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Analysis of Rocket, Ramjet, Turbojet Engines for Supersonic Propulsion of Long-Range Missiles 2: Rocket Missile Performance
Memorandum presenting an investigation of the theoretical performance of a two-stage ballistic rocket missile with a centerbody and two parallel boosters for JP4-oxygen and ammonia-fluorine propellants. The missile using the ammonia-fluorine propellant weighs about one-half as much as a missile using JP4-oxygen. Results regarding the optimum missile and effect of variation of design parameters are provided.
Operation of an Experimental Air-Cooled Turbojet Engine at Turbine-Inlet Temperatures From 2200 R to 2935 R
Memorandum presenting an experimental investigation on a production-model turbojet engine modified by the substitution of special combustors and air-cooled turbine stator and rotor assemblies to determine some of the problems pertinent to the operation of air-cooled engines at turbine-inlet temperatures over 2200 degrees R. The investigation was conducted in an altitude chamber at simulated altitudes of 50,000 and 60,000 feet and a simulated flight Mach number of 0.8. Results regarding the combustion system, turbine stator, turbine rotor blades, turbine disks, and tailcone and other engine parts are provided.
Natural Icing of an Axial-Flow Turbojet Engine in Flight for a Single Icing Condition
Memorandum presenting an investigation in natural icing conditions to determine the effect of ice formations on the performance of an axial-flow turbojet engine. A description of the change over time in tail-pipe temperature, engine jet thrust, fuel flow, ice collection, and acceleration qualities are provided.
Preliminary Analysis of Performance of Turbojet Engines Used as Pumps for Boundary-Layer Control
Memorandum presenting a determination of the effects on engine performance of using turbojet engines for boundary-layer control by suction at the engine inlet or by bleeding air from the compressor outlet for three current production engines. Results regarding bleed, suction, and variable-area turbine are provided.
High Altitude Performance Investigation of J65-B-3 Turbojet Engine With Both JP-4 and Gaseous Hydrogen Fuels
Memorandum presenting an investigation to determine the performance of the J65-B-3 turbojet engine with JP-4 and gaseous-hydrogen fuels. With JP-4 fuel, the maximum altitude for stable combustion was from about 60,000 to 65,000 feet, and the ultimate blowout limit was at an altitude of about 75,000 feet. The steady-state performance with either fuel decreased considerably with increasing altitude.
Interference Effects of Fuselage-Stored Missiles on Inlet Duct Model of an Interceptor-Type Aircraft at Mach Numbers 1.5 to 1.9
Memorandum presenting the effect of missile armament on the performance of an interceptor-type aircraft model at Mach numbers 1.5, 1.7, and 1.9 and at angles of attack up to 19 degrees. The aircraft model was characterized by triangular-shaped normal-shock inlets located at wing roots. Results regarding force measurements, effect of armament on inlet-duct performance, fuselage boundary-layer survey, and total-pressure contours at inlet throat and diffuser exit are provided.
Investigation of Three Low-Temperature-Ratio Combustor Configurations in a 48-Inch-Diameter Ram-Jet Engine
Memorandum presenting a preliminary evaluation of three types of combustor configuration in a 48-inch-diameter ramjet engine in order to select the one with the greatest promise of efficient and stable combustion at low fuel-air ratios and low combustor-inlet pressures. Results regarding the inlet conditions, performance, and a comparison of the configurations are provided.
A Simplified Instrument for Recording and Indicating Frequency and Intensity of Icing Conditions Encountered in Flight
Memorandum presenting an instrument for recording and indicating the frequency and intensity of aircraft icing conditions to obtain statistical icing data over worldwide air routes during routine airline operations. Data of this type is needed to provide pertinent meteorological information necessary for the optimum design of ice-protection systems. The features that make this particular instrument desirable include the simplicity of operation, freedom from maintenance and operating problems, automatic operation upon encountering an icing condition, visual indications of icing intensity available to the pilot, total weight of 18 pounds, and continuous recorded data.
Tests of the Northrop XB-62 Missile in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel
Memorandum presenting a series of tests made on a full-scale Northrop XB-62 missile to determine the cause of a directional out-of-trim condition which was encountered on the initial missile flight tests. The results indicated that the directional out-of-trim condition was caused by aerodynamic loads induced by engine operation.
Tests of the Landing on Water of a Model of a High-Speed Airplane - Langley Tank Model 229
Memorandum presenting an investigation at the tank no. 2 monorail of the landing on smooth water of a scale model of a hypothetical jet- and rocket-propelled airplane designed to fly at transonic speeds. The test is part of an investigation of the feasibility of the operation from water of high-speed airplanes. The results of the test form a basis for evaluating the improvement in hydrodynamic characteristics.
Longitudinal Aerodynamic Characteristics to Large Angles of Attack of a Cruciform Missile Configuration at a Mach Number of 2
Memorandum presenting the lift, pitching-moment, and drag characteristics of a missile configuration with a body of fineness ratio 9.33 and a cruciform triangular wing and tail of aspect ratio 4 at a Mach number of 1.99 and a Reynolds number of 6.0 million. Testing was performed to investigate the effects on the aerodynamic characteristics of roll angle, wing-tail interdigitation, wing deflection, and interference among the components. Results regarding the body-wing-tail combination, body, wing and tail, body-wing and body-tail combinations, and body-wing-tail interference are provided.
Relation of Turbojet Propulsion System Development to the Strategic Bomber Mission
Memorandum presenting a generalized analysis of the effects of turbojet propulsion system development and fuel selection on ability of a strategic bomber to perform desired and minimum missions. The variation of bomber performance using a hydrocarbon, boron, or nuclear fuel is discussed.
Preliminary Results of Natural Icing of an Axial-Flow Turbojet Engine
Memorandum presenting a flight investigation in natural icing conditions to determine the effect of ice formations on the performance of an axial-flow turbojet engine. Tail-pipe temperature increased from 761 to 1065 degrees Fahrenheit and the jet thrust decreased from 1234 to 910 pounds during a period of 45 minutes in icing. No general conclusions can be reached from the data because the icing condition was relatively light.
Procedure for Measuring Liquid-Water Content and Droplet Sizes in Supercooled Clouds by Rotating Multicylinder Method
"The rotating multicylinder method for in-flight determination of liquid-water content, droplet size, and droplet-size distribution in icing clouds is described. The theory of operation, the apparatus required, the technique of obtaining data in flight, and detailed methods of calculating the results, including necessary charts and tables, are presented" (p. 1).
Preliminary Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Effect of Area Suction on the Laminar Boundary Layer Over an NACA 64A010 Airfoil
Memorandum presenting a preliminary investigation made in the two-dimensional low-turbulence tunnel on an NACA 64A010 airfoil with permeable surfaces to obtain an indication of the stabilizing effect of area suction on the laminar boundary layer. Although the airfoil surface had many waves and irregularities of contour, the data corroborated qualitatively the theoretically predicted stabilizing effect of area suction on a smooth flat plate.
Preliminary Investigation of a Technique for Stability Studies of a Self-Propelled Model of a Submerged Submarine
Report presenting the initial development of a technique for the qualitative study of the stability and control characteristics of a free, self-propelled, dynamic submarine model. Two types of control systems were evaluated. Results regarding the qualitative analysis of the control system, dive paths, equations of motion, and comparison with experimental paths are provided.
De-Icing and Runback Characteristics of Three Cyclic Electric, External De-Icing Boots Employing Chordwise Shedding
Memorandum presenting an icing investigation conducted to determine the general de-icing and runback characteristics of three production samples of electric rubber-clad cyclic de-icing boots. The overall de-icing characteristics of two of the boots investigated were quite similar. Results regarding boot surface temperatures and general de-icing and runback characteristics are provided.
Large-Scale Wind-Tunnel Tests of an Airplane Model With a 45 Degree Sweptback Wing of Aspect Ratio 2.8 With Area Suction Applied to Trailing-Edge Flaps and With Several Wing Leading-Edge Modifications
Memorandum presenting an investigation of an airplane model to determine the effect of area suction trailing-edge flaps and several leading-edge modifications on the aerodynamic characteristics of a 45 degree sweptback wing. The wing had an aspect ratio of 2.8 and a taper ratio of 0.17.
Experimental Investigation of Radome Icing and Icing Protection
Memorandum presenting an investigation conducted in the icing research tunnel to determine the icing characteristics, the effects of icing on radar operation, and the protection requirements for two radome configurations. The radomes were for the F-89 airplane and were investigated at airspeeds up to 290 miles per hour, air total temperatures from -15 to 20 degrees Fahrenheit, water contents up to 1.0 gram per cubic meter, and angles of attack of 0 and 4 degrees.
Experimental Investigation of Boundary-Layer Suction Through Slots to Obtain Extensive Laminar Boundary Layers on a 15 Percent-Thick Airfoil Section at High Reynolds Numbers
Memorandum presenting a two-dimensional wind-tunnel investigation to determine the extent to which boundary-layer removal through slots is effective as a means for maintaining extensive laminar layers at high Reynolds numbers. Results regarding drag, suction-flow and pressure-loss distribution, surface pressure distribution, lift, and difficulties encountered in obtaining extensive laminar flow are provided.
Effect of Design Variables on Performance of Mach 4.0 Hydrogen Expansion Engines
Memorandum presenting performance calculations for hypothetical hydrogen expansion engines in which only a small part of the engine airflow passes through the heat exchanger. The flight path was representative of those for long-range, high-speed aircraft. Results regarding the off-design operation and engine performance are provided.
Experimental Investigation of Laminar-Boundary-Layer Control on an Airfoil Section Equipped With Suction Slots Located at Discontinuities in the Surface Pressure Distribution
Memorandum presenting an experimental investigation of a two-dimensional, 6.6-percent-thick, 6-foot-chord airfoil section equipped with suction slots for laminar-boundary-layer control. The section was designed to have favorable pressure gradients between the suction slots. The laminar boundary layer on the airfoil had the same extreme sensitivity to minute details of the model surface condition as has been found in other investigations.
Effect of Throat Bleed on the Supersonic Performance of a Half-Conical Side-Inlet System
Memorandum presenting an experimental investigation conducted at Mach numbers 1.5, 1.8, and 2.0 to determine the effects of several throat boundary-layer bleed configurations on the performance of a 25 degree half-conical side-inlet system. The effects of several flush-slot configurations and a porous-surface bleed were determined over ranges of angle of attack and bleed-duct and main-duct mass flow.
Experimental Investigation of Effect of Spike- Tip and Cowl-Lip Blunting on the Internal Performance of a Two-Cone Cylindrical-Cowl Inlet at Mach Number 4.95
Memorandum presenting the effect of blunting on the internal performance of a two-cone inlet with an internally cylindrical cowl investigated experimentally at Mach number 4.95. Total-pressure-recovery and mass-flow data were obtained for a range of spike and cowl bluntness.
Evaluation of Some Aerodynamic Controls for a Low Aspect Ratio Missile
"Results of a static stability controls investigation carried out with a very low-aspect-ratio delta-winged missile are presented. Control effectiveness comparisons are made for tail, canard, and nose control configurations with respect to angle of attack, angle of bank, and Mach number. Trim capabilities of the various configurations are also presented" (p. 1).
A Heated-Wire Liquid-Water-Content Instrument and Results of Initial Flight Tests in Icing Conditions
Memorandum presenting an investigation of a flight version of the NACA heated-wire liquid-water-content instrument, which was constructed and flight tested in natural icing conditions. Data obtained simultaneously with rotting multicylinders indicated that reliable flight measurements of liquid-water content could be made with the heated-wire instrument.
Supplementary Investigation in the Langley 20-Foot Free-Spinning Tunnel of a 1/20-Scale Model of the Douglas F4D-1 Airplane With External Wing Fuel Tanks
Report presenting an investigation in the 20-foot free-spinning tunnel on a scale model to determine the spin and recovery characteristics of the Douglas F4D-1 airplane equipped with external fuel tanks. Results regarding erect spins, inverted spins, and parachute results are provided.
Supersonic Investigation of the Lift, Drag, Static Stability, and Hinge-Moment Characteristics of a Rocket-Powered Model of a Ballistic-Missile Configuration
Memorandum presenting a free-flight investigation to determine the lift, drag, static stability, and hinge-moment characteristics of a rocket-powered model of a rocket-powered model of a ballistic-missile configuration at supersonic speeds. The model consisted essentially of a body of fineness ratio 16.9 and a cruciform set of small 60 degree delta fins located approximately 1 body diameter from the base of the body. The model lift and pitching-moment coefficients were nonlinear with angle of attack.
Supplementary Free-Spinning-Tunnel Investigation of a 1/20-Scale Model of the McDonnell F2H-3 Airplane With External Stores Installed
Memorandum presenting a supplementary investigation in the 20-foot free-spinning tunnel to determine the effect of external stores and lateral center-of-gravity displacement on the spin and spin-recovery characteristics of a scale model of the McDonnell F2H-3 airplane. Results regarding wing-tip tanks and experimental aerodynamic shapes are provided.
Tabulated Pressure Coefficients and Aerodynamic Characteristics Measured in Flight on the Wing of the Douglas D-558-I Airplane for a 1 g Stall, a Speed Run to a Mach Number of 0.90, and a Wind-Up Turn at a Mach Number of 0.86
"Tabulated pressure coefficients and aerodynamic characteristics are presented unanalyzed for six spanwise stations on the right wing of the Douglas D-558-I research airplane (BuAero No. 37972). The data were obtained in a 1 g stall at subcritical Mach numbers, in a speed run to a Mach number of 0.90 and in a wind-up turn at a Mach number of 0.86" (p. 1).
Investigations of Slot Configurations for Film-Cooled Turbine Blades by Flow Visualization Methods
Memorandum presenting a procedure for obtaining qualitative information on the effectiveness of different slot configurations to make the flow of the cooling air visible. Two methods are utilized: one utilizes the traces caused by a reaction between paint spread over the blade surface and a gas mixed with the cooling air, while the other utilized smoke mixed with the cooling air to make it visible. From the visual observations, the use of a continuous slot as a means of creating the cooling film over the blade surface appeared to be superior to the use of holes or grooves.
Induction System Characteristics and Engine Surge Occurrence for Two Fighter-Type Airplanes
Memorandum presenting an investigation conducted to measure and compare the total-pressure recovery and distortion characteristics at the compressor face of two single-place fighter-type airplanes with similar two-spool turbojet engines, but with dissimilar inlets. The total-pressure recovery was relatively independent of angle of attack and mass-flow ratio for both airplanes except for a significant decrease in pressure recovery with angle of attack for airplane B at the highest Mach numbers tested.
Boundary-Layer Measurements on Several Porous Materials With Suction Applied
Memorandum presenting the boundary-layer velocity profiles were measured on ten samples of various porous materials and on impervious aluminum plate mounted flush with the inner surface of the side wall of a small wind tunnel. Suction was applied to the back side of the porous test materials through a 4-inch-square opening. Results regarding measurements on the impervious plate and measurements on porous materials without suction and with suction are provided.
Calculated Performance of a Direct-Air Nuclear Turbojet-Powered Airplane Using a Split-Flow Reactor and a Separated-Type Shield
Memorandum presenting an analysis made to estimate the performance of a direct-air nuclear turbojet-powered airplane using a split-flow reactor and a separated-type shield. The analysis was for flight Mach numbers of 0.9 and 1.5 and covered a range of altitudes, reactor-wall temperatures, turbine-inlet temperatures, compressor pressure ratios, and airplane lift-drag ratios.
The Subsonic Lateral and Longitudinal Static Stability Characteristics Up to Large Angles of Sideslip for a Triangular-Wing Airplane Model Having a Ventral Fin
"Wind-tunnel tests were conducted to determine the effects of a ventral fin on the static characteristics of a triangular-wing airplane model. Data were obtained for angles of sideslip up to 18 degrees at angles of attack of 0, 6, 12, and 18 degrees at Mach numbers from 0.25 to 0.94. The results of the tests indicated that the ventral fin did not produce as much yawing moment per unit of exposed area at any angle of sideslp as the vertical tail" (p. 1).
Impingement of water droplets on an NACA 65(sub 1) -212 airfoil at an angle of attack of 4 degrees
The trajectories of droplets in the air flowing past an NACA 651-212 airfoil at an angle of attack of 40 were determined. The collection efficiency, the area of droplet impingement, and the rate of droplet impingement were calculated from the trajectories and are presented herein.
Effect of pressure level on afterburner-wall temperatures
Report presenting an investigation conducted on a full-scale afterburner and turbojet engine to determine the effect of pressure level on afterburner-wall temperature. For a given ratio of cooling airflow to afterburner gas flow, the afterburner-wall temperature increased as afterburner-outlet pressure was increased. The results indicated that heat transfer by luminous radiation was not significant any pressure level investigated.
Fabrication and Properties of Hot-Pressed Molybdenum Disilicide
Report presenting an investigation of hot-pressed molbdenum disilicide bodies produced by industrial processes at a temperature of 2950 degrees and a pressure of 3000 pounds per square inch. Results regarding the short-time tensile strength, stress-rupture data, compression strength, air-corrosion resistance, hardness, coefficient of linear thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, and density are provided.
Comparison of Several Methods of Cyclic De-Icing of a Gas-Heated Airfoil
"Several methods of cyclic de-icing of a gas-heated airfoil were investigated to determine ice-removal characteristics and heating requirements. The cyclic de-icing system with a spanwise ice-free parting strip in the stagnation region and a constant-temperature gas-supply duct gave the quickest and most reliable ice removal. Heating requirements for the several methods of cyclic de-icing are compared, and the savings over continuous ice prevention are shown. Data are presented to show the relation of surface temperature, rate of surface heating, and heating time to the removal of ice" (p. 1).
Icing Characteristics and Anti-Icing Heat Requirements for Hollow and Ternally Modified Gas-Heated Inlet Guide Vanes
"A two-dimensional inlet-guide-vane cascade was investigated to determine the effects of ice formations on the pressure losses across the guide vanes and to evaluate the heated gas flow and temperature required to prevent Icing at various conditions. A gas flow of approximately 0.4 percent of the inlet-air flow was necessary for anti-icing a hollow guide-vane stage at an inlet-gas temperature of 500 F under the following icing conditions: air velocity, 280 miles per hour; water content, 0.9 gram per cubic meter; and Inlet-air static temperature, 00 F. Also presented are the anti-icing gas flows required with modifications of the hollow Internal gas passage, which show heat input savings greater than 50 percent" (p. 1).
Flight Instrument for Measurement of Liquid-Water Content in Clouds at Temperatures Above and Below Freezing
"A principle formerly used in an instrument for cloud detection was further investigated to provide a simple and rapid means for measuring the liquid-water content of clouds at temperatures above and below freezing. The instrument consists of a small cylindrical element so operated at high surface temperatures that the impingement of cloud droplets creates a significant drop in the surface temperature. The instrument is sensitive to a wide range of liquid-water content and was calibrated at one set of fixed conditions against rotating multicylinder measurements. The limited conditions of the calibration Included an air temperature of 20 F, an air velocity of 175 miles per hour, and a surface temperature in clear air of 475 F" (p. 1).
Preliminary Survey of Icing Conditions Measured During Routine Transcontinental Airline Operation
"Icing data collected on routine operations by four DC-4-type aircraft equipped with NACA pressure-type icing-rate meters are presented as preliminary information obtained from a statistical icing data program sponsored by the NACA with the cooperation of many airline companies and the United States Air Force. The program is continuing on a much greater scale to provide large quantities of data from many air routes in the United States and overseas. Areas not covered by established air routes are also being included in the survey. The four aircraft which collected the data presented in this report were operated by United Air Lines over a transcontinental route from January through May, 1951" (p. 1).
Analysis of the Liquid-metal Turbojet Cycle for Propulsion of Nuclear Powered Aircraft
Report presenting an analysis of the nuclear powered liquid-metal turbojet cycle for a wide range of engine operating conditions at a range of flight Mach numbers and altitudes. The method of analysis and working charts are presented to facilitate investigations beyond the scope of this report.
Free-Flight Skin Temperature and Pressure Measurements on a Slightly Blunted 25 Deg Cone-Cylinder-Flare Configuration to a Mach Number of 9.89
"Skin temperatures and surface pressures have been measured on a slightly blunted cone-cylinder-flare configuration to a maximum Mach number of 9.89 with a rocket-propelled model. The cone had a total angle of 25 deg and the flare had a 10 deg half-angle. Temperature data were obtained at eight cone locations, four cylinder locations, and seven flare locations; pressures were measured at one cone location, one cylinder location, and three flare locations" (p. 1).
Experimental Investigation of Average Heat-Transfer and Friction Coefficients for Air Flowing in Circular Tubes Having Square-Thread-Type Roughness
"An investigation of forced-convection heat transfer and associated pressure drops was conducted with air flowing through electrically heated Inconel tubes having various degrees of square-thread-type roughness, an inside diameter of 1/2 inch, and a length of 24 inches were obtained for tubes having conventional roughness ratios (height of thread/radius of tube) of 0 (smooth tube), 0.016, 0.025, and 0.037 over ranges of bulk Reynolds numbers up to 350,000, average inside-tube-wall temperatures up to 1950deg R, and heat-flux densities up to 115,000 Btu per hour per square foot" (p. 1).
A Study of Injection Processes for 15-percent Fluorine-85- Percent Oxygen and Heptane in a 200-pound-thrust Rocket Engine
Injection techniques for fluorine, oxygen, and heptane in 200-pound thrust rocket engine.
Investigation of the air-flow-regulation characteristics of a translating-spike inlet with two oblique shocks from Mach 1.6 to 2.0
Translating spike inlet air flow regulation characteristics from transonic to supersonic speeds at zero angle of attack.
An Investigation at Low Speed of the Spin Instability of Mortar-Shell Tails
An investigation was made in the Langley stability tunnel to study the influence of number of fins, fin shrouding, and fin aspect ratio on the spin instability of mortar-shell tail surfaces. It was found that the 12-fin tails tested spun less rapidly throughout the angle-of-yaw range than did the 6-fin tails and that fin shrouding reduced the spin encountered by a large amount.
Measurement of distortion in second experimental control rod for argonne naval reactor with constant transverse temperature gradient and uniform longitudinal temperature distribution
Report presenting measurements of the thermal distortion of a stainless-steel clad, cadmium-silver reactor control rod. The temperature pattern of the rod is described. The maximum reduction in clearance obtained in the tests was 0.203 inch.
Effectiveness of Thermal-Pneumatic Airfoil-Ice-Protection System
From Summary: "Icing and drag investigations were conducted in the NACA Lewis icing research tunnel employing a combination thermal-pneumatic de-icer mounted on a 42-inch-chord NACA 0018 airfoil. The de-icer consisted of a 3-inch-wide electrically heated strip symmetrically located about the leading edge with inflatable tubes on the upper and lower airfoil surfaces aft of the heated area. The entire de-icer extended to approximately 25 percent of chord. A maximum power density of 9.25 watts per square inch was required for marginal ice protection on the airfoil leading edge at an air temperature of 00 F and an airspeed of 300 miles per hour."