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Geology and Water Resources of the Northern Portion of the Black Hills and Adjoining Regions in South Dakota and Wyoming
Introduction: this paper, which supplements the report on the geology and water resources of the southern half of the Black Hills, published in 1901, is the result of studies made at intervals during the years 1899 to 1907.
Geology and Biology of North Atlantic Deep-Sea Cores Between Newfoundland and Ireland
Summary: In May and June 1936 Dr. C. S. Piggot of the Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, took a series of 11 deep-sea cores in the North Atlantic Ocean between the Newfoundland banks and the banks off the Irish coast.
Reptilian Faunas of the Torrejon, Puerco, and Underlying Upper Cretaceous Formations of San Juan County, New Mexico
introduction: The present paper, which in some respects is supplementary to another recent one on the same region, is based on a series of vertebrate remains collected during the field season of 1916 for the United States Geological Survey by J.B. Reeside, jr., and F.R. Clark.
The San Franciscan Volcanic Field, Arizona
Introduction: This report deals primarily with the volcanic phenomena of the region as determined in the field and laboratory.
Some American Jurassic Ammonites of the Genera Quenstedticeras, Cardioceras, and Amoeboceras, Family Cardioceratidae
Introduction: The interpretation of the data furnished by the study of these fossils has been hindered somewhat because the exact stratigraphic location of much of the material is unknown. It was gathered with regard merely for the general stratigraphic and geographic position. However, as a knowledge of the general relationship forms to those of other areas is in itself of value to the stratigrapher and systematist it has seemed desirable to describe and figure the species.
The Upper Cretaceous and Eocene floras of South Carolina and Georgia
Introduction: the following report is the first systematic account of fossil plants from the state of South Carolina.
Shorter Contributions to General Geology, 1941-42
Preface: The author of this paper gives a thorough description of a complex of very unusual igneous rocks and associated hydrothermal deposits.
Shorter Contributions to General Geology, 1913
Preface: The present paper is the first of a new series to be published by the Geological Survey under the title "Shorter contributions to general geology."
The Transportation of Débris by Running Water
Abstract: The primary purpose of the investigation was to learn the laws which control the movement of bed load, and especially to determine how the quantity of load is related to the stream's slope and discharge and to the degree of communication of the débris.
The Sunset-Midway Oil Field, California: Part 2. Geochemical Relations of the Oil, Gas, and Water
Introduction: In the following pages a number of selected analyses or tests of the oil and gas from this field are given, with such descriptions of the analytical methods used as are necessary to an understanding of the results.
Shorter Contributions to General Geology, 1918
A collection of writings on the shorter contributions to general geology.
Shorter Contributions to General Geology, 1929
From introduction: This report describes the deposits of analcite in the Green River formation, to compare them with other similar deposits, and to present them with other similar deposits, and to present the observations and inferences that led him to explain them as alteration products of volcanic ash that fell into an ancient saline lake. The report also records the occurrence of several thin beds of sepiolite, or meerschaum, in the Green River formation and presents new data on the molds of saline minerals of the Green River formation whose determination affects directly the interpretation of the analcite and sepiolite deposits.
Shorter Contributions to General Geology, 1936
From abstract: This report describes four species of Ostreidae from the Upper Cretaceous of the Gulf region. The zones that the species characterize lie either in the upper part of the Austin chalk or in beds of upper Austin age.
Shorter Contributions to General Geology, 1928
From introduction: The district discussed in this report embraces the entire northern peninsula of Michigan and the parts of northern Wisconsin and northeastern Minnesota that were covered by a re-advance of the Superior lobe of the Labrador ice sheet late in the Wisconsin stage of glaciation.
The Upper Cretaceous Floras of Alaska
From foreword: This report describes the upper cretaceous floras and rocks south of the Brooks Range in Alaska.
Recurrent Tropidoleptus Zones of the Upper Devonian in New York
From introduction: This report describes the four zones, three well-marked and one subordinate, in the Upper Devonian rocks, each of which contained several species that are common in the typical Hamilton formation of the Cayuga Lake section and are associated with very few of the really characteristic species of the faunas normal to the formations in which they are found.
Cretaceous Deposits of the Eastern Gulf Region and Species of Exogyra from the Eastern Gulf Region and the Carolinas
From object and scope of the work: This paper is intended as a brief statement of the results of stratigraphic and paleontologic investigations made by the writer during recent years in the Cretaceous areas of the eastern Gulf region.
Studies of Basin-Range Structure
From preface: This paper represents the partial fruition of a broad plan to reexamine critically the subject of Basin-Range structure.
Deposits of Pre-1980 Pyroclastic Flows and Lahars from Mount St. Helens Volcano, Washington
From introduction: This report describes the character, origin, age, and extent of deposits of pyroclastic flows and lahars that were formed at Mount St. Helens before 1980, and their stratigraphic relations to other rocks and deposits of volcanic and glacial origin.
Environmental Geochemical Studies of Selected Mineral Deposits in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska
From abstract: Environmental geochemical investigations took place in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve (WRST), Alaska, between 1994 and 1997. Areas studied include the historic Kennecott stratabound copper mines and mill area; the historic mines and mill in the Bremner district, where gold was produced from polymetallic veins; the sporadically active gold placer mines at Gold Hill; the undisturbed, unmined porphyry copper-molybdenum deposits at Orange Hill and Bond Creek; and the historic mines and mill at Nabesna, where gold-bearing iron skarn deposits were exploited. The cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service focused on identifying and characterizing geochemical signatures associated with these mineralized areas. Sample media included surface water, bedload sediment, rock, mine waste, and mill tailings samples.
Some Middle Cenomanian (Upper Cretaceous) Acanthoceratid Ammonites from the Western Interior of the United States
Abstract: The ammonite family Acanthoceratidae de Grossouvre is represented in the Western Interior region by many genera. Species and subspecies of Calycoceras, Acanthoceras, Cunningtoniceras, Plesiacanthoceras, and Protacanthoceras are important guide fossils to narrow zones of middle Cenomanian age in southeastern Montana, northeastern Wyoming, western South Dakota, and central Kansas. In this region, the ammonite zonation through most of the middle Cenomanian seems to be, from oldest to youngest, a zone of Acanthoceras muldoonense Cobban and Scott, a zone of Acanthoceras bellense Adkins and Calycoceras leonense (Adkins), a zone of Cunningtoniceras amphibolum (Morrow) with subzones of C. amphibolum amphibolum and C. amphibolum fallense (n. subsp.), and a zone of Plesiacanthoceras wyomingense (Reagan). In this report, Acanthoceras muldoonense, A. bellense, and Calycoceras leonense are described from the northern part of the Western Interior for the first time. Cunningtoniceras amphibolum, originally assigned to Acanthoceras, is described in more detail and divided into the nominate subspecies and the new subspecies C. amphibolum fallense. The earliest whorls of Plesiacanthoceras wyomingense, previously unknown, are described as well as all the later growth stages. The small genus, Protacanthoceras, is represented by several new species and one new subspecies. Protacanthoceras fisheri is found in the zone of Acanthoceras bellense, P. vetula occurs in the subzone of Cunningtoniceras amphibolum amphibolum, and P. hosei hosei and P. hosei sheridanense are found in the subzone of C. amphibolum fallense. Protacanthoceras alzadense is associated with Plesiacanthoceras wyomingense.
Runoff Characteristics and Washoff Loads from Rainfall-Simulation Experiments on a Street Surface and a Native Pasture in the Denver Metropolitan Area, Colorado
Abstract: Rainfall simulation studies were conducted in conjunction with the Denver Regional Urban Runoff Program to: (1) Compare runoff quantity and quality from two different intensities of rainfall on impervious plots having identical antecedent conditions, (2) document a first flush of constituent loads in runoff from 1,000-square-foot streetsurface plots, (3) compare runoff characteristics from a street surface subjected to simulated rainfall with those from a 69-acre urban basin of mixed land use subjected to natural rainfall, (4) perform statistical analysis of constituent loads in the runoff with several independent variables, and (5) compare the quantity and quality of runoff from 400-square-foot plots of native grasses used for pasture and subjected to simulated rainfall with that from a 405-acre basin covered with native grasses used for pasture and sub-jected to natural rainfall. The rainfall simulations conducted on the street surface showed that higher intensity simulated rainfall produced a higher percentage of runoff than lower intensity rainfall. A first flush of constituent loads occurred for most constituents in the runoff from most rainfall simulations on the street surface; however, a first flush did not occur in the runoff from simulated rainfall on the pasture. The event mean concentrations of constituents in the runoff from simulated storms on the street surface were generally much smaller than the event mean concentrations of constituents in the runoff from an adjacent urban basin. Analysis of the data from the rainfall simulations on a street surface indicates that intensity of rainfall and total rainfall are important variables determining constituent loads. The design of the experiment was such that intensity of rainfall and total rainfall were highly correlated, thus precluding the development of useful regression equations to predict washoff loads. The quality of runoff from the simulated rainfall on the pasture was influenced by the disturbed perimeters of ...
Quaternary Geology of Minnesota and Parts of Adjacent States
Description of geology in Minnesota and explanations of glacial drift within the state an immediate surroundings (Wisconsin, Iowa, North Dakota and South Dakota) with sections detailing the movement of each glacier and relevant geological notes. Index starts on page 147.
The Geology of Long Island, New York
Report describing the geology of Long Island based on surveys and research conducted 1903-1905, with a particular emphasis on glacial deposits and formations from the Pleistocene epoch. It includes a broad discussion, with tabular summaries.
The Middle Triassic Marine Invertebrate Faunas of North America
This is a report on the middle triassic marine invertebrate faunas of North America.
The Copper Deposits of Ray and Miami, Arizona
This is a report on the copper deposits of Ray and Miami, Arizona.
The Sunset-Midway Oil Field, California: Part 1. Geology and Oil Resources
This is a report on the Sunset-Midway oil field in Kern County, California, including the geology and production of oil.
Geologic History of the Yosemite Valley
The principal result of the investigations upon which this report is based is the determination within narrow limits of the preglacial depth of the Yosemite Valley and of other facts concerning its preglacial development which permit fairly definite estimates of the proportionate shares of work performed by stream and by glacier. The investigations comprise a detailed survey of the glacial and geomorphologic features of the Yosemite region and an equally intensive study of its rock formations, supplemented by reconnaissance work of both kinds in adjoining parts of the Sierra Nevada.
The Geology and Ore Deposits of Goldfield, Nevada
This report describes the geology and ore deposits of Goldfield, Nevada.
Yampa Canyon in the Uinta Mountains Colorado
From purpose of the report: A detailed office study of modern topographic and geologic maps and aerial photographs of Yampa Canyon and its environs in the Uinta Mountains.
The Significance of Geologic Conditions in Naval Petroleum Reserves No. 3, Wyoming
From Introduction: The work on which this report is based consisted of detailed field and office studies which occupied the greater part of the summer of 1927. During this period mapping was done with plane table and telescopic alidade on a scale of 1 inch to 1,000 feet, and wells, faults, and outcrops within the productive part of the Teapot field were located in detail.
Stratigraphy of Outcropping Permian Rocks in Parts of Northeastern Arizona and Adjacent Areas
From introduction: In the spring and early summer of 1950 the writers undertook an investigation of the outcropping Permian rocks in northeastern Arizona, northwestern New Mexico, and parts of southern Utah. This work had as its specific objective the establishing of correlations of Permian rocks in the Zuni uplift, Defiance uplift, and Monument Valley upwarp. The determination of these relations, it is believed, will be of aid in the current activities of the Geological Survey in the Navajo Reservation which have as objectives the investigation of the mineral fuels and water resources of the area.
Stratigraphy of the Star Peak Group (Triassic) and Overlying Lower Mesozoic Rocks: Humboldt Range, Nevada
This is a report on the stratigraphy of the Star Peak Group an overlying lower Mesozoic rocks Humboldt Range in Nevada.
The Upper Cretaceous Ammonite Genus Barroisiceras in the United States
From introduction: The ammonite genus Barroisiceras Grossouvre is noteworthy because of its wide geographic distribution and its apparently small stratigraphic range. It is reported from deposits of Coniacian age in Europe, Africa, South America, and North America. In the North American Upper Cretaceous it is rather rare, authentic species having been recognized hitherto only in the Austin chalk of Texas, in the Coniacian beds of Zumpango del Rio, Guerrero, Mexico, and, with doubt as to the source, in New Jersey. The Texan species, B. dentatocarinatum (Roemer), is by no means an abundant form, though among those described in early work in the region. The Mexican representatives of the genus thus far described include only fragmentary specimens not specifically named. The occurrence ascribed to New Jersey is based on a fragment that seems to belong to Barroisiceras but whose source is very doubtful.
The Kaiparowits Region: A Geographic and Geologic Reconnaissance of Part of Utah and Arizona
From introduction: The purposes of this exploration are to determine routes, to locate water holes, and to select areas where detailed geologic study could profitably be undertaken.
Lithologic Studies of Fine-Grained Upper Cretaceous Sedimentary Rocks of the Black Hills Region
More than nine-tenths of the Upper Cretaceous rocks in northeastern Wyoming are fine-grained shales, mudstones, and calcareous marls. A comparative study of the mineralogy, chemical and mechanical composition, density and porosity, fissility, and lamination of samples of these rocks discloses several relations that throw light on the geologic history and structural deformation of the region, and perhaps on its oil and gas possibilities.
Glaciation in Alaska
From introduction: The history of glaciation in Alaska offers a fascinating field for study. Because of the remarkable development and easy accessibility of valley and piedmont glaciers in the coastal mountains, Alaska has long been popularly conceived as a land of ice and snow, a concept that is only slowly being corrected. To the student of glaciation, however, Alaska affords a unique opportunity to observe the formation, movement, and dissipation of the many living glaciers, to examine the results of glacial erosion on a gigantic scale, and to discover and work out the sequence of Pleistocene events as shown by the topographic forms in both glaciated and unglaciated areas and by the deposits left by ice and water during earlier stages of glaciation.
Gold Quartz Veins of the Alleghany District, California
From Outline of the Report: The Alleghany district, in the southern part of Sierra County, Calif., has long been famous for the high-grade gold ore of its quartz veins. The oldest rocks of the district (pp. 6-17) are of sedimentary and volcanic origin and correspond to part of the Calaveras formation as mapped in the Colfax and Downieville folios of the Geologic Atlas of the United States. These rocks are divided into five formations, of which three-the Blue Canyon, Relief, and Cape Horn formations follow the definitions laid down by Lindgren in the Colfax folio, and two-the Tightner and Kanaka formations-are new units required by the more detailed nature of the present study. It is thought possible that a conglomerate which forms the basal part of the Kanaka formation is of glacial origin. Intrusions of gabbro and more basic rocks, the latter now completely serpentinized, crop out over nearly half the area in which pre-Tertiary rocks are exposed. Small granitic dikes of later age than the basic intrusives are found in the western part of the district. Overlying and largely concealing the older rocks are auriferous gravel of Eocene and Miocene age, andesitic breccia of probable Miocen age, basalt flows of probable Pleistocene age, and minor amounts of Pleistocene and Recent gravel.
A Miocene Flora From Grand Coulee, Washington
From introduction: The fossil plants described in the present report were collected at the north end of Grand Coulee during the summer of 1927 by Messrs. T. A. Bonser, F. A. Roberts, and Walter Bruce, of Spokane, and F. W. McCann, of Coulee City. The locality is in the big bend of the Columbia River near the northern boundary of Grant County, Wash., about 85 miles west of the plant-bearing Latah sediments around Spokane. The outcrop in Grand Coulee is about the same distance east of the crest of the Cascade Mountains, about 100 miles northeast of the plant beds at Ellensburg, which are of approximately the same age, and some 200 miles west of beds in Idaho yielding a similar flora and assigned to the Payette formation by Knowlton and others.
Miocene Foraminifera of the Coastal Plain of the Eastern United States
From introduction: In the following report the species of Foraminifera found in the Miocene of the Coastal Plain region of the eastern United States from Florida to Maryland are described and recorded. Numerous papers have been published on this region, some of which, however, are largely lists. Where the original material on which a paper was based has not been available for the present study, the records have been omitted, as it is very difficult to place the species in their proper position without seeing the actual specimens.
Origin of the Anhydrite Cap Rock of American Salt Domes
From abstract: The thesis of this paper is that the anhydrite cap rock of salt domes originated by the residual accumulation and consolidation, on top of a salt stock, of sedimentary anhydrite freed from the salt by solution of the top of the stock. This hypothesis is compared with that of origin from a bed of sedimentary anhydrite supposed to have overlain the salt of the salt stock in depth and to have been forced up on top of the stock as it rose. The strongest basis for the hypothesis of residual accumulation is the presence, between the anhydrite cap rock and the top of the salt stock on many salt domes, of a flat solution surface, the "salt table," decapitating anhydrite-bearing folds in the salt. The paper considers other general geologic evidence and internal petrographic evidence with a view to ascertaining to what extent they confirm or at least fit this interpretation.
Pliocene Fossils From Limestone in Southern Florida
Abstract: This paper describes the mollusks and echinoids found in limestone dredged from ditches along the Tamiami Trail in southern Florida, in the area mapped as "Lostmans River limestone (Quaternary)" by Sanford but included in the Pliocene Caloosahatchee formation by Cooke and Mossom on the evidence of these fossils as identified by Mansfield. The matrix of the fossils is unlike the typical Caloosahatchee formation, which is sandy, but the fauna is closely related to that of the upper part of the Caloosahatchee formation and is regarded as a facies of the Caloosahatchee. The fauna shows considerable resemblance to that of the Imperial formation of California but may not be contemporaneous with it.
A Descriptive Catalog of Selected Aerial Photographs of Geologic Features in the United States
From introduction: The U.S. Geological Survey has selected and assembled sets of photographs that illustrate numerous types of geologic features in the United States. This catalog lists these special sets of photographs that are available for purchase and describes the features illustrated. One reduced photograph from each set is shown on the back pages of this catalog to assist the purchaser in his selection.
Geologic Studies, Project Gnome, Eddy County, New Mexico
From abstract: For Project Gnome, part of the Plowshare Program to develop peaceful uses for nuclear energy, a nuclear device was detonated December 10, 1961, underground in rack salt of the Permian Salado Formation southeast of Carlsbad, New Mexico. The Geological Survey's investigations on behalf of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission provided basic geologic and geophysical information needed to define preshot and postshot geologic and hydrologic conditions at and near the site. This report describes the geology of the site, some physical and chemical properties of the rocks, and the known effects of the nuclear detonation on the rocks of the site.
Geology of the Eastern Part of the Santa Monica Mountains, Los Angeles County, California
From abstract: The Santa Monica Mountains lie only a few miles northwest of the city of Los Angeles and comprise one of the prominent structural features that adjoin the Los Angeles Basin, one of the most prolific oil-producing districts of California. Even though the eastern part of these mountains may yield no oil, information concerning the rock types, structural character, and detailed geologic history of this area should be of value to petroleum geologists. The area described in this report, which lies between Topanga Canyon on the west and the Los Angeles River on the east, presents a section of varied rock types including coarsely crystalline plutonic rocks, basic and acidic intrusive and pyroclastic rocks, metamorphic slate and schist, and a wide assortment of sedimentary rocks.
The Geological Importance of the Lime-Secreting Algae With a Description of a New Travertine-Forming Organism
This report describes the geologic importance of the lime-secreting algae.
Geology of the Big Snowy Mountains, Montana
From introduction: The main purpose of the field investigations on which this paper is based was to determine the structure of the mountains. The geologic formations were therefore studied, and sufficient data were obtained to construct a combined areal and structural map.
Geology and Ore Deposits of the Park City District, Utah
From introduction: This survey was the first systematic work undertaken in this geologic province since the Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel, in 1869, and was the first detailed geologic examination of a wide area in the Wasatch Range. Hence, an unusual amount of general geologic work in the region surrounding the special field was required to establish fundamental geologic facts.
Pre-Cambrian Rocks of the Lake Superior Region: A Review of Newly Discovered Geologic Features, with a Revised Geologic Map
From abstract: Detailed knowledge of the geology of the pre-Cambrian rocks of the Lake Superior region has been greatly augmented since the publication of Monograph 52 by the United States Geological Survey in 1911. The authors have attempted in the present report to assemble as much of this new information as possible, and to give the reader a birdseye view of the geology as seen in the light of all studies made there up to the present time. Detailed descriptions are not presented, and the emphasis is placed upon the major problems of correlation. A revised map of the region, with cross sections, accompanies the report, bringing up to date a knowledge of the areal geology of the region, which otherwise could be gained only by consulting some 150 maps contained in almost as many separate local reports, many of which are unpublished.
The Flora of the New Albany Shale: Part 1. Diichnia Kentuckiensis, a New Representative of the Calamopityeae
Abstract: A new genus of the Cycadofilicales, Diichnia, is described from the New Albany shale, of late Devonian age, in central Kentucky. The one known species, which is based on stem material showing internal structure, belongs in the family Calamopityeae. Foundation for the generic segregation is seen in the double leaf truce of the genotype, D. kentuckiensis, in contrast with the originally single trace in other known representatives of the family.