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Lifting-surface-theory aspect-ratio corrections to the lift and hinge-moment parameters for full-span elevators on horizontal tail surfaces

Description: A limited number of lifting-surface-theory solutions for wings with chordwise loadings resulting from angle of attack, parabolic-ac camber, and flap deflection are now available. These solutions were studied with the purpose of determining methods of extrapolating the results in such a way that they could be used to determine lifting-surface-theory values of the aspect-ratio corrections to the lift and hinge-moment parameters for both angle-of-attack and flap-deflection-type loading that could be used to predict the characteristics of horizontal tail surfaces from section data with sufficient accuracy for engineering purposes. Such a method was devised for horizontal tail surfaces with full-span elevators. In spite of the fact that the theory involved is rather complex, the method is simple to apply and may be applied without any knowledge of lifting-surface theory. A comparison of experimental finite-span and section value and of the estimated values of the lift and hinge-moment parameters for three horizontal tail surfaces was made to provide an experimental verification of the method suggested. (author).
Date: January 1, 1948
Creator: Crandall, Stewart M & Swanson, Robert S

The Measurement of Fuel-Air Ratio by Analysis for the Oxidized Exhaust Gas

Description: An investigation was made to determine a method of measuring fuel-air ratio that could be used for test purposes in flight and for checking conventional equipment in the laboratory. Two single-cylinder test engines equipped with typical commercial engine cylinders were used. The fuel-air ratio of the mixture delivered to the engines was determined by direct measurement of the quantity of air and of fuel supplied and also by analysis of the oxidized exhaust gas and of the normal exhaust gas. Five fuels were used: gasoline that complied with Army-Navy fuel Specification No. AN-VV-F-781 and four mixtures of this gasoline with toluene, benzene, and xylene. The method of determining the fuel-air ratio described in this report involves the measurement of the carbon-dioxide content of the oxidized exhaust gas and the use of graphs for the presented equation. This method is considered useful in aircraft, in the field, or in the laboratory for a range of fuel-air ratios from 0.047 to 0.124.
Date: January 1, 1943
Creator: Gerrish, Harold C. & Meem, J. Lawrence, Jr.

The Lagrangian Multiplier Method of Finding Upper and Lower Limits to Critical Stresses of Clamped Plates

Description: The theory of Lagrangian multipliers is applied to the problem of finding both upper and lower limits to the true compressive buckling stress of a clamped rectangular plate. The upper and lower limits thus bracket the truss, which cannot be exactly found by the differential-equation approach. The procedure for obtaining the upper limit, which is believed to be new, presents certain advantages over the classical Raleigh-Rite method of finding upper limits. The theory of the lower-limit procedure has been given by Trefftz but, in the present application, the method differs from that of Trefftz in a way that makes it inherently more quickly convergent. It is expected that in other buckling problems and in some vibration problems problems the Lagrangian multiplier method finding upper and lower limits may be advantageously applied to the calculation of buckling stresses and natural frequencies.
Date: January 1, 1946
Creator: Hu, Pai C. & Budiansky, Bernard

A Theoretical Investigation of Longitudinal Stability of Airplanes with Free Controls Including Effect of Friction in Control System

Description: The relation between the elevator hinge moment parameters and the control forces for changes in forward speed and in maneuvers is shown for several values of static stability and elevator mass balance. The stability of the short period oscillations is shown as a series of boundaries giving the limits of the stable regions in terms of the elevator hinge moment parameters. The effects of static stability, elevator moment of inertia, elevator mass unbalance, and airplane density are also considered. Dynamic instability is likely to occur if there is mass unbalance of the elevator control system combined with a small restoring tendency (high aerodynamic balance). This instability can be prevented by a rearrangement of the unbalancing weights which, however, involves an increase of the amount of weight necessary. It can also be prevented by the addition of viscous friction to the elevator control system provided the airplane center of gravity is not behind a certain critical position. For high values of the density parameter, which correspond to high altitudes of flight, the addition of moderate amounts of viscous friction may be destabilizing even when the airplane is statically stable. In this case, increasing the viscous friction makes the oscillation stable again. The condition in which viscous friction causes dynamic instability of a statically stable airplane is limited to a definite range of hinge moment parameters. It is shown that, when viscous friction causes increasing oscillations, solid friction will produce steady oscillations having an amplitude proportional to the amount of friction.
Date: January 1, 1944
Creator: Greenberg, Harry & Sternfield, Leonard

Static thrust and power characteristics of six full-scale propellers

Description: Static thrust and power measurements were made of six full-scale propellers. The propellers were mounted in front of a liquid-cooled-engine nacelle and were tested at 15 different blade angles in the range from -7 1/2 degrees to 35 degrees at 0.75r. The test rig was located outdoors and the tests were made under conditions of approximately zero wind velocity.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Hartman, Erwin P & Biermann, David

Summary of Airfoil Data

Description: The historical development of NACA airfoils is briefly reviewed. New data are presented that permit the rapid calculation of the approximate pressure distributions for the older NACA four-digit and five-digit airfoils by the same methods used for the NACA 6-series airfoils. The general methods used to derive the basic thickness forms for NACA 6 and 7-series airfoils together with their corresponding pressure distributions are presented. Detail data necessary for the application of the airfoils to wing design are presented in supplementary figures placed at the end of the paper. The report includes an analysis of the lift, drag, pitching-moment, and critical-speed characteristics of the airfoils, together with a discussion of the effects of surface conditions. Available data on high-lift devices are presented. Problems associated with lateral-control devices, leading-edge air intakes, and interference are briefly discussed, together with aerodynamic problems of application. (author).
Date: January 1, 1945
Creator: Abbott, Ira H; Von Doenhoff, Albert E & Stivers, Louis, Jr

Internal-flow systems for aircraft

Description: An investigation has been made to determine efficient arrangements for an internal-flow system of an aircraft when such a system operates by itself or in combination with other flow systems. The investigation included a theoretical treatment of the problem and tests in the NACA 5-foot vertical wind tunnel of inlet and outlet openings in a flat plate and in a wing.
Date: January 1, 1941
Creator: Rogallo, F M

Summary of lateral-control research

Description: A summary has been made of the available information on lateral control. A discussion is given of the criterions used in lateral-control specifications, of the factors involved in obtaining satisfactory lateral control, and of the methods employed in making lateral-control investigations in flight and in wind tunnels. The available data on conventional flap-type ailerons having various types of aerodynamic balance are presented in a form convenient for use in design. The characteristics of spoiler devices and booster mechanisms are discussed. The effects of Mach number, boundary layer, and distortion of the wing or of the lateral-control system are considered insofar as the available information permits. An example is included to illustrate the use of the design data. The limitations of the available information and some of the lateral-control problems that remain to be solved are indicated.
Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Toll, Thomas A

Flutter calculations in three degrees of freedom

Description: The present paper is a continuation of the general study of flutter published in NACA reports nos. 496 and 685. The paper is mainly devoted to flutter in three degrees of freedom (bending, torsion, and aileron) for which a number of selected cases have been calculated and presented in graphical form. The results are analyzed and discussed with regard to the effects of structural damping, of fractional-span ailerons, and of mass-balancing. The analysis shows that more emphasis should be put on the effect of structural damping and less on mass-balancing. The conclusion is drawn that a definite minimum amount of structural damping, which is usually found to be present, is essential in the calculations for an adequate description of the flutter case. Theoretical flutter predictions are thus brought into closer agreement with the facts of experience. A brief discussion is included of a particular biplane that had experienced flutter at about 200 miles per hour. Some simplifications have been achieved in the method of calculation. (author).
Date: January 1, 1942
Creator: Theodorsen, Theodore & Garrick, I E

Free-spinning wind-tunnel tests of a low-wing monoplane with systematic changes in wings and tails V : effect of airplane relative density

Description: The reported tests are a continuation of an NACA investigation being made in the free-spinning wind tunnel to determine the effects of independent variations in load distribution, wing and tail arrangement, and control disposition on the spin characteristics of airplanes. The standard series of tests was repeated to determine the effect of airplane relative density. Tests were made at values of the relative-density parameter of 6.8, 8.4 (basic), and 12.0; and the results were analyzed. The tested variations in the relative-density parameter may be considered either as variations in the wing loading of an airplane spun at a given altitude, with the radii of gyration kept constant, or as a variation of the altitude at which the spin takes place for a given airplane. The lower values of the relative-density parameter correspond to the lower wing loadings or to the lower altitudes of the spin.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Seidman, Oscar & Neihouse, A I

Flow coefficients of monosleeve valves

Description: The flow coefficients of the intake and the exhaust ports of a sleeve-valve cylinder were measured by attaching the cylinder to a large tank and measuring the changes in pressure and temperature in the tank that were caused by short periods of air flow through the valve ports. The derivation of the equations on which the flow coefficients are based is given. The distribution of total pressure in the arms of the sleeve-valve intake manifold was measured. The arms are found to have as little as 75 percent of the total pressure within the manifold entrance.
Date: January 1, 1941
Creator: Waldron, C D

Bending-torsion flutter calculations modified by subsonic compressibility corrections

Description: A number of calculations of bending-torsion wing flutter are made at two Mach numbers, m=0 (incompressible case) and m=0.7, and results are compared. The air forces employed for the case of m=0.7 are based on Frazer's recalculation of Possio's results, which are derived on the assumption of small disturbances to the main flow. For ordinary wings of normal density and of low bending frequency in comparison with torsion frequency, the compressibility correction to the flutter speed appears to be of the order of a few percent; whereas the correction to flutter speed for high-density wing sections, such as propeller sections, and to the wing-divergence speed in general, may be based on a rule using the (1 - m(2))1/4 factor and, for m=0.7, represents a decrease of the order of 17 percent.
Date: January 1, 1946
Creator: Garrick, I E

Flutter and oscillating air-force calculations for an airfoil in two-dimensional supersonic flow

Description: A connected account is given of the Possio theory of non-stationary flow for small disturbances in a two-dimensional supersonic flow and of its application to the determination of the aerodynamic forces on an oscillating airfoil. Further application is made to the problem of wing flutter in the degrees of freedom - torsion, bending, and aileron rotations. Numerical tables for flutter calculations are provided for various values of the Mach number greater than unity. Results for bending-torsion wing flutter are shown in figures and are discussed. The static instabilities of divergence and aileron reversal are examined as is a one-degree-of-freedom case of torsional oscillatory instability.
Date: October 1, 1946
Creator: Garrick, I E & Rubinow, S I

Mechanical Properties of Flush-Riveted Joints

Description: The strength of representative types of flush-riveted joints has been determined by testing 865 single-shearing, double-shearing, and tensile specimens representing 7 types of rivet and 18 types of joint. The results, presented in graphic form, show the stress at failure, type of failure, and d/t ratio. In general, dimpled joints were appreciably stronger than countersunk or protruding-head joints, but their strength was greatly influenced by constructional details. The optimum d/t ratios have been determined for the several kinds of joints. Photomicrographs of each type show constructional details and, in several instances, cracks in the sheet.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Brueggeman, W C & Roop, Frederick C

A high-speed motion-picture study of normal combustion, knock and preignition in a spark-ignition engines

Description: Combustion in a spark-ignition engine was investigated by means of the NACA high-speed motion-picture cameras. This camera is operated at a speed of 40,000 photographs a second and therefore makes possible the study of changes that take place in the intervals as short as 0.000025 second. When the motion pictures are projected at the normal speed of 16 frames a second, any rate of movement shown is slowed down 2500 times. Photographs are presented of normal combustion, of combustion from preignitions, and of knock both with and without preignition. The photographs of combustion show that knock may be preceded by a period of exothermic reaction in the end zone that persists for a time interval of as much as 0.0006 second. The knock takes place in 0.00005 second or less.
Date: January 1, 1941
Creator: Rothrock, A. M.; Spencer, R. C. & Miller, Cearcy D.

Wind-tunnel investigation of spoiler, deflector, and slot lateral-control devices on wings with full-span split and slotted flaps

Description: Report presents the results of an extensive investigation made in the NACA 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel of spoiler, deflector, and slot types of lateral-control device on wings with full-span split and slotted flaps. The static rolling and yawing moments were determined for all the devices tested, and the static hinge moments and the time response were determined for a few devices of each type.
Date: January 1, 1941
Creator: Wenzinger, Carl J. & Rogallo, Francis M.

Preliminary wind-tunnel investigation of an NACA 23012 airfoil with various arrangements of venetian-blind flaps

Description: Report presents the results of an investigation made in the NACA 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel of a large-chord NACA 23012 airfoil with several arrangements of venetian-blind flaps to determine the aerodynamic section characteristics as affected by the over-all flap chord, the chords of the slats used to form the flap, the slat spacing, the number of slats and the position of the flap with respect to the wing. Complete section data are given in the form of graphs for all the combinations tested.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Wenzinger, Carl J. & Harris, Thomas A.

Correlation of cooling data from an air-cooled cylinder and several multicylinder engines

Description: The theory of engine-cylinder cooling developed in a previous report was further substantiated by data obtained on a cylinder from a Wright r-1820-g engine. Equations are presented for the average head and barrel temperatures of this cylinder as functions of the engine and the cooling conditions. These equations are utilized to calculate the variation in cylinder temperature with altitude for level flight and climb. A method is presented for correlating average head and barrel temperatures and temperatures at individual points on the head and the barrel obtained on the test stand and in flight. The method is applied to the correlation and the comparison of data obtained on a number of service engines. Data are presented showing the variation of cylinder temperature with time when the power and the cooling pressure drop are suddenly changed.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Pinkel, Benjamin & Ellerbrock, Herman H., Jr.

Experiments on stability of Bunsen-burner flames for turbulent flow

Description: The results of a study of the stability of propane-air flames on bunsen-burner tubes are presented. Fuel-air ratio, tube diameter, and Reynolds number were the primary variables. Regions of stability are outlined in plots of fuel-air ratio as a function of Reynolds number for flames seated on the burner lip and for flames suspended well above the burner. For fully developed flow, turbulent as well as laminar, the velocity gradient at the burner wall is a satisfactory variable for correlating the fuel-air ratio required for blow-off of seated flames for fuel-air ratios of less than 15 percent. For turbulent flames, wall velocity serves as a correlating variable in the same fuel-air-ratio range. (author).
Date: January 1, 1948
Creator: Bollinger, Lowell M & Williams, David T

Preignition characteristics of several fuels under simulated engine conditions

Description: The preignition characteristics of a number of fuels have been studied under conditions similar to those encountered in an engine. These conditions were simulated by suddenly compressing a fuel-air mixture in contact with an electrically heated hot spot in the cylinder head of the NACA combustion apparatus. Schlieren photographs and indicator cards were taken of the burning, and the hot-spot temperatures necessary to cause ignition under various conditions were determined.
Date: January 1, 1941
Creator: Spencer, R C

Preliminary investigation of the flying qualities of airplanes

Description: The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics is undertaking an investigation of the flying qualities of airplanes. The work consists in the determination of the significant qualities susceptible of measurement, the development of the instruments required to make the measurements, and the accumulation of data on the flying qualities of existing airplanes, which data are to serve as a basis for quantitative specifications for the flying qualities of future designs. A tentative schedule of measurable flying qualities has been prepared and the instruments needed for their measurements have been assembled. A trial of the schedule and the instruments has been made using the Stinson SR-8e airplane. The results showed that, although the original schedule and instruments are basically satisfactory some further development is required to eliminate nonessential items and to expedite flight testing. The report describes and discusses the work done with this airplane.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Soule, H A

Determination of ground effect from tests of a glider in towed flight

Description: Report presents the results of an investigation made to find the effect of ground on the aerodynamic characteristics of a Franklin PS-2 glider. The lift, the drag, and the angle of attack of the glider in towed flight were determined at several heights from 0.14 to 1.19 span lengths and at various speeds for each height. Two wing arrangements were tested: the plain wing, and the wing with a nearly full-span 30-percent-chord split flap deflected 45 degrees. The experimental results for the plain wing were in good agreement with theoretical values calculated by the method of Wieselsberger for both the angle of attack and the drag coefficient at a height of 0.21 span length; Tani's refinements of the theory had a practically negligible effect on the computed values in this case.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Wetmore, J W & Turner, L I , Jr