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Aviation: Direct Federal Spending, 1918-1998

Description: The federal government has provided large financial resources in support of commercial aviation since 1918. This report details the amounts and types of federal spending that have occurred over this 80 year period. The report also discusses some of the issues that have shaped federal policy toward aviation and identifies some of the issues likely to affect federal spending in the future.
Date: February 3, 1999
Creator: Fischer, John W. & Kirk, Robert S.

Desalination R and D: The New Federal Program

Description: The purpose of the program is to determine the most technologically efficient and cost- effective means by which useable water can be produced from saline water or water otherwise impaired or contaminated. Currently, the cost of desalting seawater is 3 to 5 times the comparable cost of desalting brackish water, which is up to twice as expensive as the treatment and delivery of other municipal water supplies (not counting sewage-related costs). Funding for the new Desalination R&D Program is provided through Bureau of Reclamation's Office of Research in the Department of the Interior
Date: February 18, 1999
Creator: Mielke, James E

Committee Numbers, Sizes, Assignments, and Staff: Selected Historical Data

Description: The development of today's committee system is a product of internal congressional reforms, but national forces also have played a role. This report contains data on the numbers and sizes of committees and subcommittees and on Members' assignments since 1945. This report also contains data on committee staff sizes from 1979 through 1995.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Vincent, Carol Hardy & Rybicki, Elizabeth

Federal Gun Control Laws: The Second Amendment and Other Constitutional Issues

Description: This report examines the historical, legal, and constitutional arguments for and against an individual right to bear firearms under the Second Amendment of the Constitution. Those who favor federal gun control laws tend to assert that the Second Amendment has been correctly interpreted by the courts to confer only a collective right, which may be exercised through state militias. Those who oppose gun control laws tend to assert that the Second Amendment should be interpreted to grant an individual right to bear arms for lawful purposes, subject to appropriately minimal restrictions.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Schrader, Dorothy

Trade and Environment: Treatment in Recent Agreements--GATT and NAFTA

Description: This report reviews some of the concerns surrounding the environment work program and other environmental issues. It briefly describes work underway in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and current thinking underlying development of U.S. positions on trade and the environment in the GATT.
Date: February 24, 1994
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R. & Tiemann, Mary

The Costs and Effectiveness of Cervical Cancer Screening in Elderly Women

Description: This paper examines what is known about the course of cervical cancer in elderly women; the effectiveness of the Pap test and its accuracy in this age group; the relative costs and effectiveness of different screening test schedules for elderly women; and the implications of these findings for Medicare.
Date: February 1990
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Adjusting to a New Security Environment: The Defense Technology and Industrial Base Challenge

Description: This background paper, OTA sought information and advice from a broad spectrum of knowledgeable individuals and organizations whose contributions are gratefully acknowledged. As with all OTA studies, the content of this background paper is the sole responsibility of the Office of Technology Assessment and does not necessarily represent the views of our advisers and reviewers.
Date: February 1991
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Changing by Degrees: Steps To Reduce Greenhouse Gases

Description: This report discusses the actions necessary to effect a major reduction of United States. carbon dioxide emissions. The U.S. is the world’s leading industrial society and largest single emitter of carbon dioxide. Climate change therefore presents a unique challenge to this Nation. It is a threat that will require major prudent political actions even before all the scientific certainties are resolved. The analysis, prevention, and remediation of global warming will require unprecedented international cooperation and action—an effort requiring actions sustained over decades, not just a few years.
Date: February 1991
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Pharmaceutical R&D: Costs, Risks, and Rewards

Description: This report focuses mainly on the economic side of the R&D process. Pharmaceutical R&D is an investment, and the principal characteristic of an investment is that money is spent today in the hopes of generating even more money in the future.
Date: February 1993
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Critical Connections: Communication for the Future

Description: The U.S. communication infrastructure is changing rapidly as a result of technological advances, deregulation, and an economic climate that is increasingly competitive. This change is affecting the way in which information is created, processed, transmitted, and provided to individuals and institutions. The report analyzes the implications of new communication technologies for business, politics, culture, and individuals, and suggests possible strategies and options for congressional consideration.
Date: February 1990
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Preventive Health Services for Medicare Beneficiaries: Policy and Research Issues

Description: This Special Report analyzes policy and research issues raised in considering Medicare coverage of preventive services. OTA examines how decisions are currently made about coverage of specific preventive services under Medicare and lays out options for altering the process and criteria governing those decisions. The Special Report also reviews and critiques ongoing demonstration projects and summarizes the results of OTA studies of the costs and effectiveness of specific preventive services for the elderly.
Date: February 1990
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Health Care Technology and Its Assessment in Eight Countries

Description: This paper discusses the experiences of Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom—technology assessment with six technologies (or sets of technologies) including evaluation and management efforts and how the technologies diffused— are presented and compared.
Date: February 1995
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Testing in American Schools: Asking the Right Questions

Description: In this report, OTA places testing in its historical and policy context, examines the reasons for testing and the ways it is done, and identifies particular ways Federal policy affects the picture, The report also explores new approaches to testing that derive from modem technology and cognitive research.
Date: February 1992
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Making Things Better: Competing in Manufacturing

Description: This report considers ways to promote the restoration of American leadership in manufacturing technology. Some of the things that most need doing are up to industry— especially in handling people, from managers to engineers to shopfloor workers, and in forming stable, productive relationships between different segments of an industry complex. Government also has a critical role to play.
Date: February 1990
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Complex Cleanup: The Environmental Legacy of Nuclear Weapons Production

Description: This report is a comprehensive look at the problem as we now know it, the public concerns about the problem, and DOE’s plans for addressing it. It focuses especially on the need for additional attention to those areas which DOE has neither the capability nor the credibility to handle.
Date: February 1991
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Forest Service Planning: Accommodating Uses, Producing Outputs, and Sustaining Ecosystems

Description: This report on forest planning evaluates technological, biological, social, economic, and organizational dimensions of national forest planning. It discusses the agency’s planning technologies, the appeals and litigation processes, and the relationship between national planning under Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act (RPA) and forest-level planning under National Forest Management Act (NFMA).
Date: February 1992
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.