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The Budget Control Act: Frequently Asked Questions
This report addresses several frequently-asked questions related to the Budget Control Act of 2011 (BCA) and the annual budget.
Senate Judiciary Committee Hearings for Supreme Court Nominations: Historical Overview and Data
This report the process of Supreme Court nominations to the Senate and the role of the Judiciary Committee, which investigates the background and qualifications of each Supreme Court nominee.
Cross-Border Energy Trade in North America: Present and Potential
This report provides an overview of the United States' energy trade with Canada and Mexico. For the principal energy commodities, it summarizes estimates of the resource potential for the three countries, recent energy production, and expectations for future production.
Department of Veterans Affairs FY2017 Appropriations
This report provides an overview of Veterans Affairs (VA) appropriations. The VA provides a range of benefits and services to veterans and eligible dependents who meet certain criteria as authorized by law.
Biennial Budgeting: Issues, Options, and Congressional Actions
This report discusses biennial budgeting, which includes several variations. It may involve multiyear authorizations, two-year budget resolutions, two-year appropriations, or some combination of the three.
FY2018 Defense Budget Request: The Basics
This report discusses the federal budget request for fiscal year (FY) 2018 released by the Trump Administration on May 23, 2017.
Commodity Futures Trading Commission: Proposed Reauthorization in the 115th Congress
This report describes the re-authorization of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC), created in 1974.
Mexican-U.S. Relations: Increased Tensions
This report describes the increased tensions in Mexican-U.S. relations after Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto canceled an upcoming meeting with President Donald J. Trump following exchanges between the two leaders over social media concerning U.S. policies toward Mexico.
Sponsorship and Cosponsorship of House Bills
This report briefly discusses the processes of sponsoring, cosponsoring, and gaining cosponsors for bills in the House of Representatives.
Iran's Foreign and Defense Policies
This report discusses Iran's national security policy. Some experts forecast that Iran's foreign and defense policies might shift after international sanctions were eased in January 2016 in accordance with the July 2015 multilateral nuclear agreement with Iran (Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, JCPOA).
Dakota Access Pipeline: Siting Controversy
This report discusses the Dakota Access Pipeline including background on the project and information about siting approval, as well as opposition and litigation against the pipeline.
The Protection of Classified Information: The Legal Framework
This report provides an overview of the relationship between executive and legislative authority over national security information, and summarizes the current laws that form the legal framework protecting classified information -- including current executive orders and some agency regulations pertaining to the handling of unauthorized disclosures of classified information by government officers and employees. The report also summarizes criminal laws that pertain specifically to the unauthorized disclosure of classified information, as well as civil and administrative penalties, and some recent developments.
What is the Proposed U.S.-EU Insurance Covered Agreement?
This report discusses the first insurance covered agreement between the United States and European Union (EU) that concluded on January 13, 2017.
Barriers Along the U.S. Borders: Key Authorities and Requirements
This report discusses key statutory authorities and requirements governing the Department of Homeland Security's (DHS) construction of barriers along the U.S. borders. It also includes appendixes listing federal laws that have been waived by DHS in furtherance of border construction projects.
Legislative Actions to Repeal, Defund, or Delay the Affordable Care Act
This report a brief overview of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and discusses the legislative process known as budget reconciliation in an effort to repeal parts of the ACA.
U.S.-South Korea Relations
This report contains two main parts: a section describing recent events and a longer background section on key elements of the U.S.-South Korea relationship. It also provides a list of CRS products on South Korea and North Korea. The report identifies South Korean individuals by using their last name first.
Advanced Pilot Training (T-X) Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the Advanced Pilot Training (T-X) aircraft, which may shift training from Field Training Units, where expensive fifth-generation aircraft are used, to less expensive trainer aircraft.
Systemically Important or "Too Big to Fail" Financial Institutions
This report discusses the economic issues raised by "too big to fail" (TBTF) financial firms including broad policy options and policy changes made by the relevant Dodd-Frank provisions.
Increasing Choice, Access, and Quality in Health Care for Americans Act (Division C of P.L. 114-255)
This report summarizes the Increasing Choice, Access, and Quality in Health Care for Americans Act, enacted December 13, 2016, as Division C of the 21st Century Cures Act (P.L. 114-255). It includes an overview and a breakdown of provisions by section.
Inauguration Security: Operations, Appropriations, and Issues for Congress
This report provides information on inauguration security operations and inauguration security appropriations. It also discusses potential policy issues including some past inauguration security operations criticisms and inauguration security operation appropriations.
The Army's Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV): Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information on the Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV), which is the Army's proposed replacement to the Vietnam-era M-113 personnel carriers.
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
This report provides an overview of North American trade liberalization before NAFTA, an overview of NAFTA provisions, the economic effects of NAFTA, and policy considerations.
United Kingdom Election Result
This report discusses the United Kingdom's (UK's) election of June 8, 2017, which resulted in a hung parliament, an outcome in which no single party won a majority of seats in the 650-seat House of Commons.
Tanzania: Current Issues and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the current political climate in Tanzania, an important U.S. ally in Africa. It also provides some general background information.
Russian Compliance with the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty: Background and Issues for Congress
This report describes the current status of the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty and highlights issues that Congress may address as the United States pursues its compliance concerns with Russia. It includes a historical overview and summary of the provisions of the INF Treaty and Russia's concerns with U.S. compliance with the treaty and concludes with a discussion of options that the United States might pursue to address its concerns with Russia's activities and options that it might pursue if Russia deploys new INF-range missiles.
Out of Breath: Military Aircraft Oxygen Issues
This report discusses hypoxia, caused by lack of oxygen, which has affected pilots of F-22, F/A-18, and T-45 aircraft in recent years.
The Financial CHOICE Act (H.R. 10) and the Dodd- Frank Act
This report discusses the Financial CHOICE Act of 2017 (H.R. 10), a bill that was passed by the House on June 8, 2017.
Finding Medicare Enrollment Statistics
This report presents basic categories and definitions for terms related to Medicare enrollment data, a quick reference table that summarizes key data available in selected resources, and a more detailed overview of core resources.
Use of the Annual Appropriations Process to Block Implementation of the Affordable Care Act (FY2011-FY2017)
This report summarizes the ACA-related language added to annual appropriations legislation by congressional appropriators since the ACA was signed into law. The information is presented in Table 1. While a detailed examination of the ACA itself is beyond the scope of this report, a brief overview of the ACA's core provisions and its impact on federal spending is provided as context for the material in the table.
Buying American: Protecting U.S. Manufacturing Through the Berry and Kissell Amendments
This report discusses the Berry and Kissell amendments, two separate but closely-related laws requiring that certain goods purchased by national security agencies be produced in the United States.
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2017
This report begins with a discussion of the overall level of the President's FY2017 R&D request, followed by analyses of the R&D funding request from a variety of perspectives and for selected multiagency R&D initiatives. It concludes with discussion and analysis of the R&D budget requests of selected federal departments and agencies that, collectively, account for nearly 99% of total federal R&D funding.
Cyprus: Reunification Proving Elusive
This report provides a brief overview of the history of the negotiations between Greek and Turkish Cypriot leaders, a review of the negotiations since 2008, and a description of some of the issues involved in the talks.
21st Century U.S. Energy Sources: A Primer
This report provides an overview of U.S. energy issues, and it serves as an initial resource document for related information, data, and CRS contacts. It is mainly organized around the major fuels and energy sources used in the United States and also highlights the role of the federal government, particularly the use of federal lands in energy production.
Political Status of Puerto Rico: Brief Background and Recent Developments for Congress
This report provides policy and historical background about Puerto Rico's political status--a term of art referring to the relationship between the federal government and a territorial one. It emphasizes recent developments that are likely to be most relevant for Congress. Congress has not altered the island's status since 1952, when it approved a territorial constitution.
China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities--Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on China's naval modernization effort and its implications for U.S. Navy capabilities. The issue for Congress is how the U.S. Navy should respond to China's military modernization effort, particularly its naval modernization effort.
A Shift in the International Security Environment: Potential Implications for Defense--Issues for Congress
This report briefly describes the shift in the international security environment that some observers believe has occurred, and identifies some defense-related issues for Congress that could arise from it. Congress's decisions on these issues could have significant implications for U.S. defense capabilities and funding requirements.
Air Force B-21 Raider Long-Range Strike Bomber
This report discusses the development of a new long-range bomber aircraft, the B-21 Raider (previously known as LRS-B), and proposes to acquire at least 100 of them.
Blue-Slipping: Enforcing the Origination Clause in the House of Representatives
This report discusses the House enforcement of its prerogative by blue-slipping a measure upon its initial receipt from the Senate or during its consideration on the House floor.
Juneteenth: Fact Sheet
This report describes Juneteenth (also known as Emancipation Day, Juneteenth Independence Day, and Black Independence Day), which celebrates the end of slavery in the United States.
Finding Quotes for Speeches: Fact Sheet
This report provides sources for finding quotes. The resources are divided into three categories: (1) General Quotations, (2) Americana, and (3) Religion.
Temporary Protected Status: Current Immigration Policy and Issues
This report is a brief overview of current policies regarding temporary protected status (TPS), which is relief from removal under the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA). It includes information about humanitarian migrants, temporary protected status, other blanket forms of relief, nationalities receiving protections, and issues with TPS, as well as recent legislation.
U.S. Foreign Aid to the Middle East and North Africa: The President's FY2018 Request
This report discusses U.S. economic and security assistance to the Middle East and North Africa (MENA).
FY2017 National Defense Authorization Act: Selected Military Personnel Issues
This report focuses exclusively on the annual national defense authorization act (NDAA) legislative process. It provides a brief synopsis of sections in each bill (H.R. 4909 as passed by the House on May 26, 2016, and S. 2943 as passed by the Senate on July 21, 2016) that pertain to selected personnel policies. These include issues such as military end-strengths, pay and benefits, military healthcare (TRICARE), military retirement, and other major policy issues.
Digital Trade and U.S. Trade Policy
This report discusses the role of digital trade in the U.S. economy, barriers to digital trade, digital trade agreement provisions, and other selected policy issues.
Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the current state of reform and foreign policy in Bahrain. Outward signs of the uprising against Bahrain's Al Khalifa ruling family that began on February 14, 2011 have diminished, but continued smaller demonstrations, opposition boycotts of elections, and incarceration of dissident leaders counter government assertions that Bahrain has "returned to normal."
Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report examines the current political state of Afghanistan at length, discussing the political background, security policy, and regional relations.
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA): Resources for Frequently Asked Questions
This report provides resources to answer frequently asked questions (FAQs) about the Patient Protect and Affordable Care Act (ACA; P.L. 111-148, as amended). It includes a list of contacts for specific questions on insurance coverage and for questions about HealthCare.gov and tax provisions as well as sources for congressional staff to contact federal agencies. It also contains a glossary and general information about public health programs and related topics.
The Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA): Compensation Related to Exposure to Radiation from Atomic Weapons Testing and Uranium Mining
This report discusses the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA), which provides one-time benefit payments to persons who may have developed cancer or other specified diseases after being exposed to radiation from atomic weapons testing or uranium mining, milling, or transporting.
The Excise Tax on High-Cost Employer- Sponsored Health Insurance: Estimated Economic and Market Effects
This report examines several issues related to health insurance: it evaluates the potential of the Cadillac tax to affect health insurance coverage (and, therefore, the health market), and examines the expected incidence (burden) of the tax--that is, which group will pay the price of the tax.
EPA and the Army Corps' Rule to Define "Waters of the United States"
This report describes the final revised rule--which the agencies refer to as the Clean Water Rule--announced by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. It includes a table comparing the existing regulatory language that defines "waters of the United States" with the revisions.