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Blockage Corrections for Three-Dimensional-Flow Closed-Throat Wind Tunnels, with Consideration of the Effect of Compressibility

Description: Theoretical blockage corrections are presented for a body of revolution and for a three-dimensional, unswept wing in a circular or rectangular wind tunnel. The theory takes account of the effects of the wake and of the compressibility of the fluid, and is based on the assumption that the dimensions of the model are small in comparison with those of the tunnel throat. Formulas are given for correcting a number of the quantities, such as dynamic pressure and Mach number, measured in wind tunnel tests. The report presents a summary and unification of the existing literature on the subject.
Date: January 1, 1951
Creator: Herriot, J. G.

The longitudinal stability of elastic swept wings at supersonic speed

Description: The longitudinal stability characteristics of elastic swept wings of high aspect ratio experiencing bending and torsional deformations are calculated for supersonic speed by the application of linearized lifting-surface theory. A parabolic wing deflection curve is assumed and the analysis is simplified by a number of structural approximations. The method is thereby limited in application to wings of high aspect ratio for which the root effects are small. Expressions for the lift, pitching-moment, and span load distribution characteristics are derived in terms of the elastic properties of the wing; namely, the design stress, the modulus of elasticity, the shearing modulus, and the maximum design load factor. The analysis applies to wings with leading edges swept behind the Mach lines. In all cases, however, the trailing edge is sonic or supersonic. Application of the method of analysis to wings with leading edges swept ahead of the Mach lines is discussed.
Date: 1950
Creator: Frick, C. W. & Chubb, R. S.

A wind-tunnel investigation of the effects of thrust-axis inclination on propeller first-order vibration

Description: Data on the aerodynamic excitation of first-order vibration occurring in a representative three-blade propeller having its thrust axis inclined to the airstream at angles of 0 degree, 4.55 degrees, and 9.80 degrees are included in this report. For several representative conditions the aerodynamic excitation has been computed and compared with the measured values. Blade stresses also were measured to permit the evaluation of the blade stress resulting from a given blade aerodynamic excitation. It was concluded that the section aerodynamic exciting force of a pitched propeller may be computed accurately at low rotational speeds. As section velocities approach the speed of sound, the accuracy of computation of section aerodynamic exciting force is not always so satisfactory.
Date: 1954
Creator: Gray, W. H.; Hallissy, J. M., Jr. & Heath, A. R., Jr.

On the theory of oscillating airfoils of finite span in subsonic compressible flow

Description: The problem of oscillating lifting surface of finite span in subsonic compressible flow is reduced to an integral equation. The kernel of the integral equation is approximated by a simpler expression, on the basis of the assumption of sufficiently large aspect ratio. With this approximation the double integral occurring in the formulation of the problem is reduced to two single integrals, one of which is taken over the chord and the other over the span of the lifting surface. On the basis of this reduction the three-dimensional problem appears separated into two two-dimensional problems, one of them being effectively the problem of two-dimensional flow and the other being the problem of spanwise circulation distribution. Earlier results concerning the oscillating lifting surface of finite span in incompressible flow are contained in the present more general results.
Date: January 1, 1950
Creator: Reissner, Eric

Correlation of physical properties with molecular structure for some dicyclic hydrocarbons having high thermal-energy release per unit volume

Description: As part of a program to study the correlation between molecular structure and physical properties of high-density hydrocarbons, the net heats of combustion, melting points, boiling points, densities, and kinematic viscosities of some hydrocarbons in the 2-n-alkylbiphenyl, 1,1-diphenylalkane, diphenylalkane, 1,1-dicyclohexylalkane, and dicyclohexylalkane series are presented.
Date: January 1, 1951
Creator: Wise, P H; Serijan, K T & Goodman, I A

A lift-cancellation technique in linearized supersonic-wing theory

Description: A lift-cancellation technique is presented for determining load distributions on thin wings at supersonic speeds. The loading on a wing having a prescribed plan form is expressed as the loading of a known related wing (such as a two-dimensional or triangular wing) minus the loading of an appropriate cancellation wing. The lift-cancellation technique can be used to find the loading on a large variety of wings. Applications to swept wings having curvilinear plan forms and to wings having reentrant side edges are indicated.
Date: January 1, 1951
Creator: Mirels, Harold

Analytical determination of coupled bending-torsion vibrations of cantilever beams by means of station functions

Description: From Summary: "A method based on the concept of Station Functions is presented for calculating the modes and the frequencies of nonuniform cantilever beams vibrating in torsion, bending, and coupled bending-torsion motion. The method combines some of the advantages of the Rayleigh-Ritz and Stodola methods, in that a continuous loading function for the beam is used, with the advantages of the influence-coefficient method, in that the continuous loading function is obtained in terms of the displacements of a finite number of stations along the beam."
Date: 1951
Creator: Mendelson, Alexander & Gendler, Selwyn

Analysis of thrust augmentation of turbojet engines by water injection at compressor inlet including charts for calculating compression processes with water injection

Description: From Summary: "Curves are presented that show the theoretical performance of the augmentation method for various amounts of water injected and the effects of varying flight Mach number, altitude, ambient-air temperature, ambient relative humidity, compressor pressure ratio, and inlet-diffuser efficiency. Numerical examples, illustrating the use of the psychrometric chart and the Mollier diagram in calculating both compressor-inlet and compressor-outlet conditions when water is injected at the compressor inlet, are presented."
Date: 1951?~
Creator: Wilcox, E Clinton & Trout, Arthur M

Horizontal tail loads in maneuvering flight

Description: A method is given for determining the horizontal tail loads in maneuvering flight. The method is based upon the assignment of a load-factor variation with time and the determination of a minimum time to reach peak load factor. The tail load is separated into various components. Examination of these components indicated that one of the components was so small that it could be neglected for most conventional airplanes; therefore, the number of aerodynamic parameters needed in this computation of tail loads was reduced to a minimum. In order to illustrate the method, as well as to show the effect of the main variables, a number of examples are given. Some discussion is given regarding the determination of maximum tail loads, maximum pitching accelerations, and maximum pitching velocities obtainable.
Date: January 1, 1951
Creator: Pearson, Henry A; Mcgowan, William A & Donegan, James J

Investigation of fretting by microscopic observation

Description: An experimental investigation, using microscopic observation and color motion photomicrographs of the action, was conducted to determine the cause of fretting. Glass and other noncorrosive materials, as well as metals, were used as specimens. A very simple apparatus vibrated convex surfaces in contact with stationary flat surfaces at frequencies of 120 cycles or less than l cycle per second, an amplitude of 0.0001 inch, and load of 0.2 pound.
Date: January 1, 1951
Creator: Godfrey, Douglas

Theoretical comparison of several methods of thrust augmentation for turbojet engines

Description: A theoretical investigation of tail-pipe burning, water injection at the compressor inlet, combination tail-pipe burning plus water injection, bleedoff, and rocket-assist methods thrust augmentation for turbojet engines was made for an engine representative of those in current use. The effect of augmented liquid ratio on augmented thrust ratio and the effects of altitude and flight Mach number on the performance of various methods were determined. The additional take-off weight involved by the use of the different thrust augmentation methods, as well as the effect of the various thrust augmentation methods on the range of a representative aircraft was also investigated.
Date: January 1, 1950
Creator: Hall, Eldon W & Wilcox, E Clinton

An introduction to the physical aspects of helicopter stability

Description: In order to provide engineers interested in rotating-wing aircraft, but with no specialized training in stability theory, some understanding of the factors that influence the flying qualities of the helicopter, an explanation is made of both the static stability and the stick-fixed oscillation in hovering and forward flight in terms of fundamental physical quantities. Three significant stability factors -- static stability with angle of attack, static stability with speed, and damping due to a pitching or rolling velocity -- are explained in detail.
Date: January 1, 1950
Creator: Gessow, Alfred & Amer, Kenneth B

Analysis of spanwise temperature distribution in three types of air-cooled turbine blade

Description: From Summary: An approximate method for determining the allowable stress-limited blade-temperature distribution is included, with brief accounts of a method for determining the maximum allowable effective gas temperatures and the cooling-air requirements. Numerical examples that illustrate the use of the various temperature-distribution equations and of the nondimensional charts are also included.
Date: 1950~
Creator: Livingood, John N B & Brown, W Byron

Blockage corrections for three-dimensional-flow closed-throat wind tunnels, with consideration of the effect of compressibility

Description: Theoretical blockage corrections are presented for a body of revolution and for a three-dimensional unswept wing in a circular or rectangular wind tunnel. The theory takes account of the effects of the wake and of the compressibility of the fluid, and is based on the assumption that the dimensions of the model are small in comparison with those of the tunnel throat. Formulas are given for correcting a number of the quantities, such as dynamic pressure and Mach number, measured in wing-tunnel tests. The report presents a summary and unification of the existing literature on the subject.
Date: January 1, 1950
Creator: Herriot, John G

Dynamics of a turbojet engine considered as a quasi-static system

Description: A determination of the dynamic characteristics of a typical turbojet engine with a centrifugal compressor, a sonic-flow turbine-nozzle diaphragm, and fixed area exhaust nozzle is presented. A generalized equation for transient behavior of the engine was developed; this equation was then verified by calculations using compressor and turbine performance charts extrapolated from equilibrium operating data and by experimental data obtained from an engine operated under transients in fuel flow. The results indicate that a linear differential equation for engine acceleration as a function of fuel flow and engine speed for operation near a steady-state operating condition can be written. The coefficients of this equation can be obtained either from actual transient data or, with a fair degree of accuracy, from the steady-state performance maps of the compressor and turbine, and can be corrected for altitude in the same manner that steady-state performance data are corrected.
Date: January 1, 1951
Creator: Otto, Edward W & Taylor, Burt L, III

Investigation of the NACA 4-(5)(08)-03 and NACA 4-(10)(08)-03 two-blade propellers at forward Mach numbers to 0.725 to determine the effects of camber and compressibility on performance

Description: As part of a general investigation of propellers at high forward speeds, tests of two-blade propellers having the NACA 4-(5)(08)-03 and NACA 4-(10)(08)-03 blade designs were made in the Langley 8-foot high-speed tunnel through a range of blade angle from 20 degrees to 60 degrees for forward Mach numbers from 0.165 to 0.70 to determine the effect of camber and compressibility on propeller characteristics. Results previously reported for similar tests of a two-blade propeller having the NACA 4-(3)(08)-03 blade design are included for comparison.
Date: January 1, 1951
Creator: Delano, James B

Effects of wing flexibility and variable air lift upon wing bending moment during landing impacts of a small seaplane

Description: A smooth-water-landing investigation was conducted with a small seaplane to obtain experimental wing-bending-moment time histories together with time histories of the various parameters necessary for the prediction of wing bending moments during hydrodynamic forcing functions. The experimental results were compared with calculated results which include inertia-load effects and the effects of air-load variation during impact. The responses of the fundamental mode were calculated with the use of the measured hydrodynamic forcing functions. From these responses, the wing bending moments due to the hydrodynamic load were calculated according to the procedure given in R.M. No. 2221. The comparison of the time histories of the experimental and calculated wing bending moments showed good agreement both in phase relationship of the oscillations and in numerical values.
Date: January 1, 1951
Creator: Merten, Kenneth F & Beck, Edgar B

Study of effects of sweep on the flutter of cantilever wings

Description: An experimental and analytical investigation of the flutter of sweptback cantilever wings is reported. The experiments employed groups of wings swept back by rotating and by shearing. The angle of sweep range from 0 degree to 60 degrees and Mach numbers extended to approximately 0.85. A theoretical analysis of the air forces on an oscillating swept wing of high length-chord ratio is developed, and the approximations inherent in the assumptions are discussed. Comparison with experiment indicates that the analysis developed in the present report is satisfactory for giving the main effects of sweep, at least for nearly uniform cantilever wings of high and moderate length-chord ratios.
Date: January 1, 1951
Creator: Barmby, J G; Cunningham, H J & Garrick, I E

Analysis of turbulent free-convection boundary layer on flat plate

Description: With the use of Karman's integrated momentum equation for the boundary layer and data on the wall-shearing stress and heat transfer in forced-convection flow, a calculation was carried out for the flow and heat transfer in the turbulent free-convection boundary layer on a vertical flat plate. The calculation is for a fluid with a Prandtl number that is close to 1. A formula was derived for the heat-transfer coefficient that was in good agreement with experimental data in the range of Grashof numbers from 10sup10 to 10sup12. Because of the good agreement between the theoretical formula and the experimental data, the formula may be used to obtain data for high Grashof numbers. The calculation also yielded formulas for the maximum velocity in the boundary layer and for boundary-layer thickness.
Date: 1951
Creator: Eckert, E R G & Jackson, Thomas W

Effect of tunnel configuration and testing technique on cascade performance

Description: An investigation has been conducted to determine the influence of aspect ratio, boundary-layer control by means of slots and porous surfaces, Reynolds number, and tunnel end-wall condition upon the performance of airfoils in cascades. A representative compressor-blade section (the NACA 65-(12)(10) of aspect ratios of 1, 2, and 4 has been tested at low speeds in cascades with solid and with porous side walls. Two-dimensional flow was established in porous-wall cascades of each of the three aspect ratios tested; the flow was not two-dimensional in any of the solid-wall cascades. Turbine-blade sections of aspect ratio 0.83 were tested in cascades with solid and porous side walls and blade sections of aspect ratio 3.33 were tested in cascades with solid wall. No particular advantage was observed in the use of porous walls for the turbine cascades tested.
Date: January 1, 1951
Creator: Erwin, John R & Emery, James C

A theoretical analysis of the effect of time lag in an automatic stabilization system on the lateral oscillatory stability of an airplane

Description: A method is presented for determining the effect of time lag in an automatic stabilization system on the lateral oscillatory stability of an airplane. The method is based on an analytical-graphical procedure. The critical time lag of the airplane-autopilot system is readily determined from the frequency-response analysis. The method is applied to a typical present-day airplane equipped with an automatic pilot sensitive to yawing acceleration and geared to the rudder so that rudder control is applied in proportion to the yawing acceleration. The results calculated for this airplane-autopilot system by this method are compared with the airplane motions calculated by a step-by-step procedure.
Date: January 1, 1951
Creator: Sternfield, Leonard & Gates, Ordway B , Jr

Relation between inflammables and ignition sources in aircraft environments

Description: A literature survey was conducted to determine the relation between aircraft ignition sources and inflammables. Available literature applicable to the problem of aircraft fire hazards is analyzed and discussed. Data pertaining to the effect of many variables on ignition temperatures, minimum ignition pressures, minimum spark-ignition energies of inflammables, quenching distances of electrode configurations, and size of openings through which flame will not propagate are presented and discussed. Ignition temperatures and limits of inflammability of gasoline in air in different test environments, and the minimum ignition pressures and minimum size of opening for flame propagation in gasoline-air mixtures are included; inerting of gasoline-air mixtures is discussed.
Date: January 1, 1951
Creator: Scull, Wilfred E