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Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site

Description: This report documents the results of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site (AIS), near Chicago, Illinois, conducted from October 25 through November 9, 1993. During the Progress Assessment, activities included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and programs with principal focus on the DOE Office of Energy Research (ER); CH, which includes the Argonne Area Office; the University of Chicago; and the contractor`s organization responsible for operation of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of DOE`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the AIS ES&H Progress Assessment was to provide the Secretary of Energy, senior DOE managers, and contractor management with concise independent information on the following: change in culture and attitude related to ES&H activities; progress and effectiveness of the ES&H corrective actions resulting from the previous Tiger Team Assessment; adequacy and effectiveness of the ES&H self-assessment process of the DOE line organizations, the site management, and the operating contractor; and effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES&H problems and new ES&H initiatives.
Date: November 1, 1993

[Analysis of DNA damage and mutations induced by radon daughter products]. [Final report]

Description: In order to understand the genetic and somatic risks associated with exposure to radon and its daughter products, it is important to characterize those lesions that lead to mutation induction and carcinogenesis. The effect of exposure to the radon daughter (212)Bi has been analyzed in 4 CHO cell lines, CHO-KL, xrs-5, AA8 and EM9. These cell lines have different radiation sensitivities and different abilities to rejoin radiation-induced DNA strand breaks. Three endpoints have been examined in these cells; cell killing, chromosome aberration induction and mutation induction. We find RBEs for AA8, EM9 and CHO-KL of about 2.5-4 for cell killing and around 2 for G2-induced aberrations. The RBEs for xrs-5 cells are much smaller for cell killing and chromosome aberration induction, suggesting that the principle lethal lesion resulting from [212]Bi exposure is a non-repaired DNA double-strand break. (The CHO cell line xrs-5 is defective in the rejoining of DNA double-strand breaks.) The survival curves suggest that a portion of the cell killing is probably derived from the low LET beta component of the radiation. Mutation studies suggest that while the lethal and pre-mutagenic lesions might overlap, they are not exactly the same. RBEs for gene mutation induction in AA8 and EM9 cells are higher than the RBEs for killing and chromosome aberration induction. Interestingly, CHO-KL is not more sensitive to mutation induction than killing or chromosome aberration induction by [212]Bi suggesting that this cell line differs from AA8 and EM9 in its ability to repair a premutagenic lesion induced by [212]Bi. These studies should help define the nature of the lesions induced by radon exposure and thereby help understand the carcinogenic risk from radon exposure and how it differs from low LET radiation exposure.
Date: December 31, 1992

Casing pull tests for directionally drilled environmental wells

Description: A series of tests to evaluate several types of environmental well casings have been conducted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and it`s industrial partner, The Charles Machine Works, Inc. (CMW). A test bed was constructed at the CMW test range to model a typical shallow, horizontal, directionally drilled wellbore. Four different types of casings were pulled through this test bed. The loads required to pull the casings through the test bed and the condition of the casing material were documented during the pulling operations. An additional test was conducted to make a comparison of test bed vs actual wellbore casing pull loads. A directionally drilled well was emplaced by CMW to closely match the test bed. An instrumented casing was installed in the well and the pull loads recorded. The completed tests are reviewed and the results reported.
Date: November 1, 1994
Creator: Staller, G. E.; Wemple, R. P. & Layne, R. R.

Genetics of thermophilic bacteria. Final progress report, May 1, 1984--April 30, 1991

Description: Organisms adapted to high temperature have evolved a variety of unique solutions to the biochemical problems imposed by this environment. Adaptation is commonly used to describe the biochemical properties of organisms which have become adapted to their environment (genetic adaptation). It can also mean the direct response-at the cellular level-of an organism to changes in temperature (physiological adaptation). Thermophilic bacilli (strains of Bacillus stearothermophilus) can exhibit a variety of biochemical adaptations in response to changes in temperature. These include changes in the composition and stability of the membrane, metabolic potential, the transport of amino acids, regulatory mechanisms, ribose methylation of tRNA, protein thermostability, and nutritional requirements. The objectives of the research were to develop efficient and reliable genetic systems to analyze and manipulate B. Stearothermophilus, and to use these systems initiate a biochemical, molecular, and genetic investigations of genes that are required for growth at high temperature.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Welker, N. E.

Radiation studies of optical interferometric modulators with fast neutrons and high energy gamma-rays

Description: The possibility of using Ti : LiNbO{sub 3} and single mode fibers for nuclear particle detection and transmission in large-scale machines, such as Superconducting Super Collider, calls for a detailed radiation damage study. In this report, we present radiation studies on Ti : LiNbO{sub 3} Mach-Zehnder interferometric optical modulators with fast neutrons and high energy Gamma-rays.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Tsang, T.; Radeka, V.; Bulmer, C. H. & Burns, W. K.

The Protein Data Bank: Present status and future plans

Description: The Protein Data Bank (PDB) archival database of dimensional structures of biological macromolecules, an international resource facility, contains information on protein, DNA, RNA, virus and carbohydrate structures. While the vast majority of PDB entries represent crystal structures, results from NMR and theoretical modeling strudies also are included. PDB, which in July 1992 contained 957 atomic coordinate entries, currently is experiencing a time of explosive growth. The present deposition rate is ca. 50 structures per month, doubling in less than two years. Responding to the challenge posed by this. rising data flow, over the past 18 months PDB has attracted increased funding to implement important enhancements of the resource. A rapid pre-release of entries pending for input was inaugurated in April 1992, and a substantial fraction of the accumulated backlog of pending entries is now available via FTP and e-mail in prerelease form. Extrapolation of current data rates suggests that by the year 2000 PDB may contain over 25,000 structures. PDB`s plans, to manage this voluminous amount of data, include the development of PDB-AUTHORIN software to allow depositors to do most of the preparation and validation of their own entries, and a comprehensive upgrade of PDB contents to add new data items and convert the current interchange format to the Crystallographic Information File (CIF) standard established by the International Union of Crystallography (IUCr).
Date: December 31, 1992
Creator: Koetzle, T. F.; Abola, E. E.; Bernstein, F. C.; Callaway, J. A.; Christian, J. C.; Deroski, B. R. et al.

Release of ammonia from HAN-type PHA

Description: A preliminary design basis for ammonia scrubbers in the DWPF has been issued. This design basis is based on a theoretical model of ammonia evolution from the SRAT, SME and RCT. It is desirable to acquire actual process data on ammonia evolution prior to performing detailed design of scrubbers for DWPF. The evolution of ammonia from the SRAT and SME in the Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) was investigated during the HM4 run. In this run, Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous (PHA), which was made in the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF) using the HAN (hydroxylamine nitrate) process was used, thus resulting in PHA with a high concentration of ammonium ion.
Date: June 10, 1992
Creator: Zamecnik, J. R.

Basic principles approach for studying nonlinear Alfven wave-alpha particle dynamics

Description: An analytical model and a numerical procedure are presented which give a kinetic nonlinear description of the Alfven-wave instabilities driven by the source of energetic particles in a plasma. The steady-state and bursting nonlinear scenarios predicted by the analytical theory are verified in the test numerical simulation of the bump-on-tail instability. A mathematical similarity between the bump-on-tail problem for plasma waves and the Alfven wave problem gives a guideline for the interpretation of the bursts in the wave energy and fast particle losses observed in the tokamak experiments with neutral beam injection.
Date: January 1, 1994
Creator: Berk, H. L.; Breizman, B. N. & Pekker, M.

Statistics of time averaged atmospheric scintillation

Description: A formulation has been constructed to recover the statistics of the moving average of the scintillation Strehl from a discrete set of measurements. A program of airborne atmospheric propagation measurements was analyzed to find the correlation function of the relative intensity over displaced propagation paths. The variance in continuous moving averages of the relative intensity was then found in terms of the correlation functions. An empirical formulation of the variance of the continuous moving average of the scintillation Strehl has been constructed. The resulting characterization of the variance of the finite time averaged Strehl ratios is being used to assess the performance of an airborne laser system.
Date: February 1, 1994
Creator: Stroud, P.

Aqueous electrolyte modeling in ASPEN PLUS{trademark}

Description: The presence of electrolytes in aqueous solutions has long been recognized as contributing to significant departures from thermodynamic ideality. The presence of ions in process streams can greatly add to the difficulty of predicting process behavior. The difficulties are increased as temperatures and pressures within a process are elevated. Because many chemical companies now model their processes with chemical process simulators it is important that such codes be able to accurately model electrolyte behavior under a variety of conditions. Here the authors examine the electrolyte modeling capability of ASPEN PLUS{trademark}, a widely used simulator. Specifically, efforts to model alkali metal halide and sulfate systems are presented. The authors show conditions for which the models within the code work adequately and how they might be improved for conditions where the simulator models fail.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Bloomingburg, G. F.; Simonson, J. M.; Moore, R. C.; Mesmer, R. E. & Cochran, H. D.

A two-dimensional ACAR study of untwinned YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x}

Description: We have carried out 2D-ACAR measurements on an untwinned single crystal of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} as a function of temperature, for five temperatures ranging from 30K to 300K. We show that these temperature dependent 2D-ACAR spectra can be described to a good approximation as a superposition of two temperature independent spectra with temperature dependent weighting factors. We show further how the data can be used to correct for the ``background`` in the experimental spectrum. Such a ``background corrected`` spectrum is in remarkable accord with the corresponding band theory predictions, and displays in particular clear signatures of the electron ridge Fermi surface.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Smedskjaer, L. C. & Bansil, A.

Program solicitation. Closing date: March 1, 1995

Description: This document is a solicitation for small business to participate in innovation research. The Department of Energy (DOE) invites small business concerns to submit grant applications under this thirteenth annual solicitation for the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. Firms with strong research capabilities in science or engineering in any of the topic areas described in Appendix 1 are encouraged to participate. DOE will support high-quality research or research and development (R and D) on advanced concepts concerning important energy related scientific or engineering problems and opportunities that could lead to significant public benefit if the research is successful. Objectives of this program include increasing private sector commercialization of technology developed through DOE-supported R and D, stimulating technological innovation in the private sector, strengthening the role of small business in meeting Federal research and R and D needs, and improving the return on investment from Federally funded research for economic and social benefits to the Nation.
Date: January 1, 1995

HFIR spent fuel management alternatives

Description: The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems` Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been unable to ship its spent fuel to Savannah River Site (SRS) for reprocessing since 1985. The HFIR storage pools are expected to fill up in the February 1994 to February 1995 time frame. If a management altemative to existing HFIR pool storage is not identified and implemented before the HFIR pools are full, the HFIR will be forced to shut down. This study investigated several alternatives for managing the HFIR spent fuel, attempting to identify options that could be implemented before the HFIR pools are full. The options investigated were: installing a dedicated dry cask storage facility at ORNL, increasing HFIR pool storage capacity by clearing the HFIR pools of debris and either close-packing or stacking the spent fuel elements, storing the spent fuel at another ORNL pool, storing the spent fuel in one or more hot cells at ORNL, and shipping the spent fuel offsite for reprocessing or storage elsewhere.
Date: October 15, 1992
Creator: Begovich, J. M.; Green, V. M.; Shappert, L. B. & Lotts, A. L.

Using object oriented analysis and design to study the SSCL SDC computing system

Description: A joint study between the Computer Working Group of the SSC Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) and IBM`s Federal Sector Division is focusing on the use of Object Oriented Analysis and Design on the SDC Offline Computing System. One key challenge of the analysis is to discover an efficient way to store and subsequently retrieve raw and reconstructed event data, estimated to be 2 petabytes per year. The Object Oriented approach being used during the analysis and early design is intended to yield a smooth transition to detailed design, prototyping and implementation. The object oriented approach is used as a subprocess of a larger process used by IBM FSD, i.e., a systematic approach to architecting and integrating large complex systems. A description of the overall process and early results are described in a study report produced jointly by the SDC and IBM FSD. The overall process focuses on requirements analysis, operational concept development, problem domain decomposition, development and selection of candidate architectures, automated performance modeling and software architecture. This paper will focus primarily on software architecture. The high level software architecture is viewed as a layered stack consisting of: system services, common physics application framework and unique physics applications. Object oriented analysis is being used to investigate the data storage and management of the event data. An object hierarchy is being created and operational concept scenarios are being used to validate the design. Several database prototypes can then be developed, e.g. object oriented or relational, to prove the concept. The object oriented development is fundamentally different from traditional approaches to design, such as those based exclusively on data flow. Object oriented decomposition more closely models a person`s perception of reality, hence the developed system is more understandable, extensible, and maintainable.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Kubena, G. T.; Liao, K.; Palounek, P. T. & Day, C.

Commercialization plan for Argonne`s lubricious coatings

Description: This report summarizes an interview conducted with Dr. David S. Grummon, a specialist in ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) and coatings at Michigan State University, to define the concept and components of an ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) system; summarizes findings of a literature search conducted to identify prior and current efforts in developing lubricious coatings; and reports on the market potential for Argonne`s IBAD lubricious coating process.
Date: March 14, 1991
Creator: Skackson, R. H.

User`s guide and documentation manual for ``PC-Gel`` simulator

Description: PC-GEL is a three-dimensional, three-phase (oil, water, and gas) permeability modification simulator developed by incorporating an in-situ gelation model into a black oil simulator (BOAST) for personal computer application. The features included in the simulator are: transport of each chemical species of the polymer/crosslinker system in porous media, gelation reaction kinetics of the polymer with crosslinking agents, rheology of the polymer and gel, inaccessible pore volume to macromolecules, adsorption of chemical species on rock surfaces, retention of gel on the rock matrix, and permeability reduction caused by the adsorption of polymer and gel. The in-situ gelation model and simulator were validated against data reported in the literature. The simulator PC-GEL is useful for simulating and optimizing any combination of primary production, waterflooding, polymer flooding, and permeability modification treatments. A general background of permeability modification using crosslinked polymer gels is given in Section I and the governing equations, mechanisms, and numerical solutions of PC-GEL are given in Section II. Steps for preparing an input data file with reservoir and gel-chemical transport data, and recurrent data are described in Sections III and IV, respectively. Example data inputs are enclosed after explanations of each input line to help the user prepare data files. Major items of the output files are reviewed in Section V. Finally, three sample problems for running PC-GEL are described in Section VI, and input files and part of the output files of these problems are listed in the appendices. For the user`s reference a copy of the source code of PC-GEL computer program is attached in Appendix A.
Date: October 1, 1993
Creator: Chang, Ming-Ming & Gao, Hong W.

Occurrence and distribution of special status plant species on the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California

Description: Several special status plant species occur or potentially occur at the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC). Special status species are defined as those species that are either federally listed as endangered or threatened, or candidate taxa. Candidate species are classified as Category 1 or Category 2. Category 1 taxa are those species for which there is sufficient evidence to support listing, while Category 2 taxa are those species for which listing may possibly be appropriate, but for which sufficient data are lacking to warrant immediate listing. Determining the presence and distribution of these species on NPRC is necessary so that appropriate conservation or protection measures can be implemented. In the spring of 1988, a survey of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) was conducted to determine the occurrence of Hoover`s wooly-star (Eriastrum hooveri), Kern Mallow (Eremalche kemensis), San Joaquin wooly-threads (Lembertia congdonii), and California jewelflower (Caulanthus califonicus), all listed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) as Category 2 species at that time. Of the four species, only Hoover`s wooly-star was found. It was concluded that Kern mallow and San Joaquin wooly-threads could potentially be found on NPR-1, but habitat for California jewelflower did not occur on NPR-1 and its occurrence was unlikely. As part of an ongoing effort to document the presence or absence of sensitive plant species on NPRC, surveys for species other than Hoover`s wooly-star were conducted in the spring of 1993. Abundant spring rains in 1993 created favorable growing conditions for annual forbs. Surveys in 1993 focused on potential habitat of several endangered and candidate species. The results of those surveys are presented in this report.
Date: October 1, 1994
Creator: Anderson, D. C.; Cypher, B. L.; Holmstead, G. L.; Hammer, K. L. & Frost, N.

High-level waste management technology program plan

Description: The purpose of this plan is to document the integrated technology program plan for the Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Management System. The mission of the SRS HLW System is to receive and store SRS high-level wastes in a see and environmentally sound, and to convert these wastes into forms suitable for final disposal. These final disposal forms are borosilicate glass to be sent to the Federal Repository, Saltstone grout to be disposed of on site, and treated waste water to be released to the environment via a permitted outfall. Thus, the technology development activities described herein are those activities required to enable successful accomplishment of this mission. The technology program is based on specific needs of the SRS HLW System and organized following the systems engineering level 3 functions. Technology needs for each level 3 function are listed as reference, enhancements, and alternatives. Finally, FY-95 funding, deliverables, and schedules are s in Chapter IV with details on the specific tasks that are funded in FY-95 provided in Appendix A. The information in this report represents the vision of activities as defined at the beginning of the fiscal year. Depending on emergent issues, funding changes, and other factors, programs and milestones may be adjusted during the fiscal year. The FY-95 SRS HLW technology program strongly emphasizes startup support for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and In-Tank Precipitation. Closure of technical issues associated with these operations has been given highest priority. Consequently, efforts on longer term enhancements and alternatives are receiving minimal funding. However, High-Level Waste Management is committed to participation in the national Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area. 4 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1995
Creator: Harmon, H. D.

Historical Tank Content Estimate for the Northwest Quandrant of the Hanford 200 East Area

Description: Historical Tank Content Estimate of the Northeast Quadrant provides historical evaluations on a tank by tank basis of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the underground single-shell tanks of the Hanford 200 East area. This report summaries historical information such at waste history, temperature, tank integrity, inventory estimates and tank level history on a tank by tank basis. Tank Farm aerial photos and in-tank photos of each tank are provided. A brief description of instrumentation methods used for waste tank surveillance, along with the components of the data management effort, such as waste status and Transaction Record Summary, Tank Layering Model, Defined Waste Types, and Inventory Estimates to generate these tank content estimates are also given in this report.
Date: June 1, 1994
Creator: Brevick, C. H.; Gaddis, L. A. & Pickett, W. W.

A case against a divide and conquer approach to the nonsymmetric eigenvalue problem

Description: Divide and conquer techniques based on rank-one updating have proven fast, accurate, and efficient in parallel for the real symmetric tridiagonal and unitary eigenvalue problems and for the bidiagonal singular value problem. Although the divide and conquer mechanism can also be adapted to the real nonsymmetric eigenproblem in a straightforward way, most of the desirable characteristics of the other algorithms are lost. In this paper, we examine the problems of accuracy and efficiency that can stand in the way of a nonsymmetric divide and conquer eigensolver based on low-rank updating. 31 refs., 2 figs.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Jessup, E. R.

Software development tools for the CDF MX scanner

Description: This paper discuses the design of the high level assembler and diagnostic control program developed for the MX, a high speed, custom designed computer used in the CDF data acquisition system at Fermilab. These programs provide a friendly productive environment for the development of software on the MX. Details of their implementation and special features, and some of the lessons learned during their development are included.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Stuermer, W.; Turner, K. & Littleton-Sestini, S.

DIII-D Neutral Beam control system operator interface

Description: A centralized graphical user interface has been added to the DIII-D Neutral Beam (NB) control systems for status monitoring and remote control applications. This user interface provides for automatic data acquisition, alarm detection and supervisory control of the four NB programmable logic controllers (PLC) as well as the Mode Control PLC. These PLCs are used for interlocking, control and status of the NB vacuum pumping, gas delivery, and water cooling systems as well as beam mode status and control. The system allows for both a friendly user interface as well as a safe and convenient method of communicating with remote hardware that formerly required interns to access. In the future, to enable high level of control of PLC subsystems, complete procedures is written and executed at the touch of a screen control panel button. The system consists of an IBM compatible 486 computer running the FIX DMACS{trademark} for Windows{trademark} data acquisition and control interface software, a Texas Instruments/Siemens communication card and Phoenix Digital optical communications modules. Communication is achieved via the TIWAY (Texas Instruments protocol link utilizing both fiber optic communications and a copper local area network (LAN). Hardware and software capabilities will be reviewed. Data and alarm reporting, extended monitoring and control capabilities will also be discussed.
Date: October 1, 1993
Creator: Harris, J. J. & Campbell, G. L.