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Searches for the Theta_s(1540)+ Strange-Pentaquark Candidate in e+e- Annihilation, Hadroproduction and Electroproduction with the BaBar Detector

Description: Since early in 2003, several experiments have presented evidence for the existence of a positive strangeness baryon state of mass around 1540 MeV/c{sup 2} and width <8 MeV, the {Theta}(1540), which decays to K{sup +}n and K{sup 0}p. Such a state has minimum quark content udud{bar s} and consequently has been interpreted as the S = +1 member of the anti-decuplet of pentaquark states proposed by Diakonov et al. Subsequently, the NA49 experiment presented evidence for the S = -2 member of the anti-decuplet, the {Xi}{sub 5}(1860){sup --}, but this has yet to be observed in any other experiment. Results from the search for the production of the {Theta}(1540) memember of the anti-decuplet of pentaquark states using data from e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions obtained with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II Collider are presented. No signal is observed, and cross section limits for the {Theta}(1540) are given; these prove to be well below the cross section values for ordinary baryons of similar mass. In addition, a search has been carried out for the electroproduction of the {Theta}(1540) in the material of the BABAR detector. Event selection procedures are discussed in detail, the results of this search are presented, and are discussed in the light of several other experiments.
Date: July 29, 2009
Creator: Coleman, Jonathan P.

Observation of Electroweak Single Top-Quark Production with the CDF II Experiment

Description: The standard model of elementary particle physics (SM) predicts, besides the top-quark pair production via the strong interaction, also the electroweak production of single top-quarks [19]. Up to now, the Fermilab Tevatron proton-antiproton-collider is the only place to produce and study top quarks emerging from hadron-hadron-collisions. Top quarks were directly observed in 1995 during the Tevatron Run I at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}s = 1.8 TeV simultaneously by the CDF and D0 Collaborations via the strong production of top-quark pairs. Run II of the Tevatron data taking period started 2001 at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV after a five year upgrade of the Tevatron accelerator complex and of both experiments. One main component of its physics program is the determination of the properties of the top quark including its electroweak production. Even though Run II is still ongoing, the study of the top quark is already a successful endeavor, confirmed by dozens of publications from both Tevatron experiments. A comprehensive review of top-quark physics can be found in reference. The reasons for searching for single top-quark production are compelling. As the electroweak top-quark production proceeds via a Wtb vertex, it provides the unique opportunity of the direct measurement of the CKM matrix element |V{sub tb}|, which is expected to be |V{sub tb}| {approx} 1 in the SM. Significant deviations from unity could be an indication of a fourth quark generation, a production mode via flavor-changing neutral currents, and other new phenomena, respectively. There are two dominating electroweak top-quark production modes at the Fermilab Tevatron: the t-channel exchange of a virtual W boson striking a b quark and the s-channel production of a timelike W boson via the fusion of two quarks. In proton-antiproton-collisions the third electroweak production mode, the associated Wt production of an on-shell W boson in conjunction with ...
Date: July 1, 2009
Creator: Lueck, Jan & /KARLSRUHE U., EKP

Studying Z/gamma*+Jet Production

Description: The production of jets in association with a Z/{gamma}* boson is an example of an important class of processes at hadron colliders, namely vector boson + jet (V + jet) production. Comparisons of measurements of this class of processes with theory predictions constitute an important, fundamental test of the Standard Model of particle physics, and of the theory of QCD in particular. While having a smaller cross section than other V +jet processes, Z/{gamma}*({yields} e{sup +}e{sup -}) + jets production, with Z/{gamma}* {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -}/{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}, has a distinct experimental signature allowing for measurements characterized by low backgrounds and a direct, precise measurement of the properties of the decay products of the Z/{gamma}* boson. In this thesis, several new measurements of the properties of jets produced in association with a Z/{gamma}* boson in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV are presented. The cross section for Z/{gamma}*({yields} e{sup +}e{sup -}) + N jet production (N {le} 3) is measured, differential in the transverse momentum of the Nth jet in the event, normalized to the inclusive Z/{gamma}* cross section. Also, the cross section for Z/{gamma}*({yields} e{sup +}e{sup -}) + N jets (N {ge} 1) is measured, differential in the difference in azimuthal angle between the di-electron system and any jet in the event, normalized to unity. The data used in the measurements were collected by the D0 experiment located at the Tevatron Collider of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 1.04 fb{sup -1}. The measured jet transverse momentum spectra are compared with the predictions of perturbative calculations at the next-to-leading order in the strong coupling constant. Given the low sensitivity of the calculations to model parameters, these comparisons represent a stringent test of perturbative QCD. One of the main goals currently being ...
Date: July 1, 2009
Creator: Nilsen, Henrik Wold & U., /Freiburg

Measurement of the double differential diject mass cross section in pp(bar) collisions at sqrt(s) = 1.96 TeV

Description: This thesis presents the analysis of the double differential dijet mass cross section, measured at the D0 detector in Batavia, IL, using p{bar p} collisions at a center of mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The dijet mass was calculated using the two highest p{sub T} jets in the event, with approximately 0.7 fb{sup -1} of data collected between 2004 and 2005. The analysis was presented in bins of dijet mass (M{sub JJ}) and rapidity (y), and extends the measurement farther in M{sub JJ} and y than any previous measurement. Corrections due to detector effects were calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation and applied to data. The errors on the measurement consist of statistical and systematic errors, of which the Jet Energy Scale was the largest. The final result was compared to next-to-leading order theory and good agreement was found. These results may be used in the determination of the proton parton distribution functions and to set limits on new physics.
Date: July 1, 2009
Creator: Rominsky, Mandy Kathleen & U., /Oklahoma

Sterile neutrino oscillations in MINOS and hadron production in pC collisions

Description: MINOS is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment, starting with a muon-neutrino beam, for the precise measurement of the atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters |{Delta}m{sup 2}| and {theta}{sub 23}. The Near Detector measures the neutrino flux and spectra before oscillations. The beam propagates for 735 km to the Far Detector, which measures the depleted spectrum after oscillations. The depletion can be interpreted as {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations. Subdominant {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} oscillations may be allowed if the mixing angle {theta}{sub 13} {ne} 0. The two detectors are functionally identical in order to cancel systematic errors when using the Near Detector data to constrain the Far Detector prediction. A crucial part of the analysis is the relative calibration between the two detectors, which is known at the 2% level. A calibration procedure to remove the time and temperature dependence of the detector response using through-going cosmic muons is presented here. Although the two-detector approach reduces the systematic uncertainties related to the neutrino flux, a cross check on the neutrino parent meson ratios is performed in this thesis. The cross sections of mesons produced in proton-carbon interactions from the NA49 experiment have been measured and the results have been compared to the MINOS expectations. A neutrino oscillation analysis allowing mixing to a sterile neutrino is performed, under the assumption that the additional mass splitting is {Omicron}(1 eV{sup 2}). The analysis uses the energy spectrum of the neutral current interaction products, as neutral current interactions are sensitive to sterile neutrino mixing but not to the active flavour neutrino mixing. The neutrino oscillation parameters have been found to be: |{Delta}m{sup 2}| = 2.43{sub -0.18}{sup +0.21} x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}, {theta}{sub 23} = 40.27{sup o}{sub -5.17}{sup +14.64}, {theta}{sub 24} = 0.00{sup o}{sup +5.99} and {theta}{sub 34} = 0.00{sup o}{sup +24.57} under ...
Date: July 1, 2010
Creator: Tinti, Gemma Maria & U., /Oxford

Detection of Actinides via Nuclear Isomer De-Excitation

Description: This dissertation discusses a data collection experiment within the Actinide Isomer Identification project (AID). The AID project is the investigation of an active interrogation technique that utilizes nuclear isomer production, with the goal of assisting in the interdiction of illicit nuclear materials. In an attempt to find and characterize isomers belonging to 235U and its fission fragments, a 232Th target was bombarded with a monoenergetic 6Li ion beam, operating at 45 MeV.
Date: July 22, 2009
Creator: Francy, Christopher J.

Measurement of the absolute v<sub>μ</sub>-CCQE cross section at the SciBooNE experiment

Description: This thesis presents the measurement of the charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) neutrino-nucleon cross section at neutrino energies around 1 GeV. This measurement has two main physical motivations. On one hand, the neutrino-nucleon interactions at few GeV is a region where existing old data are sparse and with low statistics. The current measurement populates low energy regions with higher statistics and precision than previous experiments. On the other hand, the CCQE interaction is the most useful interaction in neutrino oscillation experiments. The CCQE channel is used to measure the initial and final neutrino fluxes in order to determine the neutrino fraction that disappeared. The neutrino oscillation experiments work at low neutrino energies, so precise measurement of CCQE interactions are essential for flux measurements. The main goal of this thesis is to measure the CCQE absolute neutrino cross section from the SciBooNE data. The SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment (SciBooNE) is a neutrino and anti-neutrino scattering off experiment. The neutrino energy spectrum works at energies around 1 GeV. SciBooNE was running from June 8th 2007 to August 18th 2008. In that period, the experiment collected a total of 2.65 x 10<sup>20</sup> protons on target (POT). This thesis has used full data collection in neutrino mode 0.99 x 10<sup>20</sup> POT. A CCQE selection cut has been performed, achieving around 70% pure CCQE sample. A fit method has been exclusively developed to determine the absolute CCQE cross section, presenting results in a neutrino energy range from 0.2 to 2 GeV. The results are compatible with the NEUT predictions. The SciBooNE measurement has been compared with both Carbon (MiniBoonE) and deuterium (ANL and BNL) target experiments, showing a good agreement in both cases.
Date: July 1, 2010
Creator: Aunion, Jose Luis Alcaraz

OPTICAL DIFFERENCE FREQUENCY GENERATION OF FAR INFRARED RADIATION

Description: Three investigations of difference frequency generation (DFG) of far-infrared radiation by optical mixing are described: a theory of DFG by monochromatic, focused Gaussian pump laser beams, a theory of DFG by a picosecond pump laser pulse, and an experiment using ruby-pumped dye lasers. First, the theory of far-infrared generation by optical mixing of monochromatic, focused Gaussian beams in a uniaxial crystal is developed, taking into account the effects of diffraction, absorption, double refraction, and multiple reflections and total reflection at the boundary surfaces. (Reflection and transmission coefficients of a uniaxial crystal slab are derived by a new matrix technique.) Results of numerical calculations are presented. Focusing the pump beams appreciably enhances the far-infrared output despite the strong far-infrared diffraction. In a 1-cm long crystal, the optimum focal spot size is approximately equal to or smaller than the far-infrared wavelength for output frequencies less than 100 cm{sup -1}. Double refraction of the pump beams is relatively unimportant. Both far-infrared absorption and boundary reflections have major effects on the far-infrared output and its angular distribution. The former is often the factor which limits the output power. We show that a simple model treating the nonlinear polarization as a constant lie-radius Gaussian distribution of radiating dipoles adequately describes the effect of pump-beam focusing. We also compare the results of our calculations with those for second-harmonic generation. Second, a theoretical calculation of far-infrared power spectra generated by picosecond pulses in a nonlinear crystal is developed. The results are illustrated with two practical examples: LiNbO{sub 3} slabs oriented for rectification of the optical e-ray and for beating of the optical o-ray with the optical e-ray. The former is phase matched at 0 cm{sup -1}; the latter, at both the forward-(FCPM) and backward-collinear phase-matching frequencies. The one-dimensional, time-dependent electric field is discussed and then used to ...
Date: July 1, 1977
Creator: Morris, J.R.

Geometry of some metal halides

Description: Thesis. Two polarizable ion models are developed to describe the gas phase of metal dihalide molecules. Both models use electrostatic and repulsive interactions to predict molecular geometries and molecular constants. The first model is applied to the dihalides of the alkaline earths, group II-b metals, transition metals, group IV-a metals, and europium. In addition to the molecular geometry, bending frequencies are derived for most of these molecules. The second or linear'' model is applied to the alkaline eanth dihalides; equilibrium internuclear bond lengths, stretching force constants, and stretching frequencies are determined. (LK)
Date: July 1, 1973
Creator: Yarnell, P.A.

Alpha-Decay Studies in the Heavy-Element Region

Description: Using primarily a 75-cm radius of curvature 60 deg symmetrical electromagnetic analyzer, a study of the complexity of the following alpha spectra was made: Es/sup 253/, Cf/sup 246/, Cm/sup 244/, Am/sup 243/, Pu/sup 236,242/, Pa/sup 231/ , Th/sup 227,230/, Ac/sup 225/, At/sup 209/ and Po/sup 206/. An investigation of the gamma rays associated with the following isotopes was also madei /sup 236/, and Pa/sup 231/. Decay schemes have been suggested for most of the isotopes included in this study. Those for the even-even isotopes were found to conform well with the previously existing systematics for that group of nuclides. Many of the decay features of the odd-mass isotopes seemed to conform well with presently expanding theories. (auth)
Date: July 1, 1956
Creator: Hummel, J. P.

Angular Distribution of Photopions From Hydrogen

Description: ABS>An accurate measurement of the differential cross section for the photoproduction of positive pions was made at the Berkeley synchrotron, for photon energies of 280 and 290 Mev. The mesons were produced in a thin-walled liquid hydrogen target, and the meson detection apparatus utilized the characteristic pi -- mu decay of the meson. The measurements were done in two steps, from 0 to 50 deg with equipment specifically designed to reduce a very high positron background, and from 30 to 160 deg with equipment whose efficiency and solid angle could be accurately determined. The experimental results in the small-angle region definitely show the effects of ''photoelectric'' production of pions from the cloud surrounding the nucleon, which are characterized by an abrupt flattening of the cross section in the region forward of 40 deg (c. m.). The results are compared to the theory of photoproduction derived from the dispersion relations, and the sgreement is satisfactory within the limitations of the theory. (auth)
Date: July 1, 1958
Creator: Knapp, E. A.