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Supplement to Comparison of automatic control systems

Description: This analysis deals with the indirect regulator, wherefrom the behavior of the direct regulator is deduced as a limiting case. The prime mover is looked upon as "independent of the load": a change in the adjusting power (to be applied) for the control link (as, for example, in relation to the adjusting path (eta) with pressure valves or the rudder of vessels) does not modify the actions of the prime mover. Mass forces and friction are discounted; "clearance" also is discounted in the transmission links of the regulator.
Date: August 1941
Creator: Oppelt, W

Investigations on the stability, oscillation, and stress conditions of airplanes with tab control. Second partial report : application of the solutions obtained in the first partial report to tab-controlled airplanes.

Description: The first partial report, FB 2000, contained a discussion of the derivation of the equations of motion and their solutions for a tab-controlled airplane; the results obtained there are now to be applied to the longitudinal motion of tab-controlled airplanes. In view of the abundance of structural factors and aerodynamic parameters, a general discussion of the problems is unfeasible. Thus it is demonstrated on the basis of examples what stability, oscillation, and stress conditions are to be expected for tab-controlled airplanes. (author).
Date: September 1, 1949
Creator: Filzek, B

A Ram-Jet Engine for Fighters

Description: Simple and accurate calculations are made of the flow process in a continuous compressorless Lorin jet-propulsion unit. Experimental confirmation is given from towing tests on an airplane at flying speeds up to 200 miles per second. An analysis is made of the performance of a fighter-type airplane designed for utilization of this propulsion system.
Date: October 1, 1947
Creator: Sanger, E & Bredt, I

Force and pressure-distribution measurements on a rectangular wing with a slotted droop nose and with either plain and split flaps in combination or a slotted flap.

Description: Force measurements and pressure distribution measurements on the midsection were made on a rectangular wing with slotted droop nose and end plates, on which could be placed a choice of either a plain flap-split flap combination or a slotted flap. (author).
Date: March 1, 1947
Creator: Lemme, H G

On laminar and turbulent friction

Description: Report deals, first with the theory of the laminar friction flow, where the basic concepts of Prandtl's boundary layer theory are represented from mathematical and physical points of view, and a method is indicated by means of which even more complicated cases can be treated with simple mathematical means, at least approximately. An attempt is also made to secure a basis for the computation of the turbulent friction by means of formulas through which the empirical laws of the turbulent pipe resistance can be applied to other problems on friction drag. (author).
Date: September 1, 1946
Creator: Von Karman, TH

Contribution to the Problem of Flow at High Speed

Description: The authors regret that due to the lack of time the investigations could not be carried out to a more finished form. Especially in the first part it was intended to include a few further applications and to use them in the general considerations of this part. In spite of the fact that the intentions of the authors could not be realized, the authors felt that it would serve the aims of the competition to present part I in its present fragmentary form. The topics include: 1) A Few General Remarks Covering the Prandtl-Busemann Method; and 2) Effect of Compressibility in Axially Symmetrical Flow around an Ellipsoid.
Date: June 1, 1949
Creator: Schmieden, C. & Kawalki, K. H.

Heat Transfer Through Turbulent Friction Layers

Description: The "general Prandtl number" Pr(exp 1) - A(sub q)/A Pr, aside from the Reynolds number determines the ratio of turbulent to molecular heat transfer, and the temperature distribution in turbulent friction layers. A(sub q) = exchange coefficient for heat; A = exchange coefficient for momentum transfer. A formula is derived from the equation defining the general Prandtl number which describes the temperature as a function of the velocity. For fully developed thermal boundary layers all questions relating to heat transfer to and from incompressible fluids can be treated in a simple manner if the ratio of the turbulent shear stress to the total stress T(sub t)/T in the layers near the wall is known, and if the A(sub q)/A can be regarded as independent of the distance from the wall. The velocity distribution across a flat smooth channel and deep into the laminar sublayer was measured for isothermal flow to establish the shear stress ratio T(sub t)/T and to extend the universal wall friction law. The values of T(sub t)/T which resulted from these measurements can be approximately represented by a linear function of the velocity in the laminar-turbulent transition zone. The effect of the temperature relationship of the material values on the flow near the wall is briefly analyzed. It was found that the velocity at the laminar boundary (in contrast to the thickness of the laminar layer) is approximately independent of the temperature distribution. The temperature gradient at the wall and the distribution of temperature and heat flow in the turbulent friction layers were calculated on the basis of the data under two equations. The derived formulas and the figures reveal the effects of the Prandtl number, the Reynolds number, the exchange quantities and the temperature relationship of the material values.
Date: September 1, 1943
Creator: Reichardt, H.

Compression Shocks in Two-Dimensional Gas Flows

Description: The following are arguments on the compression shocks in gas flow start with a simplified representation of the results of the study made by Th. Meyer as published in the Forschungsheft 62 of the VDI, supplemented by several amplifications for the application.In the treatment of compression shocks, the equation of energy, the equation of continuity, the momentum equation, the equation of state of the particular gas, as well as the condition Of the second law of thermodynamics that no decrease of entropy is possible in an isolated system, must be taken into consideration. The result is that, in those cases where the sudden change of state according to the second law of thermodynamics is possible, there always occurs a compression of the gas which is uniquely determined by the other conditions.
Date: February 1, 1949
Creator: Busemann, A.

Landing Procedure in Model Ditching Tests of Bf 109

Description: The purpose of the model tests is to clarify the motions in the alighting on water of a land plane. After discussion of the model laws, the test method and test procedure are described. The deceleration-time-diagrams of the landing of a model of the Bf 109 show a high deceleration peek of greater than 20g which can be lowered to 4 to 6g by radiator cowling and brake skid.
Date: December 1, 1949
Creator: Sottorf, W.

Investigation of the Operating Properties of the Leakage Current Anemometer

Description: Freedom from inertia, erosion of electrodes, and reaction make the leakage current particularly appropriate for the measurement of flow velocities in gases. Apparatus previously described has now been improved by reducing the size of the electrodes by one -thousandth, as is necessary aerodynamically, and by increasing the magnitude of the current from 1000 to 10,000 times; the latter result was obtained.by use of mercury high-pressure lamps set up at the one focal point of an ellipsoidal reflector with the cathodes arranged at the other focal point or by use of suitable X-ray radiation. Families of calibration curves were taken with a number of vivid tests conditions of the greatest variety and the operating properties of the instrument were widely elucidated by calculation of the sensitivity to fluctuation; this was done at first for operation at stationary conditions only; due to the freedom from inertia the instationary conditions were thus also given. Accordingly, the leakage current anemometer ought to be appropriate for investigations of turbulence,.
Date: October 1, 1947
Creator: Fucks, Wilhelm

The Distribution of Loads on Rivets Connecting a Plate to a Beam under Transverse Loads

Description: This report gives theoretical discussion of the distribution of leads on rivets connecting a plate to a beam under transverse leads. Two methods of solution are given which are applicable to loads up to the limit of proportionality; in the first the rivets are treated as discrete members, and in the second they are replaced by a continuous system of jointing. A method of solution is also given which is applicable to the case when nonlinear deformations occur in the rivets and the plate, but not in the beam. The methods are illustrated by numerical examples, and these show that the loads carried by the rivets and the plate are less than the values given by classical theory, which does not take into account the slip of the rivets, even below the limit of proportionality. The difference is considerably accentuated when nonlinear deformations occur in the restructure and the beam then carries the greater portion of the bending moment. If the material of the beam has a higher proportional limit and a higher ultimate strength than the material of the plate, there is thus a transfer of load from weaker to stronger material, and this is to the advantage of the structure. The methods given are of simple application and are recommended for use in the design of light-alloy structures when the design lead is likely to be above the proportional limit.
Date: April 1, 1947
Creator: Vogt, F.

The Minimum Energy Loss Propeller

Description: Various cases are presented of the solution of the problem ot the most efficient propeller, more general cases being considered than the one by Betz in 1919: namely, that of a propeller under a limiting light load, The problem is solved directly and also with the aid of the Ritz method which became readily applicable after the author proposed a method for the solution of the propeller problem, in general, with the aid of trigonometric series. The design of a propeller with the aid of this method is given and an analysis is made of the effect of the fuselage and of the viscosity coefficient mu on the character of the solution of the variational problem.
Date: March 1, 1945
Creator: Poliakhov, N.

Heat Transfer in a Turbulent Liquid or Gas Stream

Description: The,theory of heat.transfer from a solid body to a liquid stream could he presented previously** only with limiting assumptions about the movement of the fluid (potential flow, laminar frictional flow). (See references 1, 2, and 3). For turbulent flow, the most important practical case, the previous theoretical considerations did not go beyond dimensionless formulas and certain conclusions as to the analogy between the friction factor and the unit thermal conductance, (See references 4, 5, 6, and 7,) In order to obtain numerical results, an experimental treatment of the problem was resorted to, which gave rise to numerous investigations because of the importance of this problem in many branches of technology. However, the results of these investigations frequently deviate from one another. The experimental results are especially dependent upon the overall dimensions and the specific proportions of the equipment. In the present work, the attempt will be made to develop systematically the theory of the heat transfer and of the dependence of the unit thermal conductance upon shape and dimensions, using as a basis the velocity distribution for turbulent flow set up by Prandtl and Von Karman.
Date: October 1, 1944
Creator: Latzko, H.

On the Theory of the Unsteady Motion of an Airfoil

Description: The paper presents a systematical analysis of the problem of the determination of the unsteady motion about an airfoil moving in an infinite fluid that contains a system of vortices and the determination of the hydrodynamical forces acting on the airfoil. The hydrodynamical problem is reduced to the determination of the function f (xi) which transforms conformally the external region of the airfoil into the interior of a circle. The proposed methods of determining the irrotational motion of a fluid that is produced by any motion of the airfoil are especially simple and effective if the function f (xi) is rational. As an example the flow is determined for the case of an arbitrary motion of an airfoil of the Joukowsky type. The formulas obtained for the determination of the hydrodynamical forces by means of contour integration are similar to those given by S. Chaplygin. These formulas are used to determine the force acting on the airfoil in the cases where the unsteady motion is potential throughout and the circulation about the airfoil is constant and also when the fluid contains a system of vortices. A full discussion is given of the concept of virtual masses together with practical formulas for computing the virtual mass coefficients.
Date: July 1, 1947
Creator: Sedov, L. I.

An Experimental Investigation of the Flow of Air in a Flat Broadening Channel

Description: The wide use of diffusers, in various fields of technology, has resulted in several experimental projects to study the action and design of diffusers. Most of the projects dealt with steam (steam turbine nozzles). But diffusers have other applications - that is, ventilators, smoke ducts, air coolers, refrigeration, drying, and so forth. At present there is another application for diffusers in wind-tunnel design. Because of higher requirements and increased power of such installations more attention must be paid to the correctness of work and the decrease in losses due to every section of the tunnel. A diffuser, being one of the component parts of a tunnel , can in the event of faulty construction introduce considerable losses. Therefore, in the design of the new CAHI wind tunnel, it was suggested that an experimental study of diffusers be made, with a view to applying the results to wind tunnels. The experiments conducted by K. K. Baulin in the laboratories of CAHI upon models of diffusers of different cross sections, lengths, and angles of divergence, were a valuable source of experimental data. They were of no help, however, in reaching any conclusion regarding the optimum shape because of the complexity and diversity of the factors which all appeared simultaneously, thereby precluding the.study of the effects of any one factor separately. On the suggestion of the director of the CAHI,Prof. B. N. Ureff, it was decided to experiment on a two-dimensional diffuser model and determine the effect, of the angle of divergence. The author is acquainted with two experimental projects of like nature: the first was conducted with water, the other with air. The first of these works, although containing a wealth of experimental data, does not indicate the nature of flow or its relation to the angle of divergence. The second work ...
Date: January 1, 1944
Creator: Vedernikoff, A. N.

The oscillating wing with aerodynamically balanced elevator

Description: The two-dimensional problem of the oscillating wing with aerodynamically balanced elevator is treated in the manner that the wing is replaced by a plate with bends and stages and the airfoil section by a mean line consisting of one or more straights. The computed formulas and tables permit, on these premises, the prediction of the pressure distribution and of the aerodynamic reactions of oscillating elevators and tabs with any position of elevator hinge in respect to elevator leading edge.
Date: October 1, 1941
Creator: Kussner, H G & Schwartz, I

Stresses in single-spar wing constructions with incompletely built-up ribs

Description: It is shown that the force distribution resulting from incomplete ribs in single spar wing structures may be determined with the aid of the shear field method by a statistically indeterminate computation. A numerical computation is given of the force distribution of a wing structure whose two neighboring incomplete ribs with web missing in half the section are torsionally loaded.
Date: January 30, 1940
Creator: Reinitzhuber, F

Concerning the Velocity of Evaporation of Small Droplets in a Gas Atmosphere

Description: The evaporation velocity of liquid droplets under various conditions is theoretically calculated and a number of factors are investigated which are neglected in carrying out the fundamental equation of Maxwell. It is shown that the effect of these factors at the small drop sizes and the small weight concentrations ordinarily occurring in fog can be calculated by simple corrections. The evaporation process can be regarded as quasi-stationary in most cases. The question at hand, and also the equivalent question of the velocity of growth of droplets in a supersaturated atmosphere, is highly significant in meteorology and for certain industrial purposes. Since the literature concerning this is very insufficient and many important aspects either are not considered at all or are reported incorrectly, it seems that a short discussion is not superfluous. A special consideration will be given to the various assumptions and neglections that are necessary in deriving the fundamental equation of Maxwell. The experimental work available, which is very insufficient and in part poorly dependable, can be used as an accurate check on the theory only in very few cases.
Date: August 1, 1947
Creator: Fuchs, N.

The Wall Interference of a Wind Tunnel of Elliptic Cross Section

Description: The wall interference is obtained for a wind tunnel of elliptic section for the two cases of closed and open working sections. The approximate and exact methods used gave results in practically good agreement. Corresponding to the result given by Glauert for the case of the closed rectangular section, the interference is found to be a minimum for a ratio of minor to major axis of 1:square root of 6 This, however, is true only for the case where the span of the airfoil is small in comparison with the width of the tunnel. For a longer airfoil the favorable ellipse is flatter. In the case of the open working section the circular shape gives the minimum interference.
Date: November 1, 1944
Creator: Tani, Itiro & Sanuki, Matao

New Method of Determining the Polar Curve of an Airplane in Flight

Description: A fundamental defect of existing methods for the determination of the polar of an airplane in flight is the impossibility of obtaining the thrust or the resistance of the propeller for any type airplane with any type engine. The new method is based on the premise that for zero propeller thrust the mean angle of attack of the blade is approximately the same for all propellers if this angle is reckoned from the aerodynamic chord of the profile section. This angle was determined from flight tests. Knowing the mean angle of the blade setting the angle of attack of the propeller blade at zero thrust can be found and the propeller speed in gliding obtained. The experimental check of the new method carried out on several airplanes gave positive results. The basic assumptions for the construction of the polars and the method of analyzing the flight data are given.
Date: March 1, 1945
Creator: Yegorov, B. N.

Determination of the Actual Contact Surface of a Brush Contact

Description: The number of partial contact surfaces of a brush-ring contact is measured by means of a statistical method. The particular brush is fitted with wicks - that is, insulated and cemented cylinders of brush material, terminating in the brush surface. The number of partial contact surfaces can be computed from the length of the rest periods in which such wicks remain without current. Resistance measurements enable the determination of the size of the contact surfaces. The pressure in the actual contact surface of a recently bedded brush is found to be not much lower than the Brinell hardness of the brush.
Date: August 1, 1944
Creator: Holm, Ragnar

Rockets using Liquid Oxygen

Description: It is my task to discuss rocket propulsion using liquid oxygen and my treatment must be highly condensed for the ideas and experiments pertaining to this classic type of rocket are so numerous that one could occupy a whole morning with a detailed presentation. First, with regard to oxygen itself as compared with competing oxygen carriers, it is known that the liquid state of oxygen, in spite of the low boiling point, is more advantageous than the gaseous form of oxygen in pressure tanks, therefore only liquid oxygen need be compared with the oxygen carriers. The advantages of liquid oxygen are absolute purity and unlimited availability at relatively small cost in energy. The disadvantages are those arising from the impossibility of absolute isolation from heat; consequently, allowance must always be made for a certain degree of vaporization and only vented vessels can be used for storage and transportation. This necessity alone eliminates many fields of application, for example, at the front lines. In addition, liquid oxygen has a lower specific weight than other oxygen carriers, therefore many accessories become relatively larger and heavier in the case of an oxygen rocket, for example, the supply tanks and the pumps. The advantages thus become effective only in those cases where definitely scheduled operation and a large ground organization are possible and when the flight requires a great concentration of energy relative to weight. With the aim of brevity, a diagram of an oxygen rocket will be presented and the problem of various component parts that receive particularly thorough investigation in this classic case but which are also often applicable to other rocket types will be referred to.
Date: April 1, 1947
Creator: Busemann, Adolf