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Topical Report: Task 1.2 "Fluid Density"
No Description Available.
Topical Report: Task 2.1 "Aphron Visualization"
The Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer has been identified as a potential method for monitoring the size distribution of aphrons in situ, such as in an oil well drilling fluid flowline.1 Research was continued from Task 1.1 of this Project, Aphron Visualization,2 in which ABS was tested against laser light scattering (Coulter Counter) and optical (visual) imaging to determine the bubble size distribution (BSD) of the aphrons at ambient temperature and pressure. Task 2.1 continued this investigation by measuring the bubble size distribution via ABS and optical imaging at elevated pressures up to 2000 psig.
Topical Report: Task 1.4 Correlation of Capillary Suction Time with Leak-Off Behavior
Core Leak-off tests are commonly used to ascertain the ability of a drilling fluid to seal permeable rock under downhole conditions. Unfortunately, these tests are expensive and require a long time to set up. To monitor fluid invasion trends and to evaluate potential treatments for reducing fluid invasion on location, a simpler screening test is highly desirable. The Capillary Suction Time (CST) Test has been used since the 1970's as a fast, yet reliable, method for characterizing fluid filterability and the condition of colloidal materials in water treatment facilities and drilling fluids. For the latter, it has usually been applied to determine the state of flocculation of clay-bearing fluids and to screen potential shale inhibitors. In this work, the CST method was evaluated as a screening tool for predicting relative invasion rates of drilling fluids in permeable cores. However, the drilling fluids examined--DRILPLEX, FLOPRO, and APHRON ICS--are all designed to generate low fluid loss and give CST values that are so high that fluid invasion comes to be dominated by experimental artifacts, such as fluid evaporation. As described in this work, the CST procedure was modified so as to minimize such artifacts and permit differentiation of the fluids under investigation.
Topical Report: Task 2.3 "Aphron Shell Hydrophobicity"
Various methods were investigated to measure the oil-wetting character of transient bubbles under static and dynamic conditions, in order to determine the roles played by bubble and micellar agglomeration, coalescence and adhesion to mineral surfaces.
Topical Report: Task 1.3 "Aphron Air Diffusivity"
A method is developed to monitor the rate of loss of air from aphrons at elevated pressures. This technique is used to study the effects of pressure, fluid composition and rates of pressurization and depressurization on the kinetics of air loss from aphrons in APHRON ICS{trademark} drilling fluids.
Topical Report: Task 2.2 "Pressure Transmissibility"
The rate and amplitude of pressure transmission of various drilling fluids--particularly aphron drilling fluids--are measured in a long conduit and in sand packs to determine how pressure transmissibility can affect fluid invasion.