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NACA Conference on Aerodynamics of High Speed Aircraft

Description: This document contains reproductions of technical papers presented by staff members of the NACA Laboratories at the NACA Conference on Aerodynamics of High-Speed Aircraft held at the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory November 1, 2, and 3, 1955. The primary purpose of the conference was to convey to contractors of the military services and others concerned with the design of aircraft the results of recent research and to provide those attending with an opportunity to discuss these results. The papers in this document are in the same form in which they were orally presented at the conference to facilitate their prompt distribution. The original presentation and this record are considered as complementary to, rather than as substitutes for, the Committee's more complete and formal reports.
Date: November 1, 1955

NACA Conference on Aircraft Loads, Structures, and Flutter

Description: This document contains reproductions of technical papers on some of the most recent research results on aircraft loads, flutter, and structures from the NACA laboratories. These papers were presented by members of the staff of the NACA laboratories at the Conference held at the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory March 5, 6, and 7, 1957. The primary purpose of this Conference was to convey to contractors of the military services and others concerned with the design of aircraft these recent research results and to provide those attending an opportunity to discuss the results. The papers in this document are in the same form in which they were presented at the Conference in order to facilitate their prompt distribution. The original presentation and this record are considered as complementary to, rather than as substitutes for, the Committee?s more complete and formal reports. Accordingly, if information from this document is utilized it is requested that this document not be listed as a reference. Individual reports dealing with most of the information presented at the Conference will subsequently be published by NACA and will therefore be suitable as reference material.
Date: March 5, 1957

Vibration of a Wing of Finite Span in a Supersonic Flow

Description: An investigate ion was made of the disturbed motion of a gas for the harmonic vibrations of a thin slightly cambered wing of finite span moving forward with supersonic velocity. This problem was considered by E. A. Krasilshchikova who applied the method of Fourier series and obtained a solution of the space problem for the condition that the Mach cones drawn through the leading edge of the wing intersect the wing or are tangent to it. In this paper, a different method of solution is given, which is free from the previously mentioned condition. In particular, the vibrations of a triangular wing lying within the Mach cone are considered.
Date: April 1, 1950
Creator: Haskind, M. D. & Falkovich, S. V.

Directional Stability of Towed Airplanes

Description: So far, very careful investigations have been made regarding the flight properties, in particular the static and dynamic stability, of engine-propelled aircraft and of untowed gliders. In contrast, almost no investigations exist regarding the stability of airplanes towed by a towline. Thus, the following report will aim at investigating the directional stability of the towed airplane and, particularly, at determining what parameters of the flight attitude and what configuration properties affect the stability. The most important parameters of the flight attitude are the dynamic pressure, the aerodynamic coefficients of the flight attitude, and the climbing angle. Among the configuration properties, the following exert the greatest influence on the stability: the tow-cable length, the tow-cable attachment point, the ratio of the wing loadings of the towing and the towed airplanes, the moments of inertia, and the wing dihedral of the towed airplane. In addition, the size and shape of the towed airplane vertical tail, the vertical tail length, and the fuselage configuration are decisive factors in determining the yawing moment and side force due to sideslip, respectively.
Date: January 1, 1956
Creator: Soehne, W.

Laminar Flow About a Rotating Body of Revolution in an Axial Airstream

Description: We have set ourselves the problem of calculating the laminar flow on a body of revolution in an axial flow which simultaneously rotates about its axis. The problem mentioned above, the flow about a rotating disk in a flow, which we solved some time ago, represents the first step in the calculation of the flow on the rotating body of revolution in a flow insofar as, in the case of a round nose, a small region about the front stagnation point of the body of revolution may be replaced by its tangential plane. In our problem regarding the rotating body of revolution in a flow, for laminar flow, one of the limiting cases is known: that of the body which is in an axial approach flow but does not rotate. The other limiting case, namely the flow in the neighborhood of a body which rotates but is not subjected to a flow is known only for the rotating circular cylinder, aside from the rotating disk. In the case of the cylinder one deals with a distribution of the circumferential velocity according to the law v = omega R(exp 2)/r where R signifies the cylinder radius, r the distance from the center, and omega the angular velocity of the rotation. The velocity distribution as it is produced here by the friction effect is therefore the same as in the neighborhood of a potential vortex. When we treat, in what follows, the general case of the rotating body of revolution in a flow according to the calculation methods of Prandtl's boundary-layer theory, we must keep in mind that this solution cannot contain the limiting case of the body of revolution which only rotates but is not subjected to a flow. However, this is no essential limitation since this case is not of ...
Date: February 1, 1956
Creator: Schlichting, H.

On the Use of the Harmonic Linearizaiton Method in the Automatic Control Theory

Description: The method of harmonic linearization (harmonic balance), first proposed by N. M. Krylov and N. N. Bogolyubov for the approximate investigation of nonlinear vibrations, has been developed and received wide practical application to problems in the theory of automatic control. Recently, some doubt has been expressed on the legitimacy of application of the method to these problems, and assertions were made on the absence in them of a small parameter of any kind. Nevertheless, the method gives practical, acceptable results and is a simple and powerful means in engineering computations. Hence, the importance of questions arises as to its justification. The underlying principle of the method is the replacement of the given nonlinear equation by a linear equation. In establishing the method, a small parameter is considered whose presence makes it possible to speak, with some degree of approximation, of the solution of this new equation to the solution of the given nonlinear equation. In an article by the author, certain considerations were given on the presence of the small parameter, but this question has not as yet received a final answer. In the present report, a somewhat different approach to the problem is applied that permits: (a) establishing, in the clearest manner, the form of the presence of the small parameter in nonlinear problems of control theory, solvable by the method of harmonic linearization; (b) connecting it with previous intuitive physical concepts (with the "filter property") and extending the class of problems possessing this property; and (c) discussing various generalizations of the method.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Popov, E. P.

The Principles of Turbulent Heat Transfer

Description: The literature on turbulent heat transfer has in the course of years attained a considerable volume. Since this very complicated problem has not as yet found a complete solution, further studies in this field may be expected. The heat engineer must therefore accomodate himself to a constantly increasing number of theories and formulas. Since the theories generally start from hypothetical assumptions, and since they contain true and false assertions, verified knowledge and pure suppositions often being intermingled in a manner difficult to tell them apart, the specialist had difficulty in forming a correct evaluation of the individual studies. The need therefore arises for a presentation of the problem of turbulent heat transfer which is not initially bound by hypothetical assumptions and in which uninvestigated can be clearly distinguished form each other. Such a presentation will be given in the present treatment. Brief remarks with regard to the development of the theory of local heat transfer are included.
Date: September 1, 1957
Creator: Reichardt, H.

Formation of a vortex at the edge of a plate

Description: The flow about the plate of infinite width may be represented as a potential flow with discontinuity surfaces which extend from the plate edges. For prescribed form and vortex distribution of the discontinuity surfaces, the velocity field may be calculated by means of a conformal representation. One condition is that the velocity at the plate edges must be finite. However, it is not sufficient for determination of the form and vortex distribution of the surface. However, on the basis of a similitude requirement one succeeds in finding a solution of this problem for the plate of infinite width which is correct for the very beginning of the motion of the fluid. Starting from this solution, the further development of the vortex distribution and shape of the surface are observed in the case of a plate of finite width.
Date: March 1, 1956
Creator: Anton, Leo

From linear mechanics to nonlinear mechanics

Description: Consideration is given to the techniques used in telecommunication where a nonlinear system (the modulator) results in a linear transposition of a signal. It is then shown that a similar method permits linearization of electromechanical devices or nonlinear mechanical devices. A sweep function plays the same role as the carrier wave in radio-electricity. The linearizations of certain nonlinear functionals are presented.
Date: October 1, 1955
Creator: Loeb, Julian

Flow of Gas Through Turbine Lattices

Description: This report is concerned with fluid mechanics of two-dimensional cascades, particularly turbine cascades. Methods of solving the incompressible ideal flow in cascades are presented. The causes and the order of magnitude of the two-dimensional losses at subsonic velocities are discussed. Methods are presented for estimating the flow and losses at high subsonic velocities. Transonic and supersonic flows in lattices are then analyzed. Some three-dimensional features of the flow in turbines are noted.
Date: May 1, 1956
Creator: Deich, M E

Theory of plane, symmetrical intake diffusers

Description: The present report ties in with the investigations on the inlet diffusers by P. Ruden. The theory developed by Ruden had produced results which found excellent confirmation in wind-tunnel tests and in spite of certain still-existing defects, are technically very promising. The reasons for the new theory of the diffuser forms indicated by Ruden are twofold: first, the arguments adduced in Ruden's theory deal only with one specific operating condition, that is, a certain ratio of mean velocity within the diffuser to flying speed, while in the present report any desired velocity ratios are involved; second, a different choice of parameters and the increased possibilities of variation result in diffuser forms which cannot be reconciled at once with Ruden's theory. The first enables a theoretical check of the measurements made with Ruden's diffusers at variable velocity ratio, the second permits the calculation of diffuser types which in many respects are superior to Ruden's diffusers.
Date: April 1, 1950
Creator: Brodel, Walter

Steady properly-banked turns of turbojet-propelled airplanes

Description: The problem of a jet-propelled airplane held in a steady turn is treated both in the very general case and also in the particular case when the polar curve can be approximated by a parabola. Once the general solution has been obtained, some typical maneuvers are next studied such as, the turn of maximum bank, of maximum angular velocity, and of minimum radius of curvature. After a brief comparison is made between the turning characteristics of conventional airplanes and jet airplanes, and after the effect of compressibility upon the turn is examined, the effects of the salient aerodynamic and structural parameters upon the behavior of the plane in curvilinear flight are summarized in the conclusions.
Date: March 1, 1955
Creator: Miele, Angelo

The effect of free-stream turbulence on heat transfer from a flat plate

Description: Turbulence was generated by using screens, and the turbulence percentage was measured by a hot-wire anemometer both in the boundary layer and the free stream. The local heat-transfer coefficient was measured at 12 locations along the plate for the cases of various turbulence levels. The transition Reynolds number from laminar to turbulent flow decreases as the main-stream turbulence level increases. In the range of laminar heat transfer the effect of turbulence in the main flow was not great, but in the range of turbulent heat transfer the heat-transfer coefficient increases according to the increase of turbulence.
Date: September 1, 1958
Creator: Sugawara, Sugao; Sato, Takashi; Komatsu, Hiroyasu & Osaka, Hiroichi

Metallography of aluminum and its alloys : use of electrolytic polishing

Description: Recent methods are described for electropolishing aluminum and aluminum alloys. Numerous references are included of electrolytic micrographic investigations carried out during the period 1948 to 1952. A detailed description of a commercial electrolytic polishing unit, suitable for micrographic examination of aluminum and its alloys, is included.
Date: November 1, 1955
Creator: Jacquet, Pierre A

Concerning the flow about ring-shaped cowlings Part VIII : further measurements on annular profiles

Description: The measurements of part V (reference 1) of this series of reports, which concerned comparatively long ring profiles, are supplemented by measurements on shorter rings as they are used for shrouded propellers and cowlings of ring-shaped radiators. Mass-flow coefficients and profile drags are given. Furthermore, it has to be determined how far the potential theory describes the flow phenomenon with sufficient accuracy and whether the present theory for the calculation of thin annular profile yields useful profile forms and is suitable for determination of the mass flow for thick profiles.
Date: February 1, 1952
Creator: Kuchemann, Dietrich & Weber, Johanna