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Systemically Important or "Too Big to Fail" Financial Institution.

Description: This report discusses the "To Big To Fail" (TBTF) system of the government intervening and bailing out certain companies whose collapse is deemed too disruptive to the American financial market to let occur. This report discusses the economic issues raised by TBTF, broad policy options, and policy changes made by the relevant Dodd-Frank provisions.
Date: May 26, 2017
Creator: Labonte, Marc

President Trump's Withdrawal from the Paris Agreement Raises Legal Questions: Parts 1 and 2

Description: This report discusses various legal questions raised by President Trump's announcement of the U.S.'s withdrawal from the Paris Climate Agreement. Questions addressed include the withdrawal process, whether the agreement is binding or non-binding, the role of United States in other international climate meetings, and why President Trump announced the exit.
Date: June 9, 2017
Creator: Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.

Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA): 2017 Reauthorization as PDUFA VI

Description: This report discusses the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA) and its reauthorization as PDUFA VI. The bill allows the FDA to collect fees from pharmaceutical companies to support the review process for human drug applications. The various stages of drafting and passing the bill as well as changes from the most recent PDUFA are included.
Date: June 8, 2017
Creator: Dabrowska, Agata & Thaul, Susan

Post-Heller Second Amendment Jurisprudence

Description: This report examines the scope of the Second Amendment, as interpreted by the federal circuit courts of appeals, after the watershed Supreme Court decisions in "District of Columbia v. Heller" and "McDonald v. City of Chicago". After "Heller" and "McDonald", numerous challenges were brought on Second Amendment grounds to various federal, state, and local firearm laws and regulations. Because Heller neither purported to define the full scope of the Second Amendment, nor suggested a standard of review for evaluating Second Amendment claims, the lower federal courts have been tasked with doing so in the Second Amendment challenges brought before them. This report discusses in detail notable post-Heller Second Amendment cases decided by federal courts of appeals. Because "Heller" and "McDonald" provide the only recent Supreme Court guidance on the Second Amendment, the analyses in these cases may provide useful guideposts for Congress should it seek to enact further firearm regulations.
Date: November 21, 2017
Creator: Herman, Sarah S.

Social Security: Cost-of-Living Adjustments

Description: This report discusses the cost-of-living adjustments (COLAs) for Social Security and the upcoming COLA set to begin in January 2018. Calculations used to determine COLA amounts and a brief history of their use is also included.
Date: October 26, 2017
Creator: Whittaker, Julie M.

GAO Issues Opinions on Applicability of Congressional Review Act to Two Guidance Documents

Description: This report discusses the Government Accountability Office's (GAO) issued opinions regarding whether a 2013 interagency guidance document and a 2016 amendment to the Tongass Land and Resource Management Plan by the Department of Agriculture were considered "rules" and as such be subject to the Congressional Review Act (CRA). The GAO determined neither document was a rule and thus they were not subject to CRA.
Date: October 25, 2017
Creator: Carey, Maeve P.

Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) in the United States

Description: This report discusses the process of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) and its use in the United States. Legislation in the 115th Congress and the current state of the CCS process are discussed.
Date: November 14, 2017
Creator: Folger, Peter

Implementation of Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Amendments (P.L. 114-182)

Description: This report summarizes select EPA actions to implement the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) amendments over the past year since their passage on June 22, 2016 as a part of the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for 21st Century Act (P.L. 114-182). Brief discussions and lists of various chemicals that are being evaluated or have been evaluated under the law are included.
Date: June 7, 2017
Creator: Yen, Jerry H.

Navy Lasers, Railgun, and Hypervelocity Projectile: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides background information and issues for Congress on three potential new weapons that could improve the ability of Navy surface ships to defend themselves against enemy missiles--solid state lasers (SSLs), the electromagnetic railgun (EMRG), and the hypervelocity projectile (HVP).The issue for Congress is whether to approve, reject, or modify the Navy's funding requests and proposed acquisition strategies for these three potential new weapons for the 2018 fiscal year. Congress's decisions on this issue could affect future Navy capabilities and funding requirements and the defense industrial base.
Date: October 17, 2017
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald

Freshwater Harmful Algal Blooms: Causes, Challenges, and Policy Considerations

Description: This report addresses the conditions and activities that contribute to the occurrence of freshwater harmful algal blooms (HABs), steps that Congress and federal agencies--particularly EPA--and their partners are taking to address and mitigate their occurrence, and the current knowledge gaps on this issue. This report is focused on freshwater HABs, not marine or coastal HABs or issues associated with HABs in drinking water supplies.
Date: June 20, 2017
Creator: Gatz, Laura

Federal Individual Income Tax Terms: An Explanation

Description: This report describes the terms most commonly used when discussing the federal individual income tax. Most of these tax terms are explained in the order that they occur in the process of determining one's income tax on the Form 1040. A copy of the 2016 IRS Form 1040 is included at the end of this report.
Date: May 31, 2017
Creator: Keightley, Mark P.

U.S. Beef: It's What's for China

Description: This report discusses the opening of the Chinese market to U.S. beef imports under certain restrictions. The negotiation process and conditions of the agreement and China's current largest beef import partners are also discussed.
Date: June 22, 2017
Creator: Greene, Joel L.

A Primer on U.S. Immigration Policy

Description: This report provides a broad overview of U.S. immigration policy. The first section addresses policies governing how foreign nationals enter the United States either to reside permanently or to stay temporarily. Related topics within this section include visa issuance and security, forms of quasi-legal status, and naturalization. The second section discusses enforcement policies both for excluding foreign nationals from admission into the United States, as well as for detaining and removing those who enter the country unlawfully or who enter lawfully but subsequently commit crimes that make them deportable. The section also covers worksite enforcement and immigration fraud. The third section addresses policies for unauthorized aliens residing in the United States.
Date: November 14, 2017
Creator: Kandel, William A.

Update: What Constitutes "Sexual Abuse of a Minor" For Immigration Purposes

Description: This report provides an update of an earlier report from April 6, 2017, providing the final decision by the Supreme Court in the case of "Esquivel-Quintana v. Sessions". The case concerned the question of whether an immigrant alien who was convicted of sexual abuse of a minor where the minor was under 18 but at least 16 (in this case statutory rape in California between a 21 year old male and a 17 year female) was removable for an aggravated felony under immigration law. The Supreme Court ruled that the immigration law required the victim be under 16 before the removal of an alien for an aggravated felony would be allowable.
Date: June 7, 2017
Creator: Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.

Trade Promotion Authority (TPA): Frequently Asked Questions

Description: This report answers frequently asked questions regarding the Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) program which requires international trade agreements that reduce tariff or non-tariff barriers to trade in ways that require changes in U.S. law, to be implemented only through the enactment of legislation. If the trade agreement and the process of negotiating it meet certain requirements, TPA allows Congress to consider the required implementing bill under expedited procedures, pursuant to which the bill may come to the floor without action by the leadership, and can receive a guaranteed up-or-down vote with no amendments.
Date: November 14, 2017
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F. & Davis, Christopher M.

Nuclear Energy: Overview of Congressional Issues

Description: This report discusses nuclear energy and various issues and concerns related to it use. Congressional actions and related CRS reports are described for six topics which are: radioactive waste, economic viability, safety, technological advances, security and emergency plans, and nuclear weapon nonproliferation.
Date: November 27, 2017
Creator: Holt, Mark

U.S. Direct Investment Abroad: Trends and Current Issues

Description: This report discusses the United States direct investment in other countries through many multinational corporations. Tables showing the rates of investment in various countries by U.S. companies and discussion of the economic effects of the practice on the U.S. job market are included.
Date: June 29, 2017
Creator: Jackson, James K.

Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Processes, and Effects

Description: This report is intended to address questions that arise frequently related to the topic of government shutdowns. It discusses the causes of funding gaps and shutdowns of the federal government, processes that are associated with shutdowns, and how agency operations may be affected by shutdowns. The report concludes with a discussion of potential issues for Congress.
Date: November 30, 2017
Creator: Brass, Clinton T.; Brudnick, Ida A.; Keegan, Natalie; McMillion, Barry J.; Rollins, John W. & Yeh, Brian T.

State Exports to NAFTA Countries for 2016

Description: This report provides statistics on state-level U.S. exports to Canada and Mexico, parties to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), using data from the U.S. Census Bureau tailored for each state.
Date: 2017
Creator: Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.

Types of Committee Hearings

Description: This report describes the four types of congressional committee hearings; legislative, oversight, investigative, and confirmation and the rules governing them.
Date: June 28, 2017
Creator: Heitshusen, Valerie

Navy Ship Names: Background for Congress

Description: This report discusses the Navy's ship naming practices and the process of choosing new ship names. Methods of Congress expressing support for a name and recent legislation recommending the name "Los Alamos" for the Navy's next nuclear submarine are also included.
Date: October 27, 2017
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald

The Federal Assets Sale and Transfer Act of 2016: Background and Key Provisions

Description: This report discuses Federal real property holdings and the disposition process for unneeded space. A new law called the Federal Assets Sale and Transfer Act of 2016 (FASTA) now governs the process of disposal through a newly created Public Buildings Reform Board that reviews requests and provides funding for needed repairs before sale or lease of property. Various challenges addressed by the new system and those that remain are discussed.
Date: October 31, 2017
Creator: Hatch, Garrett

Two-Sided Credit Card Markets: The Supreme Court Takes Up Novel Antitrust Issue

Description: This report discusses the case of "Ohio v. American Express" which the Supreme Court has accepted for hearing which poses the question of how federal antitrust law should treat two-sided markets which are platforms in which two distinct user groups operate in an interdependent way. The case challenges anti-steering clauses in American Express contract agreements with merchants that prevent the merchants from promoting the use of other credit cards. The case has the potential to change the way vendors accept card payments across the country--but the case also provides the Supreme Court with the opportunity to guide the lower courts that are increasingly confronting antitrust issues concerning two-sided markets. As a result, the American Express case raises several issues for Congress that could implicate its legislative and oversight roles with respect to the financial services industry and, more generally, the regulation of two-sided markets.
Date: November 13, 2017
Creator: Smith, Austin D.