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Geology of the Chitina Valley and Adjacent Area, Alaska

Description: From abstract: The Chitina Valley and adjoining area form part of a rugged alpine region in the southeast corner of the main body of Alaska and include a portion of the Chugach Mountains and most of the southern half of the Wrangell Mountains, to the north. The Chitina River is an eastern branch of the Copper River and rises in ice fields and valley glaciers occupying most of the country near the international boundary north of Mount St. Elias. The adjoining area described in this report includes the Hanagita and Bremner River district and the westward continuation of the north side of the Chugach Mountains as far as Valdez Arm and Klutina Lake. In addition, the geology of the upper White River district is described because of its relation to that of the Chitina Valley.
Date: 1938
Creator: Moffit, Fred H.
Item Type: Report

Geology and Fuel Resources of the Southern Part of the Oklahoma Coal Field: Part 3. Quinton-Scipio District

Description: From abstract: The Quinton-Scipio district includes about 450 square miles, mostly in Pittsburg County but partly in Haskell and Latimer Counties, Okla. The stratified rocks exposed at the surface in the district are the McAlester, Savanna, Boggy, Thurman, Stuart, and Senora formations, of Pennsylvanian age, and consist of alternating beds of shale and sandstone with some coal beds and a few beds of limestone less than 1 foot thick. The total thickness of these formations exposed in the district is between 3,000 and 3,300 feet. There are probably unconformities at the base of the Savanna sandstone and at the base of the Thurman sandstone. Overlying the Pennsylvanian formations in parts of the district are unconsolidated sand, gravel, and clay, which in part belong to the Gerty sand, a deposit in an abandoned Quaternary (?) river channel. Other unconsolidated deposits include sand on stream terraces and Recent alluvium.
Date: 1938
Creator: Dane, C. H.; Rothrock, Howard Eugene & Williams, James Steele
Item Type: Report

Geology and Oil Resources Along the Southern Border of San Joaquin Valley, California

Description: From abstract: The region described in this report includes a foothill belt of the San Emigdio and Tehachapi Mountains along the southern border of San Joaquin Valley. The belt displays portions of the rugged granitic cores of the mountains and also rocks of Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene age. Although there is thus a complete representation of the geologic series from the Eocene to the Pleistocene, some portions of the different series are wanting because of major faults and overlaps. The thickness of the Tertiary rocks (Eocene to Pliocene) varies considerably but has a maximum of about 29,000 feet. Miocene and Pliocene rocks cover most of the area investigated.
Date: 1930
Creator: Hoots, H. W.
Item Type: Report

The Moose Pass-Hope District, Kenai Peninsula, Alaska

Description: From abstract: The Moose Pass-Hope district lies in the Chugach Mountains, in the northern part of the Kenai Peninsula, directly adjacent to the Alaska Railroad and to Turnagain Arm. More than 60 miles of well-constructed roads within the district make it one of the most accessible mining areas in the railroad belt. The topography is typical of the Chugach Mountains, the elevation ranging from sea level to more than 5,000 feet. Vegetation is heavy along the streams, and the timber line is around 2,000 feet above sea level. The bedrock throughout most of the district consists of a series of interbedded slate and graywacke, probably of late Cretaceous age. The bedrock in the northwest corner of the district is a series of tuff and agglomerate whose age is not definitely known. The only intrusive rocks in the area are finegrained acidic dikes that are remarkable for their continuity across the country in spite of their small width. The region has been glaciated up to an elevation of about 4,000 feet, and glacial outwash sand and gravel cover the valley bottoms and walls. The structure is highly complex, and the lack of any recognizable horizons makes interpretation difficult. Close folds with overturning are the rule. Numerous strike faults occur, and transverse faulting of unknown displacement has taken place.
Date: 1933
Creator: Tuck, Ralph
Item Type: Report

Lode Deposits of Eureka and Vicinity, Kantishna District, Alaska

Description: From abstract: The Kantishna mining district is about 90 miles west of McKinley Park station on the Alaska Railroad. The part of the district covered by this report comprises an area of about 72 square miles in the form of a strip 6 miles wide and 13 miles long. The bedrock is mainly a metamorphic series of rocks which within the area has been differentiated into a quartz-muscovite schist and a calcareous faces that ranges from limestone to chlorite schist. A few small dikes of quartz porphyry and diabase intrude the schist. The general structure trends N. 700 E., and from an axis that extends from Eldorado Creek northeastward to Spruce Peak the schistosity dips to the northwest and southeast. It is along this axis that the heaviest mineralization has occurred.
Date: 1933
Creator: Wells, Francis G.
Item Type: Report

Past Placer-Gold Production from Alaska

Description: "To the end of 1930 Alaska, according to the records of the Geological Survey, had produced placer gold to the value of $258,962,000 from mines widely scattered throughout its length and breadth. The distribution of the placers from which the gold was recovered has been stated in more or less detail in the annual summaries published by the Geological Survey on the mineral industry of Alaska and also in its more complete reports on many of the individual mining districts. Although these summaries and reports have furnished information regarding the larger regions, they have not always given specific details regarding the smaller districts. Furthermore, there has been no recent attempt to assemble and publish in one place the scattered statistics regarding the placer-gold production by years and by regions and districts. The purpose of the present report is to set forth in condensed but comprehensive form a summary of the placer-gold production of Alaska so far as it can be determined from the available official records."
Date: 1933
Creator: Smith, Philip S.
Item Type: Report

The Eska Creek Coal Deposits Matanuska Valley, Alaska

Description: The coal deposits in the vicinity of Eska Creek, a small tributary from the north to the Matanuska River, are a part of the Matanuska coal field. One of the two commercial coal-producing districts in Alaska, this field is in the southcentral part of the Territory, at the head of Cook Inlet. It is 170 miles from Seward, the ocean terminus of the Government-owned and -operated Alaska Railroad, and is served by a branch line of that railroad.
Date: 1937
Creator: Tuck, Ralph
Item Type: Report

The Jackson Gas Field, Hinds and Rankin Counties, Mississippi

Description: From abstract: The Jackson gas field, in Hinds and Rankin Counties, Miss., is in the eastern Gulf Coastal Plain, about 160 miles north of New Orleans and 40 miles, east of the Mississippi River at Vicksburg. The gas is produced from a Cretaceous chalk from 2,088 to 2,236 feet below sea level. Overlying the chalk is the regular sequence of Tertiary rocks found in Mississippi. On the crest of the anticline in the city of Jackson the Cockfield formation of the Claiborne group is exposed, surrounded by the Jackson formation. Some Forest Hill sand of the Vicksburg group is exposed in the northwestern part of the area described. Overlapping these formations are Pliocene and Pleistocene terrace and alluvial deposits, and the entire area is covered by a blanket of less of varying thickness.
Date: 1931
Creator: Monroe, Watson Hiner
Item Type: Report

The Climax Molybdenum Deposit, Colorado

Description: From abstract: The largest single metal-mining operation in the history of mining in Colorado has been developed at Climax, as a result of the increased use of molybdenum in the steel and other industries. Production of molybdenum at Climax was notable for a short period during the World War; it ceased from April 1919 to August 1924 but since then has shown a steady increase. In 1930 from 1,000 to 1,200 tons of ore was milled daily, using only one unit of the 2,000-ton mill. The mine has a reserve of broken ore sufficient to furnish 2,000 tons daily for 3 years and is being developed to continue to furnish this and a still further increased output as the use of the metal may warrant.
Date: 1933
Creator: Butler, B. S. & Vanderwilt, J. W.
Item Type: Report

Geology and Ore Deposits of the Takilma-Waldo District, Oregon: Including the Blue Creek District

Description: From Abstract: Two areas and their included mineral deposits, situated in Josephine County, southwestern Oregon, are described in this report. They lie within the Klamath Mountains, a region which is made up for the most part of rugged ridges trending in various directions but which, when viewed from higher summits, resembles a dissected plateau and is known as the Klamath peneplain. Rocks of both igneous and sedimentary origin are abundant in the districts described. The marine sedimentary rocks of the areas comprise a thick series of Carboniferous strata, with some interbedded volcanic rocks, and portions of the Galice formation, of Jurassic age, and of an Upper Cretaceous formation. The rocks of fluviatile origin include Tertiary conglomerate, Pleistocene valley fill, termed the " Llano de Oro formation," and somewhat later Pleistocene gravel and alluvium, in part glacial debris. Recent gravel is found along the present streams. The igneous rocks include several varieties of greenstone of probable Paleozoic and Mesozoic age and serpentine of late Jurassic or early Cretaceous age.
Date: 1933
Creator: Shenon, Philip J.
Item Type: Report

The Curry District, Alaska

Description: From abstract: The Curry district lies on the south flank of the Alaska Range, on the southeast side of Mount McKinley. Most of it is west of the Alaska Railroad. The eastern portion can be easily reached from several points along the railroad route, but the western portion is much more difficult of access, owing to the numerous glacial streams and the rugged topography. The relief of the area is great, the elevation ranging from 500 feet along the Chulitna River to 20,300 feet at Mount McKinley. The Chulitna River, a tributary of the Susitna River, drains the larger part of the area described. It flows in a broad valley in the eastern part of the district, and here the maximum relief is about 3,000 feet. The western part of the district is very rugged, with numerous peaks over 6,000 feet in elevation which have sheer slopes and almost unscalable pinnacles. Winding down through this maze of rugged mountains are four major valley glaciers-Eldridge, Buckskin, Ruth, and Tokichitna-and many tributary and smaller glaciers. Practically the entire district, with the exception of the higher peaks and ridges, has been glaciated. Timber grows along the main streams and extends to an elevation of 2,000 feet, but a large portion of the district lies above that elevation.
Date: 1934
Creator: Tuck, Ralph
Item Type: Report

Lode Deposits of the Fairbanks District, Alaska

Description: From abstract: To help the mining industry of Alaska and to assist in the development of the mineral resources of the Territory have been the prime motives of the Geological Survey's investigations in Alaska during the past 35 years, in which nearly one half of the Territory has been covered by its reconnaissance and exploratory surveys. It was natural, therefore, that the Alaska Railroad, when it undertook intensive consideration of the problem of finding tonnage that would increase its revenues, should look to the Geological Survey to supply technical information as to the known mineral deposits along its route and to indicate what might be done to stimulate a larger production of minerals and induce further mining developments and prospecting that would utilize its service.
Date: 1933
Creator: Hill, James M.
Item Type: Report

Mineral Deposits Near the West Fork of the Chulitna River Alaska

Description: From abstract: The area in the vicinity of the West Fork of the Chulitna River, Alaska, one of those examined in 1931 in connection with the study of mineral resources in districts tributary to the Alaska Railroad, contains numerous prospects but, as yet, no productive mines. Its placer deposits are negligible but some of its lodes may prove valuable for gold and silver and perhaps also for copper and arsenic.
Date: 1933
Creator: Ross, Clyde P.
Item Type: Report

Geology of the Santa Rita Mining Area, New Mexico

Description: From abstract: The Santa Rita mining area (pl. 1), covering 35 square miles of semiarid mountainous land, lies within the Silver City 30-minute quadrangle, Grant County, N. Mex., and includes the most productive part of the Central or Hanover mining district. Ore was produced in this district as early as 1804 and production continued intermittently for a century before the developments were undertaken that led to large-scale copper mining, which began in 1912. The output of zinc, lead, and iron increased markedly about the same time.
Date: 1935
Creator: Spencer, Arthur C. & Paige, Sidney
Item Type: Report

Core Drilling for Coal in the Moose Creek Area, Alaska

Description: From abstract: The Moose Creek area is in the western part of the Matanuska Valley, in south-central Alaska, about 165 miles by railroad north of the coast at Seward. Coal deposits in the valley have been known since the early 1890's, and there have been producing mines since 1916, but the annual production is only about 40,000 tons, or less than one-third of the total amount consumed in the Territory. Early in 1931 Congress authorized the investigation of mineral resources in areas tributary to the Alaska Railroad, which is Government owned and operated, for the purpose of stimulating development and hence increasing the traffic and revenue of the railroad. The technical work of carrying on these studies was entrusted by Col. O. F. Ohlson, general manager of the railroad, to the United States Geological Survey. One of the investigations undertaken was that of the Moose Creek area, where small coal mines are in operation. Difficulties have been encountered in these mines, owing to the faulted character of the formation, which causes unproductive work in mining and also produces a large percentage of fine coal, which is unsuitable for sale in distant markets. Field examination indicated that more favorable mining conditions might be found somewhat farther west. Core drilling was therefore done in 1932, in order to learn if workable beds of coal were present that might he mined at less cost and produce a better product than the present mines for competitive sale in markets of the Pacific coast.
Date: 1934
Creator: Waring, Gerald A.
Item Type: Report

Some Mining Districts of Eastern Oregon

Description: From abstract: This report presents the results of a reconnaissance of most of the mining districts of Oregon east of the Cascade Range, with the exception of the districts in the Sumpter quadrangle. The districts described are distributed through an area roughly coincident with the Blue Mountains, which extend over much of the northeast quarter of the State.
Date: 1933
Creator: Gilluly, James; Reed, J. C. & Park, C. F., Jr.
Item Type: Report

The Crystal Cavities of the New Jersey Zeolite Region

Description: From abstract: The crystal cavities present in the mineral complex of the New Jersey traprock region have long excited the interest of mineralogists. In 1914 Fenner made the first detailed and comprehensive study of these cavities and suggested that babingtonite was the original mineral. Soon after this anhydrite was found occupying parts of some of the cavities at one of the quarries. At this time, too, Wherry concluded that glauberite was the original mineral of some of the cavities because of his studies of similar crystal cavities in Triassic shale at different places.
Date: 1932
Creator: Schaller, Waldemar T.
Item Type: Report

Notes on the Geology of the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands

Description: Abstract: During the spring of 1932 an opportunity was offered by the United States Navy for a geologist to accompany an expedition organized to make a reconnaissance of the western part of Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands. This expedition visited several localities the geology of which was little known. It was found, as had already been expected, that the islands west of Unimak Pass are composed mainly of basic volcanic lavas and fragmental materials, into which have later been injected dikes, sills, and considerable masses of intrusive rocks, some of which are of acidic types and of granitic texture. These westward islands are bordered both to the north and south by depressions 2,000 fathoms or more in depth, and the islands have apparently been built up from that depth by the ejection and extrusion of volcanic materials since early Tertiary time. No rocks of proved pre-Tertiary age were seen, and the only sedimentary materials present may well have been derived from the erosion of the volcanic islands after they were built up above sea level. On the Alaska Peninsula pre-Tertiary sediments through which the volcanic materials broke to the surface are abundantly present. There is evidence that all the larger islands and the higher portions of the peninsula were severely glaciated during Pleistocene time. Each of the larger islands was the center of ice accumulation and dispersal, and the present topography, except upon recently active volcanic cones, shows strongly the effects of glacial sculpture.
Date: 1934
Creator: Capps, Stephen R.
Item Type: Report

Mineral Industry of Alaska in 1935

Description: From introduction: The record of the Alaska mineral industry for 1935, here presented, is supplemented by records for earlier years, because in that way certain trends may be recognized which are not only of historical significance but are also useful in suggesting the course that the industry is likely to take in the future. This is a continuing service that has been rendered by the Geological Survey from almost the earliest years of active mining in Alaska, and the present report is the thirty-second of the series.
Date: 1937
Creator: Smith, Philip S.
Item Type: Report

Geology and Coal Resources of the Meeker Quadrangle, Moffat and Rio Blanco Counties, Colorado

Description: From introduction: The investigations on which the greater part of this report is based were carried on by E. T. Hancock, the senior author, during the summer of 1911. They were undertaken by the United States Geological Survey under a comprehensive plan for collecting information about the undeveloped fuel resources of the Western States, both as a step toward the conservation of the coal resources of the United States and as a means of supplying the demand for information concerning the many valuable coal fields of the Western States.
Date: 1930
Creator: Hancock, E. T. & Eby, J. Brian
Item Type: Report

Some Lode Deposits in the Northwestern Part of the Boise Basin, Idaho

Description: From abstract: The report is limited to the geology of lode deposits in the northwestern part of the Boise Basin which are in or near mines that were in operation at the time of visit, in 1930. Owing to the recent inactivity of the formerly rich placer (leposits, there is nothing essential regarding them to add to Lindgren's report published in 1898. The area studied is underlain by granitic rock of the Idaho batholith, which is cut by dikes of Miocene(?) age. These dikes are dacite porphyry (intruded early) ; rhyolite porphyry, granophyre porphyry, and granite porphyry (closely related in character and age) ; and several basic varieties (of which some, at least, are of relatively late origin). Diorite porphyry dikes, of undetermined age but probably older than all of those named above, are also present.
Date: 1934
Creator: Ross, Clyde P.
Item Type: Report