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Law Enforcement Access to Overseas Data Under the CLOUD Act

Description: This report discusses the CLOUD Act recently passed by Congress which gives the U.S. government's the ability to force companies to disclose information stored on overseas servers that is covered under a warrant and updates the reciprocal agreements with other countries accessing data as a part of criminal investigations that is held in the United States. Legal commentary on the law is provided.
Date: May 2, 2018
Creator: Mulligan, Stephen P.

The Travel Ban Case and Nationwide Injunctions

Description: This report addresses when, if ever, a regional federal trial judge adjudicating a case involving the federal government can award nationwide injunctive relief--a court order that commands a party to take or refrain from taking some action throughout the country. In the context of a suit against the federal government, an injunction with this type of "universal" effect acts to effectively void the law or policy in question. This report briefly explores the nationwide injunction at issue in the travel ban case (Trump v. Hawaii) and surveys a handful of the scholarly and judicial arguments surrounding the nationwide injunction in general
Date: May 2, 2018
Creator: Freeman, Wilson C.

Data on Multiemployer Defined Benefit (DB) Pension Plans

Description: This report provides data on multiemployer defined benefit (DB) plans categorized in several ways. First, the report categorizes the data based on plans' zone status in 2015. Next, it provides a year-by-year breakdown of the number of plans that are expected to become insolvent and the number of participants in those plans. Finally, the report provides information on the 25 largest multiemployer DB plans in 2015 (each plan has at least 75,000 participants).
Date: May 1, 2018
Creator: Topoleski, John J.

Fatherhood Initiatives: Connecting Fathers to Their Children

Description: This report provides an overview of the federal government's financial support of fatherhood initiatives, including through the Responsible Fatherhood (RF) grant program. It begins by providing a legislative history of this financial support and a summary of allowable activities under the RF grant program. This is followed by an explanation of some of the research and evaluations that have occurred via demonstration programs. The report concludes by briefly examining the role of governmental child support enforcement (CSE) agencies in fatherhood programs, initiatives to promote and support father-child interaction outside the parents' relationship, and recent developments with regard to work-oriented programs for noncustodial parents.
Date: May 1, 2018
Creator: Tollestrup, Jessica

Federal Disaster Assistance After Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, Wilma, Gustav, and Ike

Description: This report provides information on federal financial assistance provided to the Gulf States after major disasters were declared in Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas in response to the widespread destruction that resulted from Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, and Wilma in 2005 and Hurricanes Gustav and Ike in 2008.
Date: May 1, 2018
Creator: Lindsay, Bruce R. & Nagel, Jared C.

Federal Requirements on Private Health Insurance Plans

Description: This report discusses federal requirements for private health insurance (PHI) plans. The first part of this report provides background information about health plans sold in the PHI market and briefly describes state and federal regulation of private plans. The second part summarizes selected federal requirements and indicates each requirement's applicability to one or more of the following types of private health plans: individual, small group, large group, and self-insured.
Date: May 1, 2018
Creator: Mach, Annie L. & Fernandez, Bernadette

Issues in International Corporate Taxation: The 2017 Revision (P.L. 115-97)

Description: This report discusses international tax laws and the 2017 tax reform bill. The report begins by explaining prior international tax rules and the revisions made in the new law. The second part of the report discusses the four major issues of concern under prior law-- allocation of investment, profit shifting, repatriation, and inversions--and how the new law addresses these concerns, or raises new ones. That section also discusses issues associated with international agreements. The final section summarizes commentary about problems and issues, including legal challenges and uncertainty, within the new international tax regime and options that have been suggested. That section discusses some of the more detailed rules.
Date: May 1, 2018
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G. & Marples, Donald J.

Introduction to the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP)

Description: This report provides introductory information on key components of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), ranging from floodplain mapping to the standard flood insurance forms. This report will be updated as significant revisions are made to the NFIP through legislation or administrative action. However, this report does not provide detail on current or future legislative issues for Congress, which are covered in a separate report
Date: April 30, 2018
Creator: Horn, Diane P. & Brown, Jared T.

Options to Cease Implementing the Iran Nuclear Agreement

Description: This report analyzes some of the options the Administration and Congress might use to end or alter U.S. implementation of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) AKA the Iran Nuclear deal. Potential implications of these options are analyzed as well. This report bases its analysis primarily on the text of key documents involved in the issue--the JCPOA itself;3 U.N. Security Council Resolution 2231 of July 20, 2015,4 which endorsed the JCPOA; and the Iran Nuclear Agreement Review Act (INARA, P.L. 114-17, of May 22, 2015).
Date: April 30, 2018
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth; Kerr, Paul K. & Heitshusen, Valerie

Teen Birth Trends: In Brief

Description: This report provides context for Congress about the U.S. teen birth rate--or the number of births per 1,000 females aged 15 to 19 each year--and its changes since the 1950s. Over this period, the teen birth rate has generally been in decline. This decline has been most significant in recent years, with the rate reaching a record low in 2016. Multiple factors have likely contributed to the decrease, though the influence of any single factor is not fully known. Reduced teen sexual activity, particularly among younger adolescents, could be one explanation. Increases in use of contraceptives, including highly effective and multiple methods, among sexually active teens could be another. Other factors, such as broader social and economic trends, may also be at play.
Date: April 30, 2018
Creator: Fernandes-Alcantara, Adrienne L.

Teen Pregnancy: Federal Prevention Programs

Description: This report discusses federal programs that assist in reducing teen pregnancy rates. This report begins with a brief discussion of recent developments in funding for the four teen pregnancy prevention programs. It then provides background on the role of Congress and the executive branch in preventing teen pregnancy. The remainder of the report focuses on the four programs, examining the types of grants they provide as well as related funding, requirements, and research activities.
Date: April 30, 2018
Creator: Fernandes-Alcantara, Adrienne L.

Third Circuit Invalidates "De Facto" Life Sentences for "Non-Incorrigible" Juvenile Offenders

Description: This report discusses a recent ruling by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit in the case of "United States v. Grant" that prohibits the use of "de facto" life sentences without possibility of parole (created by sentencing juveniles to prison terms longer than the average lifespan or that would end after they reached the typical retirement age) for juvenile offenders who have a reasonable potential for rehabilitation. The report also discusses previous decisions related to this issue and the split among appeals court over the proper application of the Eighth Amendment to juvenile sentencing restrictions.
Date: April 30, 2018
Creator: Smith, Alison M.

Unemployment and Employment Programs Available to Workers Affected by Disasters

Description: This report discusses two income support programs and two workforce service programs that are available to those who lose their jobs due to a disaster. In each benefit category, there is a broader permanent program and a more-targeted program for disaster-affected workers. All of these programs are administered through state agencies and some programmatic details may be state-specific.
Date: April 30, 2018
Creator: Collins, Benjamin; Bradley, David H.; Isaacs, Katelin P. & Whittaker, Julie M.