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200 Area monthly reports, July--December 1947
This document presents the monthly reports of the 200 area technical group for July--December, 1947. (KS)
Production of I sup 131
We have reviewed the problem of recovering I{sup 131} from the Separations Process and conclude that recovery is entirely feasible. This report contains recommendations for I{sup 131} recovery offered for consideration and are based on a technical study.
Production test 105-2-P (Supplement A) - Activity of pile discharge water (Activation of manganese and iron)
This report discusses the Production Test 105-2-P (Supplement A) -- Activity of Pile Discharge Water. Previous studies of pile discharge water have shown that one of two processes is responsible for the large but variable amount of Mn{sup 56} activity present in the water. One process is the production of Mn{sup 56} by the reaction Mn{sup 55} on manganese impurity in the water. The amount of such impurity has been shown to be too small to produce the observed amount of Mn{sup 56} unless the mean irradiation time is increased by a large factor due to temporary sticking of manganese on the surfaces in the tubes. The other process is the production by the reaction Fe{sup 56} on iron in the film. The present production test was designed to determine which of these processes is responsible for the troublesome Mn{sup 56} activity and to what extent the activity is increased due to sticking of manganese or iron in the tubes. 4 figs.
The trend of contamination in the air, Columbia River, rain, sanitary water, vegetation, and wastes, at the Hanford Works and vicinity for the period October, November, December 1947
This report summarizes the contamination observed at the Hanford Works and vicinity for the period October, November, and December, 1947. Trend charts showing trend of contamination for the various sampling locations are only included where a true trend can be established for the three month period; a thorough analysis of all trends will be considered in detail in the annual report from this section. The report is divided into the following topic sections: Meteorological -- dissolving data; beta contamination in the air and the radiation levels in air; alpha and beta contamination in the Columbia River; beta contamination in the rain and snow; alpha and beta contamination in drinking water; beta contamination on vegetation; and alpha and beta contamination in Hanford Wastes. An appraisal and review of all the results is considered in detail for each section. Statistical analysis is used whenever possible to determine significant values and differences in levels of contamination measured.
P Division monthly report, November 1948
This progress report discusses activities at the P Division for the month of November 1948. All piles operated at 275 megawatts (MW) throughout the month except for outages listed under Area Activities in this report and except that F Pile operated at a reduced level during the first half of the month. This operation at reduced level was incident to the leaking process tube reported last month. A total of 81.4 tons of metal was discharged from the piles during the month. The 300 Area canned a total of 150 tons of acceptable slugs during the month to establish a new production record. On November 29 the operating schedule for the Melt Plant was changed from a three-shift to a two-shift, six-day week schedule. The backlog of material largely had been worked off and the new schedule is adequate for processing the current accumulation of scrap.
Photographic film as a pocket radiation dosimeter
The energy dependence of film blackening is discussed and shown graphically. The exposure range of films is discussed, and blackening is plotted vs exposure for DuPont No. 502, and for the less sensitive DuPont No. 351. A plan is then described for monitoring radiation exposure to workers by requiring the worker to carry an x-ray film of dental packet size in a badge designed for the purpose. (LEW)
Review of the stack discharge active particle contamination problem
Quantities of the order of ten million to 100 million radioactive particles per month were emitted from the stacks over a period of several months. High activity in the range 0.1 to 3..mu..c was probably confined to large carrier particles of corrosion debris from iron ductwork in the separations plant ventilation air system. This report discusses chemical, physical and radiochemical properties of the particles, and possible biological and health effects of exposure to them. (ACR)
The Aluminum Nitrate Process for the Conversion of Tuballoy Tetrafluoride to Tuballoy Peroxide
The following report describes an experiment on the aluminum nitrate process for the conversion of tuballoy tetrafluoride to tuballoy peroxide and the solutions resulting.
Analyses of Decay Curves of Irradiated Plastics
The following report covers the results of a general program that was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to investigate the effects on plastic materials of exposure to radiation in the pile. In the investigation, several plastics were irradiated, and on removal from the pile, their rates of decay were determined by measurement of gamma activity in an ionization chamber.
Alpha Particle Detection and the A. C. Operated Detector "A" (Howler)
Abstract: This discussion concerns the operation, construction, and servicing of an alpha rate meter of medium sensitivity (30,000 alpha particles full scale per minute) and good stability. The instrument is equipped with an oscillator which increases both in frequency and loudness as the alpha activity is increased. The oscillator circuit includes an anticipator which causes a change in frequency depending directly upon the rate of change of alpha activity. Maximum sensitivity is approximately 100 millivolts full scale. Grid current varies from 1 to 5 x 10^-14 amperes. A general discussion of time constants and accuracy is included. Tables of stopping power, ionization and alpha activity are appended.
The Ammonia Reduction and its Application to the Preparation of Green Salt
From introduction: The present report is a summary of the experimental work on a laboratory scale to date involving the ammonia reduction and the one step TF4 processes.
The Analysis of Impurities in Various Stages of Recycled Carbon Tetrachloride and Correlation with Chlorination Properties
The following report discusses findings resulting from experiments on recycled carbon tetrachloride at various stages of the proposed purification process.
Action Taken on the Spot Contamination in the Separations Plant Areas
The following document analyzes radioactive spot contamination in and around the T and B Plant Areas.
Activation Cross Sections by Boron Absorption
The following report studies the neutron activation cross-sections with the insertion of boron absorbers in the energy region 10 to 20,000 ev and the elements within the range.
Revised draft of glossary in terms of reactor theory
Report describing multiple terms that are relevant to reactor theory. The terms are broken up into seven categories that are listed on the second page of the report.
Final technical report for contract year November 9, 1947 to November 9, 1948
Report describing processes to prepare metallic calcium of a very high purity. Report details promising methods for electrolyte purification. Methods of chemical analysis for nitrogen are also improved upon and spectrochemical methods and standards established for twelve other specified elements.
The properties of zirconium and its possibilities for thermal reactors
Report describing a study of zirconium. The report includes history of the metal, information relative to its properties, production, and its fabrications, halfnium separation processes, and corrosion studies.
Direct calorimetric study of fission product decay in active slugs
Report describing the radioactive energy output of U slugs from the Clinton pile. Outputs were measured in a calorimeter. Results have been calculated to watts per gram and compared with previous reports.
Approximate calculation of the neutron flux from a plane source in an infinite medium where the nuclear cross sections vary with the energy and with the distance from the source, for energies above 5 Mev
Report detailing the approximate calculation of the neutron flux from a plane source in an infinite medium.
Approximate methods for pile design calculations
From introduction: "At a certain stage in the design of a pile there come a time when it is urgent to obtain day to day answers on the effects of various changes in the design parameters... It is hoped that the procedures described in the present memo will serve as a bridge between the crudest diffusion theory calculations and the more elaborate multi-group methods."
The Application of Tracer Techniques to the Determination of Uranium Extraction Coefficients
Abstract: This report deals with the development of a method using tracer technique for determining uranium extraction coefficients on solutions of low uranium concentration. It was found that extraction coefficients could be determined on systems containing as low as one part per million uranium using 1900 level uranium as the tracer. Results of several extraction series are presented in which aluminum nitrate is used as the salting agent and dibutyl carbitol the organic extractant.
Quarterly Report August 1947 to November 1947, Biology Division
The following document is a compilation of quarterly reports from August 1946 to November of 1947 from the Biology Division of the University of Chicago.
Insufflation studies in rabbits with dusts of uranium compounds
From abstract: "In a large series of rabbits, both the responses exhibited by the animal and the fate of the dose have been observed following the intratracheal insufflation of a soluble (uranyl nitrate) and an insoluble (U30g) compound, large (100mg) and small (5 and 10mg) doses have been given. For comparison, in a third series of tests a large fose of uranyl nitrate was injected intramuscularly."
A method for the determination of traces of metals
Report describing quantitative recovery traces of electrolyzable metals in a mercury cathode. The majority of the report is concerned with separation of metals from concentrated uranyl sulfate solutions.
Uranyl nitrate : four one-year inhalation toxicity studies of animals at 0.04, 0.25, "0.4", and 2.0 Mg U/M³
Report describing the results of a study conducted to investigate the chronic inhalation toxicity of uranyl nitrate. The results of four long-term animal exposure studies are described.
Analytical methods and results
Report detailing the analytical methods and results of a study designed to measure the total alpha particle activity of samples. The method being used was previously in use at Columbia University. The report recognizes potential for grave errors, but makes no effort to minimize the effect of the roughness of the sample.
Analytical procedure for determination of tuballoy in solid salvage residues
From abstract: Test results indicate that the hydrofluorination method for the analysis of tuballoy in solid salvage residues yields sufficient results with a high degree of accuracy; while a modification of the procedure gives good results in approximately half the time.
Artificial Radioactive Isotopes of Cerium and Lanthanum
The following document describes some studies of the radioactive isotopes of cerium and lanthanum lying on the light or neutron-deficient side of stability.
Asphalt as a Shielding Medium C-300
The following document analyzes studies to test the use of asphalt as a fast neutron moderating substance to be incorporated as a part of a pile shield.
An Attempt to Detect Small Amounts of Irradiation Injury
The following document analyzes data on blood changes, sterility, emaciation and lassitude to detect small amounts of irradiation injury.
An Attempted Separation of Mercury Isotopes
The following document describes the analysis on an attempt at separating mercury isotopes by making their environments as widely different as possible.
Application of Conductivity Measurements to a Study of (a) Complex Formation Between F[ Gamma] + and F- and Al+ + + and F- (b) Titration of F- Ion with H + Ion
From introduction: This report describes some preliminary electro-conductometric titrations which were made in order to ascertain whether the method [for selecting the best complexing agent for any problem that may arise] gave interpretable results.
Application of Ascorbic Acid Method to Uranium in Salvage Solutions
Abstract: The erroneously high values for uranium content of salvage solutions as determined by the ether extraction-ascorbic acid procedure have been demonstrated to be due to the presence of colored organic materials in these solutions. Evaporation of such solutions to fumes of HC104 before extraction has been shown to be completely successful in preventing such interference while pretreatment with activated carbon is sufficiently successful for application in Control laboratories. Complete procedures for application of either protreatment and results of such application to composite salvage solutions received over a six-month period are included.
An improved 8 and 32 inch diffusion pump combination
Report describing improvements upon the design of a 8 and 32 inch diffusion pump combination. Design specifications and functionality data are included in the report.
The Biologic Effects of Radiation ; Training Program Lecture Notes
The following report provides data taken from investigations on radiation and the different biologic effects on it.
Beta Magnet Current Stability
Abstract: A TEC regulator amplifier driving an Eaterline-Angus recording meter was used to record magnet current variations. Tests were made to determine magnet current variations. Tests were made to determine magnet current stability for currents from 500 amperes to 4000 amperes. Changes were necessary in both the TEC and GE regulators before currents below 2500 amperes could be regulated. Regulation to 0.025 percent for and hour was obtained for currents of 1000 to 4000 amperes with the TEC and GE regulators, and regulation to 0.05 percent for 500 ampere currents.
Bare Beryllium Extrusion Using Graphite Introductory Cones
The following document describes the process of rare beryllium extrusion using graphite introductory cones with the purpose of finding a lubricant which would decrease excessive friction between the billet and prose parts.
Beta-Counting Methods Applied to the Determination of Uranium in Low-Grade Ores
The following report covers investigations on the application of the beta counter as an analytical tool for use in experiments on the extraction and concentration of uranium from low-grade (.005-.02 % uranium) shale and phosphate rock ores.
The Accumulation of Radioactivity as Shown by a Limnological Study of the Columbia River in the Vicinity of Hanford Works : Preliminary Report
The following report provides data collected during an investigation in the Columbia River. The purpose of this investigation was to research the radioactivity present in the bottom-living organisms of the river.
The Acetate Complexes of Uranyl Ion and the Solubility of Sodium Uranyl Acetate
The following report provides data based off of the solubility of sodium uranyl acetate that was measured under a variety if conditions.
100-Ton Test : Measurement of the Velocity of Sound
Abstract: The velocity of sound at the time of 100-ton shot at Trinity was measured to be 1116.1 ft/sec. Values of blast pressure computed from the excess velocity are given, but are not considered as reliable.
Abrasive Blasting for Cleaning Parts
Abstract: A demonstration on August 22, 1945, showed that Alpha or Beta M or K parts, including insulators, can be well cleaned with a pressure-feed abrasive blaster. The abrasive is a slurry of alumina and water mixed with high velocity air in a special feed nozzle. The slurry is continuously recycled.
The Absorption of Fluorine and Uranium Hexafluoride by Sodium Carbonate Solutions
From introduction: Complete removal of fluorine iron waste gases also containing uranium hexaflouride was the object of researches described in this chapter.
Computed values of x-ray lines and limits for the trans-uranic elements
Report detailing values of x-ray lives and limits for trans-uranic elements. Formulas and methods are detailed throughout the report.
Construction, operation and use of KAPL uranium fluorimeters
From introduction: "Two fluorimeters have been constructed for the determination of small amounts of uranium. There fluorimeters have been constructed after the basic plans for the Model V fluorimeter developed at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry and described in the Journal of Biological Chemistry for March 1948.
Corrosion resistance and magnetic susceptibility
From summary: "On the basis of the tests described herein, the corrosion characteristics of T-347 welded stainless steel are found not to be affected by the magnetic properties of the welds even though these properties are likely the result of the presence of the ferritic structure."
Apparatus for injection of animals with dangerous amounts of hard beta and gamma emitters
Report detailing the development of an apparatus for injection of animals with dangerous amounts of hard beta and gamma emitters. The development of this apparatus was necessitated by the extended period of time that experimenter's had to hold syringes containing radioactive material.
Criticality in graphite systems
From introduction: "The use of graphite in the collectors for the electromagnetic process results in the need for storage and processing of masses of U-235 contaminated carbons. Because of the widely differing moderating properties of carbon hydrogen, it was necessary to employ a modified thermal diffusion method to determine critical conditions, applicable to the Y-12 chemical cycle. It can be shown that the following treatment is basically the same as that used by X-10 in one-group pile calculations."
Consolidation and shaping of boron ; summary of previous work
From abstract: "The deposit on the rods is in the form of a brittle uneven tube which is cracked off and subsequently pulverized to a 200-mesh powder. This report is chiefly concerned with methods of consolidating this powder and shaping it into forms required, though it also discusses to some extent other methods of shaping boron or born-rich materials."
Corrosion investigation
Report describing the results of corrosion tests on 68 types of materials. Generally, most materials were tested with an agitator and vapor and some were tested a 3rd way with alternate immersion.