regular crude biscuit production was interrupted at Ames on November 9, 1944, we had made well over 100 special experimental castings by pouring the liquid metal directly from the bomb. The workmen on the regular crude production line were alternating these special castings with the regular runs without the assistance of the research group. The process had reached a state of development 'wherein the castings were made by pouring batches of about 135 pounds of liquid metal directly from the bomb into a water-cooled steel mold in the presence of air at atmospheric pressure. The pouring operation was effected through a mechanically operated valve in the bottom of the bomb. The workability of such a process has been well established, and the quality of the metal has been proved through candling and chemical tests. The first sixty billets produced by this method have been extruded successfully. A number of changes, designed to improve the quality and yield of the product and to simplify the process, have been made since producing the metal for these tests. The first set-up to test the possibility of pouring the metal directly from the bomb was made on a small scale here last spring. The fortunate success of that first trial, although made with a valve mechanism that failed repeatedly to pour in the next few runs, pointed definitely to the feasibility of such a process. The development of a practicable set-up and procedure was then undertaken, and the plan of experimentation was to make a run, closely observe the operation, and inspect the complete set-up afterwards. Observations in each case led to changes that were made for the following trials. This method of development was slow at first, but, after an acquantance was gained with the main factors involved, the developments ...
Date: March 9, 1945
Creator: Wilhelm, H. A.

Monsanto Chemical Company, Unit 3 abstracts of progress reports, August 16--31, 1945: Summary of work to date on volatile neutron source

Description: It was proposed to prepare a volatile polonium compound which could be used alone or with another gaseous compound as a neutron source. The objective was to obtain a neutron source which would give off few neutrons in the expanded state, but when condensed would act substantially as a thick target and emit perhaps ten times as many neutrons. Originally, polonium hexafluoride was suggested; with such compound the fluorine atoms would constitute the target. the predicted boiling point of polonium hexafluoride is about -40 {degrees}C. There was reason to believe, however, that lower relatively non-volatile fluorides would be formed rather than the hexafluoride. Polonium alkyls were therefore proposed as alternatives. The predicted boiling point of Po(CH{sub 3}){sub 2} is about 110 {degrees}C. This compound in itself would probably not be suitable as a target material but it could be mixed with other gases such as carbon tetrafluoride, boron trifluoride, etc., as targets. As a longer range possibility, Po(CF{sub 3}){sub 2} was also suggested. This compound would act as its own target and would moreover have the same F/Po ratio as PoF{sub 6}; its boiling point could be expected to be 30{degrees} - 60 {degrees} lower than that of polonium dimethyl. Calculations were made with showed that the desired effect could be obtained either with Po F{sub 6} or with a mixture of Po(CH{sub 3}){sub 2} with a suitable target gas. Investigation of the preparation of these two compounds was therefore undertaken, and later some preliminary attempts to prepare polonium carbonyl were made.
Date: September 6, 1945
Creator: Rollinson, C.L.

July 16th nuclear explosion: Permanent earth displacement

Description: A measurement was made of the permanent earth movement in the neighborhood of the tower caused by the nuclear explosion at Trinity. The crater was apparently formed by a compression phenomenon and was noted to be much shallower than craters formed by ordinary high explosives. Scaling up existing information on the radius of craters, the TNT equivalence of the nuclear bomb is given as 10,000 tons to within 50 percent. Observations were made on the damage in the crater region and suggestions are given as to the nature of structure which might be expected to withstand the blast close to the gadget. It is also noted that, despite previous opinion to the contrary, it is apparently possible to reduce greatly the volume of earth blown away by the blast by suitably protecting the ground.
Date: October 3, 1945
Creator: Reines, F.

Technical progress report on the metabolic studies of plutonium for month of August 1945

Description: This monthly report briefly describes ongoing studies including urinary and fecal excretion of Plutonium 238 by human subjects and by rats, exploring way to facilitate the removal of Plutonium 238 from rat bone, the absorption of Plutonium 238 by barley plants, and use of inert iodine to block absorption of Iodine-131 in the rat.
Date: December 31, 1945
Creator: Hamilton, J.G.

Questions on the toxicity and behavior of product in the body

Description: This May 1945 report deals with how best to estimate the toxicity of ``Product`` to workers at Clinton Laboratories. Discussed are the issues of how toxic product is relative to radium, methods of analysis of product in the body, means of elimination from and distribution of product within the body, and what therapeutic measures are available. The principal concern of the author is that of protection of personnel who regularly handle in the laboratory large amounts of this material.
Date: December 31, 1945
Creator: English, S.G.

A study of the Quartz Fiber Balance No. 1 (Information Report)

Description: This article is a de-classified document produced by Monsanto Chemical Company-Unit III in Dayton, Ohio. The date of the document is August 1, 1945, and the subject is the operation of a quartz fiber microbalance. In particular, the document examines whether temperature fluctuations affect the operation of the instrument. Data was presented to show that the accuracy of the instrument was indeed affected by ambient temperature.
Date: August 1, 1945
Creator: Haring, M.M.