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Geothermal power economics: an annotated bibliography. Volume II

Description: Annotations and abstracts of fifteen papers on geothermal energy economics, utilization, development, and legal and environmental aspects are presented. A bibliography of 198 citations is included. A separate abstract was prepared for each of 5 papers. Ten papers were previously abstracted for EDB. (LCL)
Date: September 1, 1974
Creator: Peterson, R. E. & Seo, K. K.

Geophysical study of the Clear Lake region, California

Description: Results of geophysical studies in the Clear Lake region of California, north of San Francisco, have revealed a prominent, nearly circular negative gravity anomaly with an amplitude of more than 25 milligals (mgal) and an areal extent of approximately 250 square miles and, in addition, a number of smaller positive and negative anomalies. The major negative gravity anomaly is closely associated with the Clear Lake volcanic field and with an area characterized by hot springs and geothermal fields. However, the anomaly cannot be explained by mapped surface geologic features of the area. Aeromagnetic data in the Clear Lake region show no apparent correlation with the major negative gravity anomaly; the local magnetic field is affected principally by serpentine. An electrical resistivity low marks the central part of the gravity minimum, and a concentration of earthquake epicenters characterizes the Clear Lake volcanic field area. The primary cause of the major negative gravity anomaly is believed to be a hot intrusive mass, possibly a magma chamber, that may underlie the Clear Lake volcanic field and vicinity. This mass may serve as a source of heat for the geothermal phenomena in the area. Other smaller gravity anomalies in the Clear Lake region are apparently caused by near-surface geologic features, including relatively dense units of the Franciscan Formation and less dense Cenozoic sedimentary and volcanic rock units.
Date: January 1, 1975
Creator: Chapman, R. H.

DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Electrical Science, Volume 1

Description: Abstract: The Electrical Science Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of electrical theory, terminology, and application. The handbook includes information on alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) theory, circuits, motors, and generators; AC power and reactive components; batteries; AC and DC voltage regulators; transformers; and electrical test instruments and measuring devices. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility electrical equipment.
Date: June 1, 1992
Creator: United States. Department of Energy.

Improving Fan System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry

Description: This is one of a series of sourcebooks on motor-driven equipment produced by the Industrial Technologies Program. It provides a reference for industrial fan systems users, outlining opportunities to improve fan system performance.
Date: April 1, 2003

SUPERSENSITIVE IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION BY TYRAMIDE SIGNAL AMPLIFICATION AND NANOGOLD SILVER STAINING: THE CONTRIBUTION OF AUTOMETALLOGRAPHY AND CATALYZED REPORTER DEPOSITION TO THE REJUVENATION OF IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION.

Description: It is peculiar that in situ hybridization (ISH), a technique with many similarities to immunohistochemistry (IHC), has not enjoyed the phenomenal growth in both basic research and clinical applications as has its sister technique IHC. Since the late 1970s, when immunoperoxidase techniques began to be applied to routine diagnostic material and to numerous research applications, there has been a natural evolution of the IHC procedure. Namely, only a few primary antibodies were available commercially at the onset, and only one indirect and the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) technique detection systems were in place. With the advent of avidin-biotin detection systems and monoclonal antibodies, and a viable commercial market, extraordinary growth of the procedure's applications in clinical research and diagnostic pathology occurred during the subsequent two decades. Today, IHC is automated and widely used for research purposes and, to a large extent, has become a routine diagnostic ''special stain'' in most clinical laboratories. During the same period, ISH enjoyed very little growth in both research and diagnostic applications. What has accounted for this lack of maturation of the technique? The success of IHC is part of the reason measuring a gene's encoded protein routinely and inexpensively, particularly as automation evolved, rendered IHC a more viable choice in many instances. Inherent comparative sensitivity of the procedures has also clearly been a factor. Unfortunately, the chromogenic procedures in place are often insufficiently sensitive to detect the relatively low amounts of DNA and RNA levels at which the clinical utility is to be found.
Date: April 17, 2002
Creator: TUBBS,R. R. PETTAY,J. GROGAN,T. CHEUNG,A. L. M. POWELL,R. D. HAINFELD,J. HAUSER-KRONBERGER,C. HACKER,G. W.

COMBINED FLUORESCENT AND GOLD PROBES FOR MICROSCOPIC AND MORPHOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS.

Description: Nanogold{reg_sign}, a gold cluster with a core of gold atoms 1.4 nm in diameter, has proven to be a superior probe label for electron microscopy (EM), giving both higher labeling density and improved access to previously hindered or restricted antigens. It may be visualized by autometallography (AMG) for use in light microscopy (LM): silver-and gold-amplified Nanogold detection has proven to be one of the most sensitive methods available for the detection of low copy number targets such as viral DNA in cells and tissue specimens. AMG enhancement has also made Nanogold an effective detection label in blots and gels. The following protocols will be described: Labeling of nuclear components in cells. Protocol for in situ hybridization and detection with fluorescein-Nanogold--or Cy3{trademark}-Nanogold-labeled streptavidin. Nanogold is an inert molecule, and generally does not interact with biological molecules unless a specific chemical reactivity is introduced into the molecule. Conjugates are prepared using site-specific chemical conjugation through reactive chemical functionalities introduced during Nanogold preparation, which allows the gold label to be attached to a specific site on the conjugate biomolecule. For example, a maleimido-Nanogold derivative, which is specific for thiol binding, is frequently attached to the hinge region of an antibody at a unique thiol site generated by selective reduction of a hinge disulfide. This site is remote from the antigen combining region, and the Nanogold, therefore, does not compromise target binding. Nanogold may also be prepared with specific reactivity towards amines or other unique chemical groups. This mode of attachment enables the preparation of probes labeled with both Nanogold and fluorescent labels. Different chemical reactivities are used to attach the Nanogold and the fluorescent groups to different sites in the conjugate biomolecule, as shown in Figure 7.1. In this manner, the two labels are spaced sufficiently far apart that fluorescent resonance energy transfer ...
Date: April 17, 2002
Creator: POWELL,R. D. HAINFELD,J. F.

MAGNETIC NEUTRON SCATTERING

Description: Much of our understanding of the atomic-scale magnetic structure and the dynamical properties of solids and liquids was gained from neutron-scattering studies. Elastic and inelastic neutron spectroscopy provided physicists with an unprecedented, detailed access to spin structures, magnetic-excitation spectra, soft-modes and critical dynamics at magnetic-phase transitions, which is unrivaled by other experimental techniques. Because the neutron has no electric charge, it is an ideal weakly interacting and highly penetrating probe of matter's inner structure and dynamics. Unlike techniques using photon electric fields or charged particles (e.g., electrons, muons) that significantly modify the local electronic environment, neutron spectroscopy allows determination of a material's intrinsic, unperturbed physical properties. The method is not sensitive to extraneous charges, electric fields, and the imperfection of surface layers. Because the neutron is a highly penetrating and non-destructive probe, neutron spectroscopy can probe the microscopic properties of bulk materials (not just their surface layers) and study samples embedded in complex environments, such as cryostats, magnets, and pressure cells, which are essential for understanding the physical origins of magnetic phenomena. Neutron scattering is arguably the most powerful and versatile experimental tool for studying the microscopic properties of the magnetic materials. The magnitude of the cross-section of the neutron magnetic scattering is similar to the cross-section of nuclear scattering by short-range nuclear forces, and is large enough to provide measurable scattering by the ordered magnetic structures and electron spin fluctuations. In the half-a-century or so that has passed since neutron beams with sufficient intensity for scattering applications became available with the advent of the nuclear reactors, they have became indispensable tools for studying a variety of important areas of modern science, ranging from large-scale structures and dynamics of polymers and biological systems, to electronic properties of today's technological materials. Neutron scattering developed into a vast field, encompassing many different ...
Date: July 30, 2004
Creator: ZALIZNYAK,I. A. & LEE,S. H.

GOLD CLUSTER LABELS AND RELATED TECHNOLOGIES IN MOLECULAR MORPHOLOGY.

Description: Although intensely colored, even the largest colloidal gold particles are not, on their own, sufficiently colored for routine use as a light microscopy stain: only with very abundant antigens or with specialized illumination methods can bound gold be seen. Colloidal gold probes were developed primarily as markers for electron microscopy, for which their very high electron density and selectivity for narrow size distributions when prepared in different ways rendered them highly suited. The widespread use of gold labeling for light microscopy was made possible by the introduction of autometallographic enhancement methods. In these processes, the bound gold particles are exposed to a solution containing metal ions and a reducing agent; they catalyze the reduction of the ions, resulting in the deposition of additional metal selectively onto the particles. On the molecular level, the gold particles are enlarged up to 30-100 nm in diameter; on the macroscale level, this results in the formation of a dark stain in regions containing bound gold particles, greatly increasing visibility and contrast. The applications of colloidal gold have been described elsewhere in this chapter, we will focus on the use of covalently linked cluster complexes of gold and other metals. A gold cluster complex is a discrete molecular coordination compound comprising a central core, or ''cluster'' of electron-dense metal atoms, ligated by a shell of small organic molecules (ligands), which are linked to the metal atoms on the surface of the core. This structure gives clusters several important advantages as labels. The capping of the metal surface by ligands prevents non-specific binding to cell and tissue components, which can occur with colloidal gold. Cluster compounds are more stable and may be used under a wider range of conditions. Unlike colloidal gold, clusters do not require additional macromolecules such as bovine serum albumin or polyethylene glycol ...
Date: February 4, 2004
Creator: HAINFELD,J. F. & POWELL,R. D.

DNA DAMAGE QUANTITATION BY ALKALINE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS.

Description: Physical and chemical agents in the environment, those used in clinical applications, or encountered during recreational exposures to sunlight, induce damages in DNA. Understanding the biological impact of these agents requires quantitation of the levels of such damages in laboratory test systems as well as in field or clinical samples. Alkaline gel electrophoresis provides a sensitive (down to {approx} a few lesions/5Mb), rapid method of direct quantitation of a wide variety of DNA damages in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNAs from laboratory, field, or clinical specimens, including higher plants and animals. This method stems from velocity sedimentation studies of DNA populations, and from the simple methods of agarose gel electrophoresis. Our laboratories have developed quantitative agarose gel methods, analytical descriptions of DNA migration during electrophoresis on agarose gels (1-6), and electronic imaging for accurate determinations of DNA mass (7-9). Although all these components improve sensitivity and throughput of large numbers of samples (7,8,10), a simple version using only standard molecular biology equipment allows routine analysis of DNA damages at moderate frequencies. We present here a description of the methods, as well as a brief description of the underlying principles, required for a simplified approach to quantitation of DNA damages by alkaline gel electrophoresis.
Date: March 24, 2004
Creator: SUTHERLAND,B. M.; BENNETT,P. V. & SUTHERLAND, J. C.

YANG-MILLS FIELDS AND THE LATTICE.

Description: The Yang-Mills theory lies at the heart of our understanding of elementary particle interactions. For the strong nuclear forces, we must understand this theory in the strong coupling regime. The primary technique for this is the lattice. While basically an ultraviolet regulator, the lattice avoids the use of a perturbative expansion. I discuss some of the historical circumstances that drove us to this approach, which has had immense success, convincingly demonstrating quark confinement and obtaining crucial properties of the strong interactions from first principles.
Date: May 18, 2004
Creator: CREUTZ,M.

SIGNALING TO THE P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR THROUGH PATHWAYS ACTIVATED BY GENOTOXIC AND NON-GENOTOXIC STRESSES.

Description: The p53 tumor suppressor is a tetrameric transcription factor that is post-translational modified at {approx}18 different sites by phosphorylation, acetylation, or sumoylation in response to various cellular stress conditions. Specific posttranslational modifications, or groups of modifications, that result from the activation of different stress-induced signaling pathways are thought to modulate p53 activity to regulate cell fate by inducing cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or cellular senescence. Here we review the posttranslational modifications to p53 and the pathways that produce them in response to both genotoxic and non-genotoxic stresses.
Date: July 1, 2002
Creator: ANDERSON,C. W. APPELLA,E.

CORRELATION PROFILES AND MOTIFS IN COMPLEX NETWORKS.

Description: Networks have recently emerged as a unifying theme in complex systems research [1]. It is in fact no coincidence that networks and complexity are so heavily intertwined. Any future definition of a complex system should reflect the fact that such systems consist of many mutually interacting components. These components are far from being identical as say electrons in systems studied by condensed matter physics. In a truly complex system each of them has a unique identity allowing one to separate it from the others. The very first question one may ask about such a system is which other components a given component interacts with? This information system wide can be visualized as a graph, whose nodes correspond to individual components of the complex system in question and edges to their mutual interactions. Such a network can be thought of as a backbone of the complex system. Of course, system's dynamics depends not only on the topology of an underlying network but also on the exact form of interaction of components with each other, which can be very different in various complex systems. However, the underlying network may contain clues about the basic design principles and/or evolutionary history of the complex system in question. The goal of this article is to provide readers with a set of useful tools that would help to decide which features of a complex network are there by pure chance alone, and which of them were possibly designed or evolved to their present state.
Date: January 16, 2004
Creator: MASLOV,S. SNEPPEN,K. ALON,U.

Geothermal Advisory Committee to California State Energy Resources Development and Conservation Commission. Final report

Description: The following are included: membership of the Geothermal Advisory Committee to the California Energy Commission, April 1978 to January 1979; discussion of committee value to commission and participants; benefits to commission in extending committee through 1979; final report preparation; commission requesting recommendations; committee recommendations for commission priorities; committee recommendations for commission policies; comments on direct-heat, on-site, and small scale generation, and Geysers counties land use concerns; and sample procedures submitted by Imperial County. (MHR)
Date: January 1, 1979

Methodology and criteria for siting energy plants in Idaho

Description: This study contains a review of energy plant siting criteria, methodologies, guidelines and programs that are being considered today in this country. A preliminary screening approach for siting energy plants in Idaho is presented and a detailed hierarchical classification system for siting criteria has been developed. Methodology for using the criteria is suggested. Experience of a workshop trying to identify problems of implementing a ranking and rating for siting energy plants in the general situation for Idaho is reported. A brief analysis is presented on the needs for regulations and legislation to implement a future program of evaluation that would benefit utilities, the planning agencies, and the regulatory agencies operating within the state of Idaho.
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: Warnick, C. C.

LARGE-SCALE TOPOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF MOLECULAR NETWORKS.

Description: Bio-molecular networks lack the top-down design. Instead, selective forces of biological evolution shape them from raw material provided by random events such as gene duplications and single gene mutations. As a result individual connections in these networks are characterized by a large degree of randomness. One may wonder which connectivity patterns are indeed random, while which arose due to the network growth, evolution, and/or its fundamental design principles and limitations? Here we introduce a general method allowing one to construct a random null-model version of a given network while preserving the desired set of its low-level topological features, such as, e.g., the number of neighbors of individual nodes, the average level of modularity, preferential connections between particular groups of nodes, etc. Such a null-model network can then be used to detect and quantify the non-random topological patterns present in large networks. In particular, we measured correlations between degrees of interacting nodes in protein interaction and regulatory networks in yeast. It was found that in both these networks, links between highly connected proteins are systematically suppressed. This effect decreases the likelihood of cross-talk between different functional modules of the cell, and increases the overall robustness of a network by localizing effects of deleterious perturbations. It also teaches us about the overall computational architecture of such networks and points at the origin of large differences in the number of neighbors of individual nodes.
Date: November 17, 2003
Creator: MASLOV,S. SNEPPEN,K.

SILVER AND GOLD BASED AUTOMETALLOGRAPHY OF NANOGOLD.

Description: For many applications, silver salt-based autometallography (often also called silver enhancement or silver development) is required to visualize colloidal gold (1-5 nm in diameter) or the small 1.4 nm Nanogold{reg_sign} particles (Nanoprobes, Yaphank, NY, USA). Although even Nanogold may be seen directly by scanning-transmission electron microscopy (STEM), by transmission EM (TEM; in thin sections without stain or ice-embedded cryo-EM samples), energy filtered TEM, and scanning EM (SEM), silver enhancement makes viewing in the EM more facile since the particles are enlarged to approximately 10 to 20 nm, convenient for most specimens. Autometallographic (AMG) enhancement is required in order to visualize smaller gold particles such as Nanogold for light microscopy (LM) or in blots or gels. This chapter includes the following protocols: Protocol for HQ silver enhancement of Nanogold; Protocols for use of silver-enhanced Nanogold with osmium tetroxide--(A) Procedure using reduced concentration of OsO{sub 4}; (B) Procedures for gold toning; Protocol for HQ silver enhancement of Nanogold in pre-embedding immunocytochemistry for cell cultures; Protocol for gold enhancement of Nanogold for EM; Protocol for gold enhancement of Nanogold for LM; Protocol for staining blots with Nanogold and silver enhancement; and Protocol for staining gels with Nanogold and silver enhancement.
Date: April 17, 2002
Creator: HAINFELD,J. F. POWELL,R. D.

DETECTION OF TOPOLOGICAL PATTERNS IN PROTEIN NETWORKS.

Description: Complex networks appear in biology on many different levels: (1) All biochemical reactions taking place in a single cell constitute its metabolic network, where nodes are individual metabolites, and edges are metabolic reactions converting them to each other. (2) Virtually every one of these reactions is catalyzed by an enzyme and the specificity of this catalytic function is ensured by the key and lock principle of its physical interaction with the substrate. Often the functional enzyme is formed by several mutually interacting proteins. Thus the structure of the metabolic network is shaped by the network of physical interactions of cell's proteins with their substrates and each other. (3) The abundance and the level of activity of each of the proteins in the physical interaction network in turn is controlled by the regulatory network of the cell. Such regulatory network includes all of the multiple mechanisms in which proteins in the cell control each other including transcriptional and translational regulation, regulation of mRNA editing and its transport out of the nucleus, specific targeting of individual proteins for degradation, modification of their activity e.g. by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation or allosteric regulation, etc. To get some idea about the complexity and interconnectedness of protein-protein regulations in baker's yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae in Fig. 1 we show a part of the regulatory network corresponding to positive or negative regulations that regulatory proteins exert on each other. (4) On yet higher level individual cells of a multicellular organism exchange signals with each other. This gives rise to several new networks such as e.g. nervous, hormonal, and immune systems of animals. The intercellular signaling network stages the development of a multicellular organism from the fertilized egg. (5) Finally, on the grandest scale, the interactions between individual species in ecosystems determine their food webs. An interesting property of many biological ...
Date: November 17, 2003
Creator: MASLOV,S. SNEPPEN,K.

MICROSCOPIC USES OF NANOGOLD.

Description: Gold has been used for immunocytochemistry since 1971 when Faulk and Taylor discovered adsorption of antibodies to colloidal gold. It is an ideal label for electron microscopy (EM) due to its high atomic number, which scatters electrons efficiently, and the fact that preparative methods have been developed to make uniform particles in the appropriate size range of 5 to 30 nm. Use in light microscopy (LM) generally requires silver enhancement (autometallography; AMG) of these small gold particles. Significant advances in this field since that time have included a better understanding of the conditions for best antibody adsorption, more regular gold size production, adsorption of other useful molecules, like protein A, and advances in silver enhancement. Many studies have also been accomplished showing the usefulness of these techniques to cell biology and biomedical research. A further advance in this field was the development of Nanogold{trademark}, a 1.4 nm gold cluster. A significant difference from colloidal gold is that Nanogold is actually a coordination compound containing a gold core covalently linked to surface organic groups. These in turn may be covalently attached to antibodies. This approach to immunolabeling has several advantages compared to colloidal gold such as vastly better penetration into tissues, generally greater sensitivity, and higher density of labeling. Since Nanogold is covalently coupled to antibodies, it may also be directly coupled to almost any protein, peptide, carbohydrate, or molecule of interest, including molecules which do not adsorb to colloidal gold. This increases the range of probes possible, and expands the applications of gold labeling.
Date: April 17, 2003
Creator: HAINFELD,J. F. POWELL,R. D. FURUYA,F. R.

Program and Abstracts: DOE Solar Program Review Meeting 2004, 25--28 October 2004, Denver, Colorado

Description: This booklet contains the agenda and abstracts for the 2004 U.S. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program Review Meeting. The meeting was held in Denver, Colorado, October 25-28, 2004. More than 240 abstracts are contained in this publication. Topic areas for the research papers include laboratory research, program management, policy analysis, and deployment of solar technologies.
Date: October 1, 2004

Solar Decathlon 2002: The Event in Review

Description: This book describes the first Solar Decathlon, a competition for college and university students, which took place on the National Mall in fall 2002. Student teams competed to design, build, and operate the most attractive, energy-efficient house that used only solar energy. In addition to the competition, the Solar Decathlon was also a public event. The book describes the events on the Mall, including technical details about the ten contests that comprised the competition and descriptions of the public's and the media's responses to the event. The book also provides information about the student teams' activities in the year and a half before they arrived to compete on the Mall.
Date: June 1, 2004
Creator: Eastment, M.; Hayter, S.; Nahan, R.; Stafford, B.; Warner, C.; Hancock, E. et al.

Steam Digest: Volume IV

Description: This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.
Date: July 1, 2004

Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Tropical Island Climates

Description: The Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools--Tropical Island Climates provides school boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to school systems and communities. These design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of your K-12 school in tropical island climates. By incorporating energy improvements into their construction or renovation plans, schools can significantly reduce energy consumption and costs.
Date: November 1, 2004

Geothermal Today: 2003 Geothermal Technologies Program Highlights (Covers Highlights from 2002)

Description: This outreach publication highlights milestones and accomplishments of the DOE Geothermal Technologies Program for 2002. Included in this publication are discussions of geothermal fundamentals, enhanced geothermal systems, direct-use applications, geothermal potential in Idaho, coating technology, energy conversion R&D, and the GeoPowering the West initiative.
Date: September 1, 2003