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Proceedings -- US Russian workshop on fuel cell technologies

Description: On September 26--28, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories sponsored the first Joint US/Russian Workshop on Fuel Cell Technology at the Marriott Hotel in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This workshop brought together the US and Russian fuel cell communities as represented by users, producers, R and D establishments and government agencies. Customer needs and potential markets in both countries were discussed to establish a customer focus for the workshop. Parallel technical sessions defined research needs and opportunities for collaboration to advance fuel cell technology. A desired outcome of the workshop was the formation of a Russian/American Fuel Cell Consortium to advance fuel cell technology for application in emerging markets in both countries. This consortium is envisioned to involve industry and national labs in both countries. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Baker, B. & Sylwester, A.

Record of the first meeting of the Joint Coordinating Committee for Radiation Effects Research

Description: This conference was held July 27--28, 1994 in Moscow. The main purpose of the meeting was to implement an agreement between the Russian Federation and the US to facilitate cooperative research on health and environmental effects of radiation. It was hoped that the exchange of information would provide a good basis for employing new scientific knowledge to implement practical measures to facilitate the rehabilitation of radioactively contaminated areas and to treat radiation illnesses. The Russian Federation suggested five main scientific areas for cooperative research. They will prepare proposals on 4--5 projects within the scope of the scientific areas discussed and forward them to the US delegation for consideration of the possibility to facilitate joint research.
Date: December 31, 1994

Spatially fractionated microirradiation of normal CNS and gliosarcomas of the rat with synchrotron photons: Cell and tissue lesions; Raeumlich fraktionierte Mikrobestrahlung von normalem ZNS und Gliosarkomen der Ratte mit Synchrotron-Photonen: Zell- und Gewebelaesionen

Description: Rats were implanted intracerebrally with 9L gliosarcoma cells were used to experimentally determine the curative effectiveness of synchrotron radiation produced by the National Synchrotron Radiation Source. Radiation was delivered in beams with each ray 25 micrometers thick and arranged in an array of 4 mm corners. All experimental animals receiving the gliosarcoma cells and not treated died within four weeks. Treated animals surviving 113 days were sacrificed and their brains were examined histologically.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Laissue, J.A.; Spanne, P.; Dilmanian, F.A.; Nawrocky, M.N.; Slatkin, D.N.; Joel, D.D. et al.

Zirconium and technetium recovery and partitioning in the presence of actinides in modified Purex process for ATW program. Final report

Description: The modified Purex process flowsheet is based on combination of all irradiated materials, their joint dissolution and reprocessing as a NPP spent fuel solution with abnormal Pu content after addition of recycled depleted U concentrate. Some groups of long-lived radionuclides could be completely recovered and localized at the stage of extraction reprocessing using 30% TBP. Studies were conducted for 10 y to develop the process for recovery, concentration, and localization of U, Pu, Np, Tc, and Zr within 1st extraction cycle. Actinides are recovered from high-level raffinate of this cycle after evaporation and feed adjustment. Results in this report show that combined deep recovery of several elements from highly irradiated materials by TBP extraction, for further transmutation, is possible. Selective stripping of Zr from solvent phase containing U, Pu, Np, and Tc is quite effective. Development of the modified Purex process is not complete; main problem to be solved should be oxide separation from the loop and permissible storage duration before reprocessing and reuse in the loop.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Dzekun, E.G.; Fedorov, Y.S.; Galkin, B.Y.; Lyubtsev, R.I.; Mashkin, A.N.; Mishin, E.N. et al.

Hanford/Tomsk reciprocal site visit: Plutonium agreement compliance talks

Description: The objective of the visit to Hanford Site was to: demonstrate equipment, technology, and methods for calculating Pu production, measuring integrated reactor power, and storing and safeguarding PuO{sub 2}; demonstrate the shutdown of Hanford production reactors; and foster openness and transparency of Hanford operations. The first day`s visit was an introduction to Hanford and a review of the history of the reactors. The second day consisted of discussions on the production reactors, reprocessing operations, and PuO{sub 2} storage. The group divided on the third day to tour facilities. Group A toured the N reactor, K-West reactor, K-West Basins, B reactor, and participated in a demonstration and discussion of reactor modeling computer codes. Group B toured the Hanford Pu Storage Facility, 200-East Area, N-cell (oxide loadout station), the Automated Storage Facility, and the Nondestructive Assay Measurement System. Group discussions were held during the last day of the visit, which included scheduling of a US visit to Russia.
Date: November 1, 1994
Creator: Libby, R.A.; Sorenson, R.; Six, D. & Schiegel, S.C.

The United States of America and the People`s Republic of China experts report on integrated gasification combined-cycle technology (IGCC)

Description: A report written by the leading US and Chinese experts in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants, intended for high level decision makers, may greatly accelerate the development of an IGCC demonstration project in the People`s Republic of China (PRC). The potential market for IGCC systems in China and the competitiveness of IGCC technology with other clean coal options for China have been analyzed in the report. Such information will be useful not only to the Chinese government but also to US vendors and companies. The goal of this report is to analyze the energy supply structure of China, China`s energy and environmental protection demand, and the potential market in China in order to make a justified and reasonable assessment on feasibility of the transfer of US Clean Coal Technologies to China. The Expert Report was developed and written by the joint US/PRC IGCC experts and will be presented to the State Planning Commission (SPC) by the President of the CAS to ensure consideration of the importance of IGCC for future PRC power production.
Date: December 1, 1996

Energia Renovable para Centros de Salud Rurales (Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics)

Description: Esta es la primera de una serie de guias de aplicaciones que el Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL esta comisionando para acoplar sistemas comerciales renovables con aplicaciones rurales, incluyendo agua, escuelas rurales y micro empresas. La guia esta complementada por las actividades de desarrollo del Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL, proyectos pilotos internacionales y programas de visitas profesionales.
Date: July 28, 1999
Creator: Jimenez, T. & Olson, K.

Proceedings of the Chornobyl phytoremediation and biomass energy conversion workshop

Description: Many concepts, systems, technical approaches, technologies, ideas, agreements, and disagreements were vigorously discussed during the course of the 2-day workshop. The workshop was successful in generating intensive discussions on the merits of the proposed concept that includes removal of radionuclides by plants and trees (phytoremediation) to clean up soil in the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ), use of the resultant biomass (plants and trees) to generate electrical power, and incorporation of ash in concrete casks to be used as storage containers in a licensed repository for low-level waste. Twelve years after the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4 accident, which occurred on April 26, 1986, the primary 4radioactive contamination of concern is from radioactive cesium ({sup 137}Cs) and strontium ({sup 90}Sr). The {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr were widely distributed throughout the CEZ. The attendees from Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Denmark and the US provided information, discussed and debated the following issues considerably: distribution and characteristics of radionuclides in CEZ; efficacy of using trees and plants to extract radioactive cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from contaminated soil; selection of energy conversion systems and technologies; necessary infrastructure for biomass harvesting, handling, transportation, and energy conversion; radioactive ash and emission management; occupational health and safety concerns for the personnel involved in this work; and economics. The attendees concluded that the overall concept has technical and possibly economic merits. However, many issues (technical, economic, risk) remain to be resolved before a viable commercial-scale implementation could take place.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Hartley, J. & Tokarevsky, V.

Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications. 4: General circulation models

Description: This report presents English-translated abstracts of important Russian-language literature concerning general circulation models as they relate to climate change. Into addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Burtis, M. D.; Razuvaev, V. N. & Sivachok, S. G.


Description: Unsaturated drip tests have been used to investigate the alteration of unirradiated UO{sub 2} and spent UO{sub 2} fuel in an unsaturated environment, such as may be expected in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. In these tests, simulated groundwater is periodically injected onto a sample at 90 C in a steel vessel. The solids react with the dripping groundwater and water condensed on surfaces to form a suite of U(VI) alteration phases. Solution chemistry is determined from leachate at the bottom of each vessel after the leachate stops interacting with the solids. A more detailed knowledge of the compositional evolution of the leachate is desirable. By providing just enough water to maintain a thin film of water on a small quantity of fuel in batch experiments, we can more closely monitor the compositional changes to the water as it reacts to form alteration phases.
Date: May 11, 1998
Creator: Finch, Robert J.; Wolf, Stephen F.; Hanchar, John M. & Bates, John K.


Description: A deterministic method for solving the time-dependent, three-dimensional Boltzmam transport equation with explicit representation of delayed neutrons has been developed and evaluated. The methodology used in this study for the time variable of the neutron flux is known as the improved quasi-static (IQS) method. The position, energy, and angle-dependent neutron flux is computed deterministically by using the three-dimensional discrete ordinates code TORT. This paper briefly describes the methodology and selected results. The code developed at the University of Tennessee based on this methodology is called TDTORT. TDTORT can be used to model transients involving voided and/or strongly absorbing regions that require transport theory for accuracy. This code can also be used to model either small high-leakage systems, such as space reactors, or asymmetric control rod movements. TDTORT can model step, ramp, step followed by another step, and step followed by ramp type perturbations. It can also model columnwise rod movement can also be modeled. A special case of columnwise rod movement in a three-dimensional model of a boiling water reactor (BWR) with simple adiabatic feedback is also included. TDTORT is verified through several transient one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional benchmark problems. The results show that the transport methodology and corresponding code developed in this work have sufficient accuracy and speed for computing the dynamic behavior of complex multidimensional neutronic systems.
Date: January 14, 1998
Creator: Goluoglu, S.; Bentley, C.; DeMeglio, R.; Dunn, M.; Norton, K.; Pevey, R. et al.

Energy Savers: Tips for Saving Energy and Money at Home; El Ahorro de Energa: Sugerencias para ahorrar energa y dinero en el hogar

Description: The Department of Energy of the United States of America works to guarantee provisions of safe energy, reliable and economically accessible to support to one developing economy and to protect the atmosphere. These suggestions and ideas to increase the energy efficiency in their house represent simple ways in which our citizens can contribute to preserve the atmosphere at world-wide level, to reduce the level of contamination of the air and to reserve our natural resources for future generations. [Spanish] El Departamento de Energa de los Estados Unidos de America trabaja para garantizar suministros de energa seguros, confiables y econmicamente accesibles para apoyar a una economa en desarrollo y proteger el medio ambiente. Estas sugerencias e ideas para aumentar la eficiencia energetica en su casa representan maneras sencillas en que nuestros ciudadanos pueden contribuir a preservar el medio ambiente a nivel mundial, a reducir el nivel de contaminacin del aire y a reservar nuestros recursos naturales para las generaciones futuras.
Date: June 1, 2000
Creator: Jones, J.

Electroproduction of Photons and of Pawns on the Proton in Quadrimoment of Transfer Q2=1.0GeV2. Measure Cross Sections and Extraction of Polarizabilities Generalities; Electroproduction de Photons et de Pions sur le Proton au Quadrimoment de Transfert Q2=1.0GeV2. Mesure des Sections Efficaces et Extraction des Polarisabilites Generalisees

Description: In hadronic physics, the nucleon structure and the quarks confinement are still topical issues. The neutral pion electroproduction and virtual Compton scattering (VCS) reactions allow us to access new observables that describe this structure. This work is focused on the VCS experiment performed at Jefferson Lab in 1998.
Date: November 6, 2001
Creator: Laveissiere, Geraud

Validation on the thermal effect of roof with the spraying and green plants in an insulated building

Description: In recent years, roof-spraying and rooftop lawns has proved effective on roofs with poor thermal insulation. However, roofs of most buildings have insulating material to provide thermal insulation during the winter. The effects of such a practice have not previously been quantified. In this study, the authors conducted measurements of an insulated building to quantify the thermal effects of roof-spraying and rooftop lawns. Roof-spraying did not significantly reduce cooling loads, and required significant amounts of water. The conclusion is that roof spraying is not suitable for buildings with well-insulated roofs. Rooftop lawns, however, significantly stabilized the indoor temperature while additionally helping to mitigate the heat island phenomenon.
Date: March 20, 2004
Creator: Zhou, Nan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru & Ojima, Toshio

The potential for distributed generation in Japanese prototype buildings: A DER-CAM analysis of policy, tariff design, building energy use, and technology development (Japanese translation)

Description: The August 2003 blackout of the northeastern U.S. and CANADA caused great economic losses and inconvenience to New York City and other affected areas. The blackout was a warning to the rest of the world that the ability of conventional power systems to meet growing electricity demand is questionable. Failure of large power systems can lead to serious emergencies. Introduction of on-site generation, renewable energy such as solar and wind power and the effective utilization of exhaust heat is needed, to meet the growing energy demands of the residential and commercial sectors. Additional benefit can be achieved by integrating these distributed technologies into distributed energy resource (DER) systems. This work demonstrates a method for choosing and designing economically optimal DER systems. An additional purpose of this research is to establish a database of energy tariffs, DER technology cost and performance characteristics, and building energy consumption for Japan. This research builds on prior DER studies at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and with their associates in the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) and operation, including the development of the microgrid concept, and the DER selection optimization program, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM is a tool designed to find the optimal combination of installed equipment and an idealized operating schedule to minimize a site's energy bills, given performance and cost data on available DER technologies, utility tariffs, and site electrical and thermal loads over a test period, usually an historic year. Since hourly electric and thermal energy data are rarely available, they are typically developed by building simulation for each of six end use loads used to model the building: electric-only loads, space heating, space cooling, refrigeration, water heating, and natural-gas-only loads. DER-CAM provides a global optimization, albeit idealized, that shows how the ...
Date: October 15, 2004
Creator: Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun & Nishida, Masaru