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Afghanistan: Soviet Invasion and U.S. Response

Description: The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan has raised a number of serious issues and choices for the United States. The train of events seem likely to have an important influence on overall American foreign policy in the 1980s. Reassessment of Soviet motives and of U.S. roles in the world are already in progress. Emerging American attitudes, in turn, will shape more specific policy decisions on several issues, which this issue brief discusses.
Date: May 2, 1980
Creator: Library of Congress. Foreign Affairs and National Defense Division.

Enterprise Zones

Description: The enclosed material discusses the concept of urban enterprise zones, outlines the administration's proposals for the zones, and includes the major arguments for and against their creation. Because of considerable congressional interest in the enterprise zone concept, we have included a comparison of the major bills relating to enterprise zones introduced in the 97th Congress along with a bibliography for those who desire to research the subject in greater detail.
Date: April 30, 1982
Creator: Breckenridge, Charlotte

Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs)

Description: Recent changes in the Nation's tax laws have made Individual Retirement Accounts available to many people previously excluded. This report provides general information on IRAs including material explaining these recent changes and their consequences.
Date: June 28, 1983
Creator: Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.

Human Rights in U.S. Foreign Relations: Six Key Questions in the Continuing Policy Debate

Description: This report provides background information and a general overview of the role of human rights in U.S. foreign policy. It includes a discussion of some traditional arguments about how international human rights concerns might be integrated with other foreign policy factors. It also includes a discussion of the definition of human rights, of U.S. international obligations to promote human rights, and the apparatus and procedures available to the U.S. Government for implementing human rights policy. Particular attention is paid to congressional actions, not only in debating and holding hearings on human rights issues, but especially in enacting laws to assure that U.S. foreign policy formulation and practice include consideration of the status of human rights in other countries.
Date: December 10, 1981
Creator: Bite, Vita

Corporate Mergers Through Tender Offers: Measurement and Public Policy Considerations

Description: This report provides a perspective on the role of tender offers in corporate mergers and acquisitions and on the nature of financing used to carry them out. Analyzing SEC data on corporate takeovers, it classifies by industry those firms for which tender offers were made in 1979 and 1980 and examines the sources of funds used in these acquisition bids. Comparing SEC data with information compiled by FTC and others, it assesses the importance of tender offers in overall merger and acquisition activity. The report focuses mainly on domestic mergers, but foreign takeovers of U.S. companies also are discussed.
Date: December 4, 1981
Creator: Winch, Kevin F

The Child Support Enforcement Program

Description: This report provides summary information on the child support enforcement program, established under title IV-D of the Social Security Act. It includes basic program statistics and a description of the administrative structure and major characteristics of the program.
Date: October 5, 1982
Creator: Solomon-Fears, Carmen

The Crude Oil Windfall Profit Tax Act: Context and Content

Description: Debate over natural gas pricing has included the consideration of a windfall profit tax, with the oil windfall profit tax as a possible guide to what might be levied on natural gas at the wellhead. This report reviews the issues surrounding the enactment of the crude oil windfall profit tax, spells out its provisions, and provides data on the revenues collected and anticipated.
Date: December 17, 1981
Creator: Gelb, Bernard A.

Abortion: Judicial and Legislative Control

Description: In 1973 the U.S. Supreme Court held that the Constitution protects a woman's decision whether or not to terminate her pregnancy, Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113, and that a State may not unduly burden the exercise of that fundamental right by regulations that prohibit or substantially limit access to the means of effectuating that decision, Doe v. Bolton, 410 U.S. 179. But rather than settling the issue, the Court's rulings have kindled heated debate and precipitated a variety of governmental actions at the national, State and local levels designed either to nullify the rulings or hinder their effectuation. This brief discusses this ongoing issue, including related legislation and judicial history.
Date: October 13, 1981
Creator: Lewis, Karen J.; Rosenberg, Morton & Porter, Allison I.

Equal Rights Amendment (Proposed)

Description: The proposed Equal Rights Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was first introduced in 1923, and was passed by the Congress in 1972. In 1978, Congress extended the original deadline for ratification of the ERA. Thus, if it receives approval in the form of ratification by 38 States before June 30, 1982, the measure will become the 27th Amendment to the Constitution, and will require equal treatment under Federal and State laws and practices for all persons, regardless of sex.
Date: July 8, 1982
Creator: Gladstone, Leslie W

Lobby Act Reform

Description: This report discusses the methods to achieve effective accountability form lobbyists groups and individuals who seek to influence the governmental decision-making process.
Date: March 19, 1981
Creator: Sachs, Richard C

China-U.S. Trade

Description: The improved political relationship between the United States and the People's Republic of China (P.R.C.), initiated by the Nixon Administration and furthered by the Carter Administration's decision to establish diplomatic relations, has spurred a rapid increase in Sino-U.S. trade. While still small relative to overall U.S. foreign trade, the volume of trade represents an abrupt shift from the no-trade policy that had been pursued since 1950. Despite the rapid expansion, outstanding issues remain as serious barriers to normalized trade. Resolution of those issues may require concession or accommodations by the Chinese leadership as well as action by both the U.S. Congress and the Executive Branch. However, the development of a new approach to foreign economic relations by the post-Mao Chinese leadership and the establishment of diplomatic relations have laid the ground work for a further expansion of commercial relations.
Date: November 19, 1981
Creator: Holliday, George D. & Hardt, John P.

MX Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Program

Description: This report discusses the MX Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM),which is designed to be the most lethal strategic ballistic missile in the world. The missile was developed by the U.S. Air Force to augment the capabilities of the presently deployed ICBM force, which together with Submarine Launched Ballistic Missiles (SLBMs) and manned strategic bomber aircraft form the triad of U.S. strategic nuclear offensive forces.
Date: December 14, 1981
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan

Block Grants

Description: This report includes the material on block grants, including a CRS Report on the Omnibus Reconciliation Act of 1981, several articles, and a guide to State block grant implementation. For additional information and assistance, we have also included addresses of people to contact on the Federal (p. 59) and State levels (p. 70-104).
Date: August 31, 1981
Creator: Osbourn, Sandra S

Federal Laws Relating to the Control of Narcotics and Other Dangerous Drugs, Enacted 1961-1985: Brief Summaries

Description: This report contains summaries of enactments, treaties, and reorganization plans, passed from 1961 through 1985, that have some clearly indicated relationship-- either by specific reference or by virtue of legislative history--to the Federal effort to prevent drug misuse through control of the supply of narcotics and other dangerous drugs.
Date: January 15, 1986
Creator: Hogan, Harry L

Eighteen Questions and Answers About the World Bank

Description: This paper provides background information about World Bank borrowing and lending activities and about U.S. participation in the Bank. Among other matters, it discusses where the World Bank borrows its funds, the amounts contributed by the United States and other countries, and changes i n World Bank priorities and loan policy.
Date: June 27, 1986
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.