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Arms Sales in the Middle East: Trends and Analytical Perspectives for U.S. Policy

Description: This report analyzes state-to-state arms sales in the Middle East with a particular focus on U.S. transfers, as authorized and reviewed by Congress. The information in this report, including sales data, is drawn from a number of official and unofficial open sources. The report focuses on recent arms sales, primarily from the United States, to seven Middle Eastern states: Israel, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Iraq, Turkey, and Qatar. It concludes by considering a number of arms sales-related issues of congressional interest and options available to Members of Congress to influence or control aspects of arms sales, including those related to oversight, reporting requirements, checks on executive action, and conditions on transfers or funding.
Date: October 11, 2017
Creator: Thomas, Clayton

State, Foreign Operations and Related Programs: Fiscal Year 2017 Budget and Appropriations

Description: This report provides an overview and highlights of the State Department Foreign Operations and Related Appropriations request with an account-by-account comparison of the FY2017 request to the House and Senate committee-passed bills and FY2016 estimates in Appendix A. Appendix B provides the International Affairs 150 function funding levels.
Date: May 26, 2017
Creator: Epstein, Susan B.; Lawson, Marian L. & Gill, Cory R.

Gun Control: Federal Law and Legislative Action in the 114th Congress

Description: This report provides background on the two major federal gun control statutory frameworks: the National Firearms Act of 1934 (NFA), as amended, and the Gun Control Act of 1968 (GCA), as amended. It then provides analysis of the Senate amendments offered in the 114th Congress that would have addressed issues regarding expanding federal background check requirements to private non-licensed gun sellers in public places, allowing the Attorney General power to stop the sale of firearms or explosives to a person deemed "a dangerous terrorist", revising and codifying rules regarding people with mental health conditions acquiring firearms, and improving computer systems and the availability of information on persons not authorized to possess a firearm . It also tracks the status of gun control related appropriations for the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), Federal Bureau of Investigation National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) Section, National Criminal History Improvement Program (NCHIP), and NICS Amendments Record Improvement Program (NARIP).
Date: April 19, 2017
Creator: Krouse, William J.

NASA Appropriations and Authorizations: A Fact Sheet

Description: This report provides data on past, current, and proposed NASA appropriations. No bills have yet been introduced in the 115th Congress proposing future-year authorizations of NASA appropriations. Table 1 shows appropriations for NASA from FY2012 through FY2017. The data for FY2012 through FY2016 include supplemental appropriations, rescissions, transfers, reprogramming, and, in the case of FY2013, sequestration, Table 2 shows enacted appropriations for FY2017, and Figure 1 shows NASA's total annual budget authority from the agency's establishment in FY1958 to FY2017, in both current dollars and inflation-adjusted FY2017 dollars.
Date: September 11, 2017
Creator: Morgan, Daniel

National Health Service Corps: Background, Funding, and Programs

Description: This report discusses the National Health Service Corps (NHSC) a federal program which offers loan repayment and scholarships to physicians and other health professionals who agree to work at an approved clinic in a under-served area for at least two years. The report summarizes the National Health Service Corps's (NHSC) recruitment and retention programs, and the NHSC's funding trends from FY2010 through FY2017.
Date: April 18, 2017
Creator: Reyes-Akinbileje, Bernice

Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides background information and potential issues for Congress on the Navy's irregular warfare (IW) and counterterrorism (CT) operations. The Navy's IW and CT activities pose a number of potential oversight issues for Congress, including how much emphasis to place on IW and CT activities in Navy budgets, particularly in a context of constraints on Navy budgets and Navy desires to devote resources to developing "high end" combat capabilities for countering improved conventional military capabilities of countries such as China and Russia.
Date: October 2, 2017
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald

Airline Passenger Denied Boarding: Rules and Regulations

Description: This report discusses regulations regarding an airline's responsibilities when a passenger with a confirmed ticket is denied boarding on a flight due to lack of seats (known as overselling). The various updates to the original regulation from 1967 are discussed with the latest modifications occurring in 2015.
Date: April 21, 2017
Creator: Tang, Rachel Y.

Reconsidering the Clean Power Plan

Description: This report provides background on the Clean Power Plan (CPP) and its proposed repeal, describes the administrative steps that are required to repeal or amend a rule, and discusses how the CPP and its proposed repeal fit into the context of recent and projected power sector evolution.
Date: October 25, 2017
Creator: McCarthy, James E.

Trespassing: The Leading Cause of Rail-Related Fatalities

Description: This report discusses rail-related fatalities and the problem of trespassing by pedestrians on the railroad tracks which is the leading cause of fatalities in rail incidents. Statistics on fatalities, known causes of trespassing, and initiatives to reduce trespassing incidents such as Operation Lifesaver are discussed.
Date: August 15, 2017
Creator: Frittelli, John

Senate Proceedings Establishing Majority Cloture for Supreme Court Nominations: In Brief

Description: This report explains the actions taken on April 6, 2017, by which the Senate effectively extended to Supreme Court nominations its November 2013 reinterpretation of Rule XXII regarding how many Senators are needed to invoke cloture for nominations being debated by the Senate. It concludes with a list of related CRS products that provide more history and context regarding the method used to reinterpret the Senate Rule, the nominations process, and cloture and filibusters.
Date: April 14, 2017
Creator: Heitshusen, Valerie

Ongoing Section 232 Steel and Aluminium Investigations

Description: This report discuses two investigations by the Department of Commerce related to Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 which allows the President to impose tariffs or quotas on imported goods if it is in the interest of national security. These investigations are being conducted on the steel and aluminium industries to determine whether the President can and whether he should impose import restrictions. Mixed reactions to the investigations and proposals are also discussed.
Date: July 28, 2017
Creator: Fefer, Rachel F.

Unfunded Mandates Reform Act: History, Impact, and Issues

Description: This report examines debates over what constitutes an unfunded federal mandate and the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act's (UMRA) implementation. It focuses on UMRA's requirement that CBO issue written cost estimate statements for federal mandates in legislation, its procedures for raising points of order in the House and Senate concerning unfunded federal mandates in legislation, and its requirement that federal agencies prepare written cost estimate statements for federal mandates in rules. It also assesses UMRA's impact on federal mandates and arguments concerning UMRA's future, focusing on UMRA's definitions, exclusions, and exceptions that currently exempt many federal actions with potentially significant financial impacts on nonfederal entities. An examination of the rise of unfunded federal mandates as a national issue and a summary of UMRA's legislative history are provided in Appendix A. Citations to UMRA points of order raised in the House and Senate are provided in Appendix B.
Date: August 7, 2017
Creator: Dilger, Robert Jay

Presidential Appointee Positions Requiring Senate Confirmation and Committees Handling Nominations

Description: This report identifies, by Senate committee, presidentially appointed positions requiring Senate confirmation as of June 30, 2016. For each committee list, positions are categorized as full- or part-time and then grouped by department or agency. Where nominations have been referred to more than one committee, they are noted under each of the committees to which the nominations were referred. The lists also include the lengths of fixed terms, where applicable.
Date: May 3, 2017
Creator: Davis, Christopher M. & Greene, Michael

Financial Services and General Government (FSGG) Fiscal Year 2018 Appropriations: Overview

Description: This report outlines the Financial Services and General Government (FSGG) appropriations bill for the 2018 fiscal year. This bill includes funding for the Department of the Treasury (Title I), the Executive Office of the President (EOP; Title II), the judiciary (Title III), the District of Columbia (Title IV), and more than two dozen independent agencies (Title V). The bill typically funds mandatory retirement accounts in Title VI, which also contains additional general provisions applying to the funding provided agencies through the FSGG bill. Title VII contains general provisions applying government-wide. The FSGG bills have often also contained provisions relating to U.S. policy toward Cuba
Date: September 1, 2017
Creator: Webel, Baird

Congressional News Media and the House and Senate Press Galleries

Description: This report provides information about the rules and authorities that affect media coverage of Congress, current practices among the press galleries, and selected data on gallery membership since the 94th Congress. It also provides a brief discussion of considerations that commonly underlie the galleries' practices or may affect gallery operations and congressional media rules.
Date: April 13, 2017
Creator: Eckman, Sarah J.

Taylor Force Act: Palestinian Terrorism-Related Payments and U.S. Aid

Description: This report discusses the proposed Taylor Force Act in Congress which relates to the amount of foreign aid sent to the Palestinian Authority and reductions and further requirements being implemented due to Palestinian payments to families of those killed in the Palestinian-Israeli conflict whether as combatants or civilians and Palestinian prisoners in Israeli prisons that have been convicted of terrorism related offenses.
Date: September 12, 2017
Creator: Zanotti, Jim & Sharp, Jeremy M.