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Method of estimating maximum VOC concentration in void volume of vented waste drums using limited sampling data: Application in transuranic waste drums

Description: A test program has been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate that the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) within the innermost layer of confinement in a vented waste drum can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles as well as limited waste drum sampling data. The model consists of a series of material balance equations describing steady-state VOC transport from each distinct void volume in the drum. The primary model input is the measured drum headspace VOC concentration. Model parameters are determined or estimated based on available process knowledge. The model effectiveness in estimating VOC concentration in the headspace of the innermost layer of confinement was examined for vented waste drums containing different waste types and configurations. This paper summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions in vented transuranic waste drums containing solidified sludges and solid waste.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Liekhus, K.J. & Connolly, M.J.

Dynamics of laser excitation, ionization and harmonic conversion in inert gas atoms

Description: Studies of non-perturbative multiphoton processes in atoms in pulsed laser fields employ a single-active-electron (SAE) model which follows the time evolution of each valence electron in the frozen, mean-field of the remaining electrons, the nucleus and the laser field. The photoelectron and photon emission spectra, although related, are not identical. A simple two-step, quasi-classical model explains the differences and gives a more complete understanding of the strong field induced dynamics.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Kulander, K.C.

Recent QCD Results from SLD

Description: We present selected results on strong interaction physics from the SLD experiment at the SLAC Linear Collider. We report on several new studies of 3- and 4-jet hadronic Z{sup 0} decays, in which jets are identified as quark, antiquark or gluon. The 3-jet Z{sup 0} --> b anti-bg rate is sensitive to the b-quark mass; prospects for measuring m{sub b} are discussed. The gluon energy spectrum is measured over the full kinematic range, providing an improved test of QCD and limits on anomalous b anti-bg couplings. The parity violation in Z{sup 0} --> b anti-bg decays is consistent with electroweak theory plus QCD. New tests of T- and CP-conservation at the bbg vertex are performed. A new measurement of the rate of gluon splitting into b anti-b pairs yields g{sub b anti-b} = 0.0031 {+-} 0.0007 (stat.){+-} 0.0006 (syst.) (Preliminary). We also present a number of new results on jet fragmentation into identified hadrons. The B hadron energy spectrum is measured over the full kinematic range using a new, inclusive technique, allowing stringent tests of predictions for its shape and a precise measurement of (xB) = 0.714 {+-} 0.005(stat.) {+-} 0.007(syst.) (Preliminary). A detailed study of correlations in rapidity y between pairs of identified pi{sup {+-}}, K{sup {+-}} and p/anti-p confirms that strangeness and baryon number are conserved locally, and shows local charge conservation between meson-baryon and strange-nonstrange pairs. Flavor-dependent long-range correlations are observed for all combinations of these hadron species, yielding new information on leading particle production. The first study of correlations using rapidities signed such that y > 0 corresponds to the quark direction provides additional new insights into fragmentation, including the first direct observation of baryon number ordering along the q anti-q axis.
Date: September 27, 1999
Creator: Muller, David

Characterizing fractured rock for fluid-flow, geomechanical, and paleostress modeling: Methods and preliminary results from Yucca Mountain, Nevada

Description: Fractures have been characterized for fluid-flow, geomechanical, and paleostress modeling at three localities in the vicinity of drill hole USW G-4 at Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada. A method for fracture characterization is introduced that integrates mapping fracture-trace networks and quantifying eight fracture parameters: trace length, orientation, connectivity, aperture, roughness, shear offset, trace-length density, and mineralization. A complex network of fractures was exposed on three 214- to 260-m 2 pavements cleared of debris in the upper lithophysal unit of the Tiva Canyon Member of the Miocene Paint-brush Tuff. The pavements are two-dimensional sections through the three-dimensional network of strata-bound fractures. All fractures with trace lengths greater than 0.2 m were mapped and studied.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Barton, C.C.; Larsen, E.; Page, W.R. & Howard, T.M.

Energy R and D in Germany

Description: Germany's total national (i.e., combined public and private sector) funding for R&D stood at $42 billion in 1997. The private sector accounted for nearly 62% ($24 billion) of the total, while the public sector accounted for approximately 38%. Since the late 1970s, when the public and private sectors each funded roughly half of Germany's R&D, the private sector has steadily assumed a larger and larger role as the dominant supporter of R&D activity, while overall government funding has remained essentially flat for much of the past two decades. In addition to declining relative to private R&D expenditures, public R&D expenditures in Germany declined by 4% in real terms between 1991 and 1997, to approximately $15 billion. The reduction in R&D investments in the public sector can be attributed in large part to the financial challenges associated with German reunification and related shifts in social priorities including efforts to address high unemployment and to rebuild basic infrastructure in the eastern states. R&D expenditures have also declined as a percentage of the total public budget, from a peak of 3.4% in 1985 to 2.7% in 1996. Energy R&D has been the hardest hit of all major socioeconomic areas of R&D expenditure funded by the German government. Between 1981 and 1997, public energy R&D fell from approximately $1.6 billion to $400 million--a 75% real decline. The $850 million reduction in Germany's fission R&D budget (which constituted two-thirds of government R&D investment in 1985) explains some 90% of the funding decline. Negative public perceptions regarding the safety and environmental impacts of nuclear energy have reduced nuclear power's viability as a long-term energy option for Germany. Discussions of a complete nuclear phaseout are now under way. At the same time, the German government has slashed its investments in fossil energy R&D by more than 90%. ...
Date: November 1, 1999
Creator: Runci, PJ

Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1998 annual progress report

Description: 'The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones (i.e., environmental hormones) in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. Species of particular focus are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. This reports the progress of 1.5 years of a three-year grant awarded to the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR). A growing body of evidence suggests that chemicals in the environment can disrupt the endocrine system of animals (i.e., wildlife and humans) and adversely impact the development of these species. Because of the multitude of known endocrine-disrupting chemicals and the numerous industrial and government sectors producing these chemicals, almost every federal agency has initiated research on the endocrine effects of chemicals relevant to their operations. This study represents the Department of Energy (DOE) Basic Energy Sciences'' only research on the impacts of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. The activities employed by this project to determine these impacts include development of biotechnology screens (in vitro), animal screens (in vivo), and other analyses of aquatic ecosystem biomarkers of exposure. The results from this study can elucidate how chemicals in the environment, including those from DOE activities, can signal (and alter) the development of a number of species in aquatic ecosystems. These signals can have detrimental impacts not only on an organismal level, but also on community, population, and entire ecosystem levels, including humans.'
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: McLachlan, J.

Diffusion in phase space

Description: In order to study diffusion in any region of phase space containing nested closed curves we choose action-angle variables, {gamma}, J. the action J labels each closed phase curve and is equal to its area divided by 2{pi}. We can introduce rectangular variables Q,P by the equations Q=(2J){sup 1/2}sin{gamma}, P=(2J){sup 1/2}cos{gamma}, where the angle variable {gamma} is measured clockwise from the P-axis. The phase curves are circles in the Q,P plane with radius (2J){sup 1/2}. We assume that the motion consists of a Hamiltonian motion along a curve of fixed J (in the original coordinate system and in the system Q,P) plus a diffusion and a damping which can change the value of J. Now consider a system of particles described by a density {rho}(J,t), so that the number of particles between the curves J and J+dJ is dN={rho}(J,t)dJ. These cN particles are distributed uniformly in the phase space between the curves J and J+dJ.
Date: April 5, 1993
Creator: Symon, K.

AntiReflection Coating D

Description: Analytical expressions used to optimize AR coatings for single junction solar cells are extended for use in monolithic, series interconnected multi-junction solar cell AR coating design. The result is an analytical expression which relates the solar cell performance (through J{sub sc}) directly to the AR coating design through the device reflectance. It is also illustrated how AR coating design be used to provide an additional degree of freedom for current matching multi-junction devices.
Date: September 23, 1999
Creator: AIKEN,DANIEL J.

Manganese-oxide minerals in fractures of the Crater Flat Tuff in drill core USW G-4, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

Description: The Crater Flat Tuff is almost entirely below the water table in drill hole USW G-4 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Manganese-oxide minerals from the Crater Flat Tuff in USW G-4 were studied using optical, scanning electron microscopic, electron microprobe, and x-ray powder diffraction methods to determine their distribution, mineralogy, and chemistry. Manganese-oxide minerals coat fractures in all three members of the Crater Flat Tuff (Prow Pass, Bullfrog, and Tram), but they are most abundant in fractures in the densely welded devitrified intervals of these members. The coatings are mostly of the cryptomelane/hollandite mineral group, but the chemistry of these coatings varies considerably. Some of the chemical variations, particularly the presence of calcium, sodium, and strontium, can be explained by admixture with todorokite, seen in some x-ray powder diffraction patterns. Other chemical variations, particularly between Ba and Pb, demonstrate that considerable substitution of Pb for Ba occurs in hollandite. Manganese-oxide coatings are common in the 10-m interval that produced 75% of the water pumped from USW G-4 in a flow survey in 1983. Their presence in water-producing zones suggests that manganese oxides may exert a significant chemical effect on groundwater beneath Yucca Mountain. In particular, the ability of the manganese oxides found at Yucca Mountain to be easily reduced suggests that they may affect the redox conditions of the groundwater and may oxidize dissolved or suspended species. Although the Mn oxides at Yucca Mountain have low exchange capacities, these minerals may retard the migration of some radionuclides, particularly the actinides, through scavenging and coprecipitation. 23 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: July 1, 1990
Creator: Carlos, B.A.; Bish, D.L. & Chipera, S.J.

Evaluation of hyperbaric filtration for fine coal dewatering. Eleventh quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

Description: The main objectives of the project are to investigate the fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction in fine coal dewatering, to conduct laboratory and pilot plant studies on the applicability of hyperbaric filter systems and to develop process conditions for dewatering of fine clean coal to less than 20 percent moisture. The program consist of three phases, namely Phase I - Model Development, Phase II - Laboratory Studies, Phase III - Field Testing. The Pennsylvania State University is leading efforts in Phase I, the University of Kentucky in Phase II, and Consol Inc. in Phase III of the program. All three organizations are involved in all the three phases of the program. The Pennsylvania State University is developing a theoretical model for hyperbaric filtration systems, whereas the University of Kentucky is conducting experimental studies to investigate fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction and application of high pressure filter in fine coal dewatering. The optimum filtration conditions identified in Phase I and II will be tested in a Consol Inc. coal preparation plant using an Andritz Ruthner portable hyperbaric filtration unit.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Parekh, B.K.; Hogg, R. & Fonseca, A.

Microstructural development in waste form alloys cast from irradiated cladding residual from the electrometallurgical treatment of EBR-II spent fuel.

Description: A metallic waste form alloy that consists primarily of stainless steel and zirconium is being developed by Argonne National Laboratory to contain metallic waste constituents that are residual from an electrometallurgical treatment process for spent nuclear fuel. Ingots have been cast in an induction furnace in a hot cell using actual, leftover, irradiated, EBR-II cladding hulls treated in an electrorefiner. The as-cast ingots have been sampled using a core-drilling and an injection-casting technique. In turn, generated samples have been characterized using chemical analysis techniques and a scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive and wavelength-dispersive spectrometers. As-cast ingots contain the predicted concentration levels of the various constituents, and most of the phases that develop are analogous to those for alloys generated using non-radioactive surrogates for the various fission products.
Date: June 10, 1999
Creator: Keiser, D. D., Jr.

Issue Management Risk Ranking Systems

Description: Thousands of safety issues have been collected on-line at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) as part of the Issue Management Plan. However, there has been no established approach to prioritize collected and future issues. The authors developed a methodology, based on hazards assessment, to identify and risk rank over 5000 safety issues collected at INEEL. This approach required that it was easily applied and understandable for site adaptation and commensurate with the Integrated Safety Plan. High-risk issues were investigated and mitigative/preventive measures were suggested and ranked based on a cost-benefit scheme to provide risk-informed safety measures. This methodology was consistent with other integrated safety management goals and tasks providing a site-wide risk-informed decision tool to reduce hazardous conditions and focus resources on high-risk safety issues. As part of the issue management plan, this methodology was incorporated at the issue collection level and training was provided to management to better familiarize decision-makers with concepts of safety and risk. This prioritization methodology and issue dissemination procedure will be discussed. Results of issue prioritization and training efforts will be summarized. Difficulties and advantages of the process will be reported. Development and incorporation of this process into INEEL's lessons learned reporting and the site-wide integrated safety management program will be shown with an emphasis on establishing self reliance and ownership of safety issues.
Date: June 1, 1999
Creator: Marshall, F. M.; Grant, G. M.; Stromberg, H. M. & Novack, S. D.

Thermal management concepts for higher efficiency heavy vehicles.

Description: Thermal management is a cross-cutting technology that directly or indirectly affects engine performance, fuel economy, safety and reliability, aerodynamics, driver/passenger comfort, materials selection, emissions, maintenance, and component life. This review paper provides an assessment of thermal management for large trucks, particularly as it impacts these features. Observations arrived at from a review of the state of the art for thermal management for over-the-road trucks are highlighted and commented on. Trends in the large truck industry, pertinent engine truck design and performance objectives, and the implications of these relative to thermal management, are presented. Finally, new thermal management concepts for high efficiency vehicles are described.
Date: May 19, 1999
Creator: Wambsganss, M. W.

Calibration of an Advanced Photon Source linac beam position monitor used for positron position measurement of a beam containing both positrons and electrons.

Description: The Advanced Photon Source (APS) linac beam position monitors can be used to monitor the position of a positron beam also containing electrons. To accomplish this task, both the signal at the bunching frequency of 2856 MHz and the signal at 2 x 2856 MHz are acquired and processed for each stripline. The positron beam position is obtained by forming a linear combination of both 2856- and 5712-MHz signals for each stripline and then performing the standard difference over sum computation. The required linear combination of the 2856- and 5712-MHz signals depends on the electrical calibration of each stripline/cable combination. In this paper, the calibration constants for both 2856-MHz and 5712-MHz signals for each stripline are determined using a pure beam of electrons. The calibration constants are obtained by measuring the 2856- and 5712-MHz stripline signals at various electron beam currents and positions. Finally, the calibration constants measured using electrons are used to determine positron beam position for the mixed beam case.
Date: May 19, 1998
Creator: Sereno, N. S.

Confinement Vessel Dynamic Analysis

Description: A series of hydrodynamic and structural analyses of a spherical confinement vessel has been performed. The analyses used a hydrodynamic code to estimate the dynamic blast pressures at the vessel's internal surfaces caused by the detonation of a mass of high explosive, then used those blast pressures as applied loads in an explicit finite element model to simulate the vessel's structural response. Numerous load cases were considered. Particular attention was paid to the bolted port connections and the O-ring pressure seals. The analysis methods and results are discussed, and comparisons to experimental results are made.
Date: August 1, 1999
Creator: Stevens, R. Robert & Rojas, Stephen P.

Initial source and site characterization studies for the U. C. San Diego campus

Description: The basic approach of the Campus Laboratory Collaboration (CLC) project is to combine the substantial expertise that exists within the University of California (UC) system in geology, seismology, geotechnical engineering, and structural engineering to evaluate the effects of large earthquakes on UC facilities. These estimates draw upon recent advances in hazard assessment, seismic wave propagation modeling in rocks and soils, dynamic soil testing, and structural dynamics. The UC campuses currently chosen for applications of our integrated methodology are Riverside, San Diego, and Santa Barbara. The basic procedure is first to identify possible earthquake source regions and local campus site conditions that may affect estimates of strong ground motion. Combined geological , geophysical, and geotechnical studies are conducted to characterize each campus with specific focus on the location of particular target buildings of special interest to the campus administrators. The project will then drill and log deep boreholes next to the target structure, to provide direct in-situ measurements of subsurface material properties and to install uphole and downhole 3-component seismic sensors capable of recording both weak and strong motions. The boreholes provide access to deeper materials, below the soil layers, that have relatively high seismic shear-wave velocities. Analysis of conjugate downhole and uphole records provides a basis for optimizing the representation of the low-strain response of the sites. Earthquake rupture scenarios of identified causative faults are combined with the earthquake records and nonlinear soil models to provide site-specific estimates of strong motions at the selected target locations. The predicted ground motions are then used as input to the dynamic analysis of the buildings.
Date: July 1, 1999
Creator: Day, S.; Erick, F.; Heuze, F.E.; Mellors, R.; Minster, B.; Park, S. et al.

Tucannon Model Watershed 1997 Habitat Projects : Annual Progress Report Project Period: January 1, 1997 to March 31, 1998.

Description: The Tucannon Model Watershed 1997 habitat projects were designed to address critical limiting factors identified through the watershed assessment and Plan development. Construction elements were composed of bioengineering techniques designed to increase salmonid habitat complexity, insure stream bank and geomorphic stability, and reduce stream temperature and sediments in spawning gravels. Cooperation and agreement between landowners and resource agencies for restoring resource conditions has grown due to project success and is expected to continue for the benefit of all.
Date: October 28, 1998
Creator: Bruegman, Terry & Nordheim, Debby

Wildlife use of NPDES outfalls at Los Alamos National Laboratory

Description: From July through October of 1991, the Biological Resources Evaluation Team (BRET) surveyed 133 of the 140 National Pollutant Discharge and Elimination System outfalls at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of the survey was to determine the use of these wastewater outfalls by wildlife. BRET observed wildlife or evidence of wildlife (scat, tracks, or bedding) by 35 vertebrate species in the vicinity of the outfalls, suggesting these animals could be using water from outfalls. Approximately 56% of the outfalls are probably used or are suitable for use by large mammals as sources of drinking water. Additionally, hydrophytic vegetation grows in association with approximately 40% of the outfalls-a characteristic that could make these areas eligible for wetland status. BRET recommends further study to accurately characterize the use of outfalls by small and medium-sized mammals and amphibians. The team also recommends systematic aquatic macroinvertebrate studies to provide information on resident communities and water quality. Wetland assessments may be necessary to ensure compliance with wetland regulations if LANL activities affect any of the outfalls supporting hydrophytic vegetation.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Foxx, T. & Blea-Edeskuty, B.

Comparisons of ASTM standards cited in the NRC standard review plan, NUREG-0800 and related documents

Description: This report provides the results of comparisons of the cited and latest versions of ASTM standards cited in the NRC Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants (NUREG 0800) and related documents. The comparisons were performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories in support of the NRC`s Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program. Significant changes to the standards, from the cited version to the latest version, are described and discussed in a tabular format for each standard. Recommendations for updating each citation in the Standard Review Plan are presented. Technical considerations and suggested changes are included for related regulatory documents (i.e., Regulatory Guides and the Code of Federal Regulations) citing the standard. The results and recommendations presented in this document have not been subjected to NRC staff review.
Date: October 1995
Creator: Ankrum, A. R.; Bohlander, K. L.; Gilbert, E. R.; Pawlowski, R. A. & Spiesman, J. B.

Biomedical Research Group, Health Division annual report 1954

Description: This report covers the activities of the Biomedical Research Group (H-4) of the Health Division during the period January 1 through December 31, 1954. Organizationally, Group H-4 is divided into five sections, namely, Biochemistry, Radiobiology, Radiopathology, Biophysics, and Organic Chemistry. The activities of the Group are summarized under the headings of the various sections. The general nature of each section`s program, publications, documents and reports originating from its members, and abstracts and summaries of the projects pursued during the year are presented.
Date: December 1955
Creator: Langham, W. H. & Storer, J. B.

Yakima River Radio-Telemetry Study: Spring Chinook Salmon, 1991-1992 Annual Report.

Description: As part of the presupplementation planning, baseline data on the productivity of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Yakima River have been collected. However, for adult salmonids, data on habitat use, delays in passage at irrigation diversions, migration rates, and substock separation had not been previously collected. In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service began a 2-year radio-telemetry study of adult spring chinook salmon in the Yakima River Basin. Specific objectives addressed in this study were: to determine spawning populations` run timing, passage patterns at irrigation diversion dams, and morphometric characteristics to determine where and when substocks become separated; to evaluate fish passage at Yakima River Basin diversion dams including Prosser, Sunnyside, Wapato, Roza, Town Diversion, Easton, Cowiche, and Wapatox Dams; to determine spring chinook salmon migration rates between Yakima River Basin dams, prespawning behavior, temporal distribution, and habitat utilization; to identify spawning distribution and timing of spring chinook salmon; to determine the amount and cause of prespawning mortality of spring chinook salmon; and to evaluate adult fish-handling procedures for the right-bank, adult-trapping facility at Prosser Dam.
Date: September 1, 1994
Creator: Hockersmith, Eric

Assembly and testing of a composite heat pipe thermal intercept for HTS current leads

Description: We are building high temperature superconducting (HTS) current leads for a demonstration HTS-high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) system cooled by a cryocooler. The current leads are entirely conductively cooled. A composite nitrogen heat pipe provides efficient thermal communication, and simultaneously electrical isolation, between the lead and an intermediate temperature heat sink. Data on the thermal and electrical performance of the heat pipe thermal intercept are presented. The electrical isolation of the heat pipe was measured as a function of applied voltage with and without a thermal load across the heat pipe. The results show the electrical isolation with evaporation, condensation and internal circulation taking place in the heat pipe.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Daugherty, M.A.; Daney, D.E.; Prenger, F.C.; Hill, D.D.; Williams, P.M. & Boenig, H.J.

The Cold War is over. What now?

Description: As you might imagine, the end of the Cold War has elicited an intense reexamination of the roles and missions of institutions such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the past few years, the entire defense establishment has undergone substantial consolidation, with a concomitant decrease in support for research and development, including in areas such as materials. The defense industry is down-sizing at a rapid pace. Even universities have experienced significant funding cutbacks from the defense community. I view this as a profound time in history, bringing changes encompassing much more than just the defense world. In fact, support for science and technology is being reexamined across the board more completely than at any other time since the end of World War II.
Date: May 1995
Creator: Hecker, S. S.