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Flow and Force Equations for a Body Revolving in a Fluid

Description: A general method for finding the steady flow velocity relative to a body in plane curvilinear motion, whence the pressure is found by Bernoulli's energy principle is described. Integration of the pressure supplies basic formulas for the zonal forces and moments on the revolving body. The application of the steady flow method for calculating the velocity and pressure at all points of the flow inside and outside an ellipsoid and some of its limiting forms is presented and graphs those quantities for the latter forms. In some useful cases experimental pressures are plotted for comparison with theoretical. The pressure, and thence the zonal force and moment, on hulls in plane curvilinear flight are calculated. General equations for the resultant fluid forces and moments on trisymmetrical bodies moving through a perfect fluid are derived. Formulas for potential coefficients and inertia coefficients for an ellipsoid and its limiting forms are presented.
Date: December 1, 1979
Creator: Zahm, A. F.
Item Type: Report

The Inertia Coefficients of an Airship in a Frictionless Fluid

Description: The apparent inertia of an airship hull is examined. The exact solution of the aerodynamical problem is studied for hulls of various shapes with special attention given to the case of an ellipsoidal hull. So that the results for the ellipsoidal hull may be readily adapted to other cases, they are expressed in terms of the area and perimeter of the largest cross section perpendicular to the direction of motion by means of a formula involving a coefficient kappa which varies only slowly when the shape of the hull is changed, being 0.637 for a circular or elliptic disk, 0.5 for a sphere, and about 0.25 for a spheroid of fineness ratio. The case of rotation of an airship hull is investigated and a coefficient is defined with the same advantages as the corresponding coefficient for rectilinear motion.
Date: December 1, 1979
Creator: Bateman, H.
Item Type: Report

Empirical relation between induced velocity, thrust, and rate of descent of a helicopter rotor as determined by wind-tunnel tests on four model rotors

Description: The empirical relation between the induced velocity, thrust, and rate of vertical descent of a helicopter rotor was calculated from wind tunnel force tests on four model rotors by the application of blade-element theory to the measured values of the thrust, torque, blade angle, and equivalent free-stream rate of descent. The model tests covered the useful range of C(sub t)/sigma(sub e) (where C(sub t) is the thrust coefficient and sigma(sub e) is the effective solidity) and the range of vertical descent from hovering to descent velocities slightly greater than those for autorotation. The three bladed models, each of which had an effective solidity of 0.05 and NACA 0015 blade airfoil sections, were as follows: (1) constant-chord, untwisted blades of 3-ft radius; (2) untwisted blades of 3-ft radius having a 3/1 taper; (3) constant-chord blades of 3-ft radius having a linear twist of 12 degrees (washout) from axis of rotation to tip; and (4) constant-chord, untwisted blades of 2-ft radius. Because of the incorporation of a correction for blade dynamic twist and the use of a method of measuring the approximate equivalent free-stream velocity, it is believed that the data obtained from this program are more applicable to free-flight calculations than the data from previous model tests.
Date: October 1, 1951
Creator: Castles, Walter, Jr. & Gray, Robin B.
Item Type: Report

Moments of cambered round bodies

Description: Results are presented for the moments and position of force centers of a series of cambered round bodies derived from a torpedo-like body of revolution. The effects of placing fins on the rear of the body of revolution are also included.
Date: August 1, 1949
Creator: Kempf, Gunther
Item Type: Report

The factors that determine the minimum speed of an airplane

Description: The author argues that because of a general misunderstanding of the principles of flight at low speed, there are a large number of airplanes that could be made to fly several miles per hour slower than at present by making slight modifications. In order to show how greatly the wing section affects the minimum speed, curves are plotted against various loadings. The disposition of wings on the airplane slightly affects the lift coefficient, and a few such cases are discussed. Another factor that has an effect on minimum speed is the extra lift exerted by the slip stream on the wings. Also discussed are procedures to be followed by the pilot, especially with regard to stick movements during low speed flight. Also covered are stalling, yaw, rolling moments, lateral control, and the effectiveness of ailerons and rudders.
Date: March 1, 1921
Creator: Norton, F H
Item Type: Report

Droplet Impingement and Ingestion by Supersonic Nose Inlet in Subsonic Tunnel Conditions

Description: The amount of water in cloud droplet form ingested by a full-scale supersonic nose inlet with conical centerbody was measured in the NACA Lewis icing tunnel. Local and total water impingement rates on the cowl and centerbody surfaces were also obtained. All measurements were made with a dye-tracer technique. The range of operating and meteorological conditions studied was: angles of attack of 0 deg and 4.2 deg, volume-median droplet diameters from about 11 to 20 microns, and ratios of inlet to free-stream velocity from about 0.4 to 1.8. Although the inlet was designed for supersonic (Mach 2.0) operation of the aircraft, the tunnel measurements were confined to a free-stream velocity of 156 knots (Mach 0.237). The data are extendable to other subsonic speeds and droplet sizes by dimensionless impingement parameters. Impingement and ingestion efficiencies are functions of the ratio of inlet to free-stream velocity as well as droplet size. For the model and range of conditions studied, progressively increasing the inlet velocity ratio from less than to greater than 1.0 increased the centerbody impingement efficiency and shifted the cowl impingement region from the inner- to outer-cowl surfaces, respectively. The ratio of water ingested by the inlet plane to that contained in a free-stream tube of cross section equal to that at the inlet plane also increased with increasing inlet velocity ratio. Theoretically calculated values of inlet water (or droplet) ingestion are in good agreement with experiment for annular inlet configurations.
Date: May 1, 1958
Creator: Gelder, Thomas F.
Item Type: Report

A Dye-Tracer Technique for Experimentally Obtaining Impingement Characteristics of Arbitrary Bodies and a Method for Determining Droplet Size Distribution

Description: A dye-tracer technique has been developed whereby the quantity of dyed water collected on a blotter-wrapped body exposed to an air stream containing a dyed-water spray cloud can be colorimetrically determined in order to obtain local collection efficiencies, total collection efficiency, and rearward extent of impingement on the body. In addition, a method has been developed whereby the impingement characteristics obtained experimentally for a body can be related to theoretical impingement data for the same body in order to determine the droplet size distribution of the impinging cloud. Several cylinders, a ribbon, and an aspirating device to measure cloud liquid-water content were used in the studies presented herein for the purpose of evaluating the dye-tracer technique. Although the experimental techniques used in the dye-tracer technique require careful control, the methods presented herein should be applicable for any wind tunnel provided the humidity of the air stream can be maintained near saturation.
Date: March 1, 1955
Creator: VonGlahn, Uwe H.; Gelder, Thomas F. & Smyers, William H., Jr.
Item Type: Report

Effect of Ice and Frost Formations on Drag of NACA 65(sub 1) -212 Airfoil for Various Modes of Thermal Ice Protection

Description: The effects of primary and. runback icing and frost formations on the drag of an 8-foot-chord NACA 651-212 airfoil section were investigated over a range of angles of attack from 20 to 80 and airspeeds up to 260 miles per hour for icing conditions with liquid-water contents ranging from 0.25 to 1.4 grams per cubic meter and datum air temperatures of -30 to 30 F. The results showed that glaze-ice formations, either primary or runback, on the upper surface near the leading edge of the airfoil caused large and rapid increases in drag, especially at datum air temperatures approaching 32 F and in the presence of high rates of water catch. Ice formations at lower temperatures (rime ice) did not appreciably increase the drag coefficient over the initial (standard roughness) drag coefficient. Cyclic de-icing of the primary Ice formations on the airfoil leading-edge section permitted the drag coefficient to return almost to the bare airfoil drag value. Runback icing on the lower surface did not present a serious drag problem except when heavy spanwise ridges of runback ice occurred aft of the heatable area. Frost formations caused rapid and large increases in drag with incipient stalling of the airfoil.
Date: June 1, 1953
Creator: Gray, V. H. & Von Glahn, U. H.
Item Type: Report

Effect of Ice Formations on Section Drag of Swept NACA 63A-009 Airfoil with Partial-Span Leading-Edge Slat for Various Modes of Thermal Ice Protection

Description: The effects of primary and runback ice formations on the section drag of a 36 deg swept NACA 63A-009 airfoil section with a partial-span leading-edge slat were studied over a range of angles of attack from 2 to 8 deg and airspeeds up to 260 miles per hour for icing conditions with liquid-water contents ranging from 0.39 to 1.23 grams per cubic meter and datum air temperatures from 10 to 25 F. The results with slat retracted showed that glaze-ice formations caused large and rapid increases in section drag coefficient and that the rate of change in section drag coefficient for the swept 63A-009 airfoil was about 2-1 times that for an unswept 651-212 airfoil. Removal of the primary ice formations by cyclic de-icing caused the drag to return almost to the bare-airfoil drag value. A comprehensive study of the slat icing and de-icing characteristics was prevented by limitations of the heating system and wake interference caused by the slat tracks and hot-gas supply duct to the slat. In general, the studies showed that icing on a thin swept airfoil will result in more detrimental aerodynamic characteristics than on a thick unswept airfoil.
Date: March 15, 1954
Creator: VonGlahn, Uwe H. & Gray, Vernon H.
Item Type: Report

Effectiveness of Thermal-Pneumatic Airfoil-Ice-Protection System

Description: Icing and drag investigations were conducted in the NACA Lewis icing research tunnel employing a combination thermal-pneumatic de-icer mounted on a 42-inch-chord NACA 0018 airfoil. The de-icer consisted of a 3-inch-wide electrically heated strip symmetrically located about the leading edge with inflatable tubes on the upper and lower airfoil surfaces aft of the heated area. The entire de-icer extended to approximately 25 percent of chord. A maximum power density of 9.25 watts per square inch was required for marginal ice protection on the airfoil leading edge at an air temperature of 00 F and an airspeed of 300 miles per hour. Drag measurements indicated, that without icing, the de-icer installation increased the section drag to approximately 140 percent of that of the bare airfoil; with the tubes inflated, this value increased to a maximum of approximately 620 percent. A 2-minute tube-inflation cycle prevented excessive ice formation on the inflatable area although small scattered residual Ice formations remained after inflation and were removed intermittently during later cycles. Effects of the time lag of heater temperatures after initial application of power and the insulating effect of ice formations on heater temperatures were also determined.
Date: April 13, 1951
Creator: Gowan, William H., Jr. & Mulholland, Donald R.
Item Type: Report

Effects of Ice Formations on Airplane Performance in Level Cruising Flight

Description: A flight investigation in natural icing conditions was conducted by the NACA to determine the effect of ice accretion on airplane performance. The maximum loss in propeller efficiency encountered due to ice formation on the propeller blades was 19 percent. During 87 percent of the propeller icing encounters, losses of 10 percent or less were observed. Ice formations on all of the components of the airplane except the propellers during one icing encounter resulted in an increase in parasite drag of the airplane of 81 percent. The control response of the airplane in this condition was marginal.
Date: May 1, 1948
Creator: Preston, G. Merritt & Blackman, Calvin C.
Item Type: Report

Correlations Among Ice Measurements, Impingement Rates Icing Conditions, and Drag Coefficients for Unswept NACA 65A004 Airfoil

Description: An empirical relation has been obtained by which the change in drag coefficient caused by ice formations on an unswept NACA 65AO04 airfoil section can be determined from the following icing and operating conditions: icing time, airspeed, air total temperature, liquid-water content, cloud droplet impingement efficiencies, airfoil chord length, and angles of attack. The correlation was obtained by use of measured ice heights and ice angles. These measurements were obtained from a variety of ice formations, which were carefully photographed, cross-sectioned, and weighed. Ice weights increased at a constant rate with icing time in a rime icing condition and at progressively increasing rates in glaze icing conditions. Initial rates of ice collection agreed reasonably well with values predicted from droplet impingement data. Experimental droplet impingement rates obtained on this airfoil section agreed with previous theoretical calculations for angles of attack of 40 or less. Disagreement at higher angles of attack was attributed to flow separation from the upper surface of the experimental airfoil model.
Date: February 1, 1958
Creator: Gray, Vernon H.
Item Type: Report

Wind tunnel force tests in wing systems through large angles of attack

Description: Force tests on a systematic series of wing systems over a range of angle of attack from minus forty-five degrees to plus ninety degrees are covered in this report. The investigation was made on monoplane and biplane wing models to determine the effects of variations of tip shape, aspect ratio, flap setting, stagger, gap, decalage, sweepback, and airfoil profile.
Date: August 1, 1928
Creator: Wenzinger, Carl J & Harris, Thomas A
Item Type: Report