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Reconnaissance for Trace Elements in North Dakota and Eastern Montana

Description: From abstract: A reconnaissance for sources of radioactive material in North Dakota and eastern Montana was made in 1948. This reconnaissance was followed by a more detailed survey of parts of Golden Valley and Slope counties, southwestern North Dakota, in June 1949. The radioactivity of representative sections of all formations known to be exposed in the area and of three manganiferous spring deposits was determined with portable Geiger-Mueller counters. At 86 localities 82 samples were taken of these formations and also of 10 ground and surface waters.
Date: February 1950
Creator: Wyant, Donald G. & Beroni, Ernest P.

An Elementary Review of the Mathieu-Hill Equation of Real Variable Based on Numerical Solutions

Description: Abstract: description is given of a large number of trajectories of Mathieu's equation made on the ENIAC in 1948 and available at BRL. A large chart describing the behaviour of the solutions is given. The occasion is taken to review the essentials of the Mathieu theory for the benefit of the occasional user-proceeding from the point of view of an inspection of the numerical data.
Date: April 1955
Creator: Zaroodny, Serge J.

A Reversing Logarithmic DC Amplifier

Description: Purpose: Automatic recording equipment was designed for use with a high temperature Sykes experiment in which calorimetric measurements were to be made to temperatures approaching 2000* C. At such high temperatures, radiation becomes the dominant mechanism for heat transfer. The temperature differences which are used to determine the magnitude of this transfer no longer are directly proportional to it, but must be related by the Stefan-Boltzman law of radiation.
Date: January 1, 1954
Creator: Carter, R. L.

A Remotely Controlled Welding Device for Joining Stainless Steel Tubes

Description: Abstract: The design and testing of experimental equipment for remotely joining stainless steel tubing by heliarc welding is described. This apparatus consists of a modified heliarc welding torch which is hydraulically controlled to maintain constant arc voltage. A suitable arc voltage sensing and control amplifier circuit was developed for this application.
Date: November 15, 1954
Creator: Mueller, Martin & Hecker, Eugene

Uranium Occurrences of Gila County, Arizona

Description: From purpose and scope: This report is designed to summarize the available information on the geology and ore reserves of the uranium deposits. Detailed geological work has been confined largely to those areas which contain the more promising uranium occurrences with at least 80 percent of such work being concentrated in the Sierra Ancha district.
Date: October 1957
Creator: Schwartz, Roland J.


Description: The targets and probes will be introduced 6-inches below the median plane so that adequate mechanical support can be effectively utilized without reducing the aperture. Probe heads will be of such configuration as to allow monitoring of any desired vertical strip of the aperture. It is probable that some space will be available in the quadrants after first performance tests have been on the machine. No targets or probes will be located in that 1-foot x 4-foot aperture initially. Provision will be made for driving the inner radius targets on the west tangent tank into the aperture during acceleration. The drive mechanism will locate the target (within an adjustable radius) in 1/2 a second. Because of the asymmetry in geometry of pole tip magnets with respect to the magnet yokes and the curvature of the quadrants, it will be difficult to remove positive charged meson beams. A re-entrant side plate on the inside radius of the west tangent tank is under study. While such a plate would provide a location for bending magnets and collimators for positive particles and would simplify the construction of some beam monitoring probes, its presence may introduce a first harmonic distortion in the magnet field of a prohibitive amplitude.
Date: October 27, 1953
Creator: Chupp, Warren


Description: Despite the essentially independent development of the Cosmotron and Bevatron, these two accelerators have general specifications which are the same within a factor of 2-3 in their pertinent characteristics. An electron analogue of the Bevatron would be an electron synchrotron operating in the 5 kev to 3 Mev range.
Date: October 20, 1953
Creator: Smith, Lloyd


Description: The relative probabilities for alternate processes initiated by a nucleon-nucleon collision depend on the dynamics involved and on the volume in phase space accessible to each final state. According to Fermi this last aspect alone may be of decisive importance. Such an assignment would follow were an approximate statistical equilibrium reached. The volume occupied by the incident nucleons and the associated pion clouds will have very large energy density at the instant of collision. Knowing that the interactions of the pion fields are strong, Fermi assumes that this energy is suddenly distributed among the various degrees of freedom present in the interaction volume in accord with statistical laws. He then computes the statistical probability that a certain number of pions will be created with a given energy distribution. It is then assumed that the energy will rapidly dissolve and that the particles into which the energy has been converted will fly out in all directions. Fermi argues that this approach may give a fairly good approximation to the actual case; since the number of possible states of the given energy is large and the probability of establishing a state to its average statistical weight will be increased by the number of ways by which that state may be attained. The statistical equilibrium assumed above should be qualified to the extent that certain laws such as conservation of charge and conservation of moment must be fulfilled. In addition, only those states easily obtainable from the initial state will reach statistical equilibrium; conservation of the differences of the number of nucleons and the anti-nucleons is implied.
Date: November 10, 1953
Creator: Lepore, Joseph


Description: There are two different types of investigation of interest in high energy nuclear phenomena. One can observe gross effects such as the production of large numbers of heavy particles of different types, or one can study the elementary particles themselves which result from these collisions, for example, the kappa mesons, to determine modes of decay and the energy spectra of the resulting particles. This discussion will deal with the gross aspects of high energy interactions and will review the work of Fermi: High Energy Nuclear Interactions, Progress in Theoretical Physics, 5, No. 4, July-August, 1950.
Date: November 3, 1953
Creator: Lepore, Joseph

Bevatron Research Meeting I - Bevatron as a Research Instrument

Description: The Bevatron status is: (1) Physical structure of magnet now assembled and being tested. Initial pulsing to rated field currents indicate that magnet is performing as designed. Currents of the order of 8500 amps peak have already been rendered. (About 15,000 gauss). (2) Pumpdown time to approximately 10{sup -5} mm Hg is of the order of 24 hours at present but is expected to improve to 12-15 hours as the high vapor pressure solvents are removed. Lofgren and Brobeck expect that it will be possible to make interval target, etc., changes between operating shifts without excessive loss of experimental time. (3) Injector and linear accelerator are now operating stably. Injected currents to Linac are approximately 3 x 10{sup -3} peak at 450 kev. Linac output is approximately 5% or 70 x 10{sup -6} amps peak with an angular divergence of 10{sup -3} rad. and a maximum energy spread of less than 0.8% at 9.8 kev. (4) Inflector and induction electrodes are to be installed after December 15, 1953. (5) Complete machine, both mechanical and electrical, will be ready for testing and 'de-bugging' approximately December 15; 1953. Initial operation as a research instrument should begin after the first of the year, perhaps January 15, 1954 to January 30, 1954. (6) Magnetic testing started October 2 and will continue for approximately 6 weeks (until about November 15). (7) Concrete shielding will be installed around the southwest quadrant of the machine and at the south and west straight sections before research operations begin.
Date: October 6, 1953
Creator: Lofgren, Edward


Description: On February 2, the first 10 Mev proton beau was injected from the linear accelerator. Injection parameters were varied to study first turn beams with the magnet excited by a d-c generator. A few minutes after the magnetic field had been adjusted to the value calculated from magnetic measurements. the 180{sup o} beam was observed on fluorescent flags and measured with Faraday cups. During the remainder of the week several radio frequency components were installed and operated. Ground current signals in various pieces of equipment were a limitation in detecting.
Date: March 16, 1954
Creator: Cork, Bruce.


Description: The following modifications are planned to facilitate greater usefulness of available target space in the west tangent tank: (1) A 3/32-inch x 6-inch x 106-inch aluminum window is to be added to the outer radius tank wall. (2) One 12-inch x 6-inch air lock is to be added on the inside centerline of the reentrant section on the west tangent tank. (3) Two 24-inch x 30-inch openings are to be cut on the beam centerline in the top of the west tangent tank, one at each end. These openings will accommodate photographic plate wells of various kinds and also a large air lock that is being designed. It is suggested that any other modifications to the target area be presented to E. Lofgren as soon as possible so that the modifications can be programmed with respect to operations. The same general policy holds for target location, viz: (a) Small targets - allocations in west tangent tank; and (b) Large targets - allocations in south tangent tank. The design of two general purpose magnets is in the final stages. Copper for the coils will be ordered soon. The characteristics of these magnets are given. Results of magnetic field measurements on the Bevatron are reported, Some of the details and compromises in design of the magnet are discussed. The pole tip confiscation in the 1 x 4-foot aperture nominally n = 0.6 has been cut to a mechanical slope of 0.63. The laminated pole tips have protruding ears which modify the fringing field at low magnet currents to provide the widest possible aperture at injection. These ears are slotted so that they saturate and at intermediate field values become ineffective. This design represents a compromise between maximum useful field width and maximum obtainable field at peak current. The pole tips contain 21 ...
Date: March 23, 1954
Creator: Chupp, Warren


Description: The main purpose of Chemistry Division personnel in using the Bevatron will be to learn as much as possible about nuclear reactions in the Bev energy range using the radiochemical approach. The type and extent of these experiments will depend greatly on the beam intensity. Significant results can be obtained at 10{sup 6} or 10{sup 7} protons per pulse, but it is highly desirable that this figure ultimately be raised to 10{sup 10} or greater.
Date: March 29, 1954
Creator: Hyde, Earl K.


Description: On April 1, a new energy peak of 6.1 Bev was attained with the Bevatron. Scattered particles monitored with a counter telescope in triple coincidence gave approximately 100 counts per beam pulse. April 2s the machine was down to air to allow work on beam monitoring equipment. Test operations resumed April 5. Though the total number of accelerated particles is still small, due to low energy beam losses, some cloud chamber tracks have been observed. Several plates have been exposed for Goldhaber. Stars with up to 29 prongs have been observed. The following consists of a discussion of the administration, operation and some of the experimental techniques evolved in the use of the Cosmotron.
Date: April 6, 1954
Creator: Lofgren, E.J.


Description: The occurrence of a fault April 7 caused a short in the stator winding of one of the main generators. Repairs will require at least one month and the total time the generator will be down can be determined only after a further inspection of the damage. In a week or two, after a thorough inspection of the generator and the ignitron system, Bevatron operation will be continued on one generator. Since the targets of use in a Bevatron experiment will depend greatly on the nature of the experiment and the techniques to be employed the ideas presented here relate primarily to the area of research which involves the detection with counters of heavy mesons emitted in the backward direction in the laboratory system. These mesons and their decay products have low kinetic energy over the entire range of Bevatron energies above threshold for production. For this reason discrimination by means of momentum resolution, collimating slits, ionization density and range will be possible.
Date: April 13, 1954
Creator: Lofgren, E.J.


Description: Bevatron operation has been stopped temporarily due to a generator fault. While repairs are being instituted the tank will be down to air for repairs and target installation. Operation on one generator is scheduled for May 3. It has been previously proposed that one could investigate the {pi}{sub 0} lifetime by measuring the converted electron yield from {pi}{sub 0} decay photons as a function of the thickness of a thin target in which both the {pi}{sub 0} production and photon conversion occur. If the lifetime were effectively zero the electron yield should depend quadratically upon thickness; whereas if the lifetime is sufficiently great, this quadratic rise will be delayed as the thickness is increased, due to the distance travelled by the {pi}{sub 0} before decay. In fact, the beginning of the yield dependence is cubic rather than quadratic in character. It is estimated that a lifetime of 10{sup -15} seconds should provide a distinctly detectable effect. The investigation may be considered practical at the Bevatron providing: (a) the production cross section for {pi}{sub 0}'s at 6 Bev is about 100 times that at 340 Mev, (b) a Bevatron pulse of 10{sup 8} protons, with a recirculation of 1000 times thru the thin target can be achieved. Thin foils of Au or of U would be used as targets, with thicknesses of the order of 10{sup -4} cm. Some assumptions about the meson momentum spectrum are implicit in these plans. It has been assumed that tho pion kinetic energy spectrum in the nucleon-nucleon C.M. frame peaks at 0.3 Bev. This gives at 0{sup o} in the laboratory T{sub {pi}} = 1.5 Bev, or a time dilation of {gamma} = 12. Techniques have been evolved for utilization of 6 x 6-inch Ilford G-5 plates of 600{micro}-thickness. A typical operating schedule and some ...
Date: April 20, 1954
Creator: Lofgren, E.J.


Description: Results of preliminary tests with photographic emulsions using a lip target are discussed. Some methods for the search of heavy mesons are suggested. The preliminary tests with photographic emulsions were designed to investigate exposure conditions inside the Bevatron. These were carried out with stationary targets, since injected targets were not available at that time. The first exposure was designed to study the shielding required for emulsions placed in the direct beam (9 inches from the magnet conterline) during the entire acceleration cycle. Three 200{micro} Ilford G5 emulsions embedded in various thicknesses of brass were exposed for 30 pulses. Nominal maximum energy of beam was 3.5 Bev. During the second and third exposure (nominal maximum beam energies 4.1 and 6 Bev respectively) a lip target was placed in front of the emulsions. This was designed so as to dampen out the radial oscillations in the first section (.36 inches thick, 1/2 inch radial length). The beam should then hit the second section (.9 inches thick, .75 inch radial length) which is designed to reduce the beam orbit by {approx} 1 1/4 inches and then hit the emulsions on the next turn. 1/2 inch brass absorber was placed ahead of the emulsions.
Date: May 11, 1954
Creator: Lofgren, E.J. & Goldhaber, Gerson


Description: A large number of experiments relating to nuclear structure and materialization of energy will fall within the energy range of primary and secondary particles available from the Bevatron. Some experiments of interest are outlined below with pertinent comments. Proton-proton scattering can be extended to the high energy range using liquid hydrogen targets and hydrogenous materials by bombarding the target with the internal beam or using externally scattered protons. Proton-deuteron scattering measurements using liquid deuterium targets or solid materials can also be extended. Proton scattering from heavier nuclei may be found less difficult to interpret at these level energies as the nucleons will interact more or less independently. The wavelength of the bombarding particles will now be much smaller than nucleon diameters. Nuclear collisions represent by far the most important interaction between high energy nucleons and matter. Proton-neutron charge exchange interaction within the internal target will provide an external flux of neutrons which can be used directly for total nuclear cross section measurements and neutron-proton scattering. Low energy measurements, say below 200 Mev; show that nuclear interaction cross sections do not go down as 1/{lambda} as reactions become predominantly nuclear rather than electromagnetic. Measurements can now be extended into the Bev range to investigate the complex as opposed to the point charge concept of nuclear interactions. The external neutron beam may also provide high energy protons in charge exchange interactions with external targets. Mesons produced in the internal target will provide external meson beams of all types for cross section measurements over a large range of energies. Sufficient energy will be available for production of V particles with reasonable cross sections. The primary event leading to the production of V particles and the characteristic mode of decay can be studied. These events are best adapted to cloud chamber techniques wherein co-planer ...
Date: December 15, 1953
Creator: Karplus, Robert

Uranophane at the Silver Cliff Mine Near Lusk, Niobrara County, Wyoming

Description: In 1950, the U.S. Geological Survey studied a uranium deposit, previously exploited, at the Silver Cliff mine near Lusk, Wyoming. The deposit consists primarily of uranophane that occurs as fracture fillings and small replacement pockets in faulted and fractured quartzite of Cambrian (?) age. The country rock in the vicinity of the mine is schist of pre-Cambrian age intruded by pegmatite dikes and unconformably overlain by flat-lying Cambrian (?) quartzite. The mine is at the southern end of the Lusk Dome, a local structure probably related to the Hartville uplift. In the immediate vicinity of the mine, this dome is cut by the Silver Cliff fault, which is a north-trneding high-angle reverse fault approximately 1,200 feet in length with a stratigraphic throw of 70 feet. The fractured quartzite has been the locus for the deposition of uranophane, metatorbernite, pitchblende, calcite, native silver, native copper, chalcocite, azurite, malachite, chrysocolla, and cuprite. The fault was probably mineralized throughout its length, but owing to erosion the mineralized zone is now discontinuous. The principal ore body is about 800 feet long. The width and depth of the mineralized zone are not accurately known but are at least 20 feet and 60 feet, respectively. The uranium content of material sampled in the mine ranges from 0.001 to 0.23 percent uranium, whereas dump samples range from 0.076 to 3.39 percent uranium.
Date: May 1, 1952
Creator: Wilmarth, V.R. & Johnson, D.H.


Description: Formulas are derived for the equilibrium orbit, isochronous condition, vertical and horizontal betatron frequencies, and for the effects of the 3/3 radial resonance in a three-fold geometry. The magnetic field is represented by a Fourier series in azimuth with amplitudes expanded in a Taylor series about the reference radius. The form is such that the various parameters may be deduced from an arbitrary set of field measurements in the median plane and the results obtained by direct substitution in algebraic formulas.
Date: January 12, 1959
Creator: Smith, Lloyd & Garren, Alper A.