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Numerical Results for EGCR Moderator-Element Stress Problems
From introduction: "A recent report describes the development of a general program for the IBM Type 7090 electronic computer for calculating plane thermal stresses."
The Recovery of Uranium from Chattanooga Shales
Recovery of uranium from Chattanooga shales.
Hazards Summary Report for the Battelle Research Reactor
From summary: "This report was prepared for the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards for their review and consideration of the potential hazards concerning the Battelle Memorial Institute Research Reactor."
Critical-Assembly Studies on an Intermediate Reactor for Aircraft Propulsion
The following report studies an intermediate solid-fuel reactor system for aircraft propulsion.
GCRE Critical-Assembly Studies
This report follows critical-assembly studies made to provide engineering and physics data to aid in developing the Gas Cooled Reactor Experiments.
The Effect of Fabrication Variables on the Structure and Properties of UO₂-Stainless Steel Dispersion Fuel Plates
From introduction: "This report deals with a part of the research and development studies which preceded the manufacture of fuel elements for the Gas Cooled Reactor Experiment (GCRE)." The studies evaluate the effects of varying the type and size of UO2 particles, stainless steel matrix powders, blending procedures, compacting pressures, sintering times, temperatures and atmospheres, roll-cladding temperatures and reduction rates, total cold reduction, and heat-treating times and temperatures has been made for UO2 stainless steel dispersion fuel elements."
Final Report on Recovery of Thorium and Uranium From Monazite Sands, Volume 2
From abstract: "Details are presented on the processing of monazite sand and on separating the rare earths from thorium and uranium. Solvent-extraction and ion-exchange techniques for purifying thorium and uranium are described."
Final Report on Purification of Thorium Nitrate by Solvent Extraction With Tributyl Phosphate: 1. Laboratory Investigations
Report discussing laboratory investigations of thorium nitrate purification. Batch equilibrium data, solubility data, viscosity data, density data, and the results seven batch countercurrent extraction tests and two selective stripping tests are included.
An evaluation of data on zirconium-uranium alloys
Report describing the literature relative to zirconium-uranium alloys. The available data related to zirconium-uranium alloys is analyzed in an attempt to understand the behavior and nature of the alloy. Other aspects of zirconium-uranium alloys are discussed in the report.
Evaluation of Reactor Core Materials for a Gas-Cooled Reactor Experiment
From introduction: "On February 1, 1956, Batelle was awarded a contract by the Army Reactor Branch (ARB) to select, develop, and test core materials which could be used successfully in conducting a Gas Cooled Reactor Experiment (GCRE). The prime objective of the GCRE would be to evaluate small portable reactor systems for military application...The present report is concerned with the GCRE activities at Batelle during approximately the 7 months' period following the first report of this series, BMI-1133. It is primarily concerned with a detailed evaluation of the reference materials as well as of the impact of one material upon the other."
A Study of Thorium-Base Alloys
Report discussing studies testing various thorium alloys consisting of either Ames thorium and up to 5% of various additions or Ames thorium and up to 50% uranium. Effects of molybdenum additions for fusion welding, and cold-work strengthening were also tested. Methods, experimental data, and discussion is included.
Hazards Summary Report for the Reflector-Control Critical-Assembly Experiments
This report analyzes the stability and feasibility of a reflector-control system for a boiling heterogeneous reactor.
Final Report on Purification of Thorium Nitrate by Solvent Extraction With Tributyl Phosphate: 2. Mixer-Settler Pilot Plant Investigations
From abstract: "This report describes the construction and operation of a mixer-settler pilot plant for the purification of mantle-grade thorium nitrate. The liquid-liquid extraction process utilized 30% tributyl phosphate - 70% 'Solvesso-100' as the organic solvent and nitric acid as the salting agent. Continuous steady-state operation of the equipment was demonstrated, with very good recovery of thorium."
The technology of thorium
A report describing the technological uses of thorium. The report details interest in thorium as a potential source of the fissionable isotope U233 as well as possessing other applications. Most of the information in this report was obtained from project literature and from unpublished data available to the authors.
Theoretical Studies of the Solidification of Uranium Castings
Report discussing a method of evaluating factors relevant to the creation of sound uranium castings. From abstract: "A mathematical model has been developed to calculate the time-temperature relationships in a cylindrical uranium casting during its solidification. Finite-difference equations are used, and the solution is obtained by use of a digital computer."
A study of the dip coating of uranium sheet with aluminum-silicon alloy
A report which covers an investigation of techniques for producing hot-dip Al-Si coatings on uranium sheet. Also, the study is concerned with the effects of time and temperature of dipping on the intermetallic zone and its ductility.
Neutron-Flux Measurements in a Flat Plat Fuel Element
The following report presents neutron-flux measurements with the Mark I element, which include neutron-flux distribution and flux depression within the element.
Plastic Deformation in Grooved Rolls
This report covers a study of the deformation characteristics of uranium in grooved rolls. The study's purpose was to provide a basis for possible improvements in the uniformity of the rolled rod produced for the Hanford and Savannah River reactors.
Nondestructive Measurements of Aluminum and Nickel Layers on Uranium
From introduction: "This report covers the development of nondestructive techniques for measuring quantitatively: (1) thickness of electrodeposited-nickel diffusion barriers, and (2) thickness of aluminum cladding on flat-plate fuel elements."
A Study of the Feasibility of a Tracer System for Locating a Fuel-Element Failure in Reactors
Report discussing a study that investigates the use of small amounts of tracer elements placed in the fuel alloy of subassemblies in order to locate fuel-element failure. Details of experimental methods and materials are included as well as data that leads to the suggestion of further investigation.
Temperature distributions in a reactor fuel plate
Report detailing local heat-transfer coefficients as they relate to temperature distribution in reactor fuel plates.
A Study of Internal Friction and Twin-Boundary Movement in Uranium
From abstract: "The internal friction of recrystallized uranium has been shown to depend directly on heating and cooling rates and on the rate of application or removal of an external stress during measurement. At zero heating or stress rate, the internal friction falls to a low value and appears to decrease indefinitely at room temperature. Micrographs showing twin disappearance on removal or reversal of load are shown...It is concluded that the various internal-friction phenomena are the result of the stress-induced motion of twin boundaries." Results are compared with similar studies as well.
The Mechanical Properties of Beta-Quenched Uranium at Elevated Temperatures
The creep strength and tensile properties-were determined in vacuum for beta-quenched, derby uranium. The stresses to produce a secondary creep rate of- 0.0001 per cent per hr at 100, 250, 400, and 500 deg C were 48,000, sile strengths were 114,500, 35,100, 11,100, and 8,500 psi at temperatares of 28, 300, 500, and 700 deg C, respectively. The creep and tensile strengths decrease quite rapidly with increasing temperature in the temperatare range 250 to 400 deg C.
Neutron-Flux Measurements in a Concentric-Cylinder Fuel Element
The following report presents neutron-flux measurements made with a concentric-cylinder element (Mark II) and includes axial, radial, and peripheral flux distributions.
Corrosion of thorium and uranium during long-term storage
From introduction: "The over-all objective of the present study was to determine the nature and extent of the present study was to determine the nature and extent of the corrosion of these materials under a variety of such storage conditions and to determine the ability of several potential protective coatings to retard this corrosion."
The Electrical Properties of Uranium Oxides
From introduction: "The work described here was part of an integrated investigation of the fundamental properties of uranium oxides done for the Mallinckrodt Chemical Works. Electrical measurements were employed to characterize the oxides produced by various processes from different starting materials. The basic objective of the program was to determine those factors which affect the sintering characteristics of uranium dioxide."
Electroplated Metals on Uranium
The following report follows the studies of electroplating on uranium and concurrent metallurgical clodding.
Estimated Manufacturing Costs for the Recovery of Thorium and Uranium from Monazite Sand
Abstract: "Costs have been estimated for the production of uranium and pure thorium from monasite concentrates by a process involving (1) reaction of monasite with caustic soda, (2) dissolution of the hydrous oxides in hydrochloric acid, (3) separation from the bulk of the rare earths by hydroxide precipitation of thorium and uranium, and (4) purification by solvent extraction."
Examination of Factors Affecting the Quality of Vacuum Induction-Melted Uranium
The following report examines primarily water and air factors that affect the quality of vacuum induction-melted uranium, yet follows experiments with other factors such as graphite and zirconium crucibles under dry and wet conditions, usage of hydrogen, oxygen, CO and other subject admitted to determine pressure-time relationships and residual gas compositions, as well as a study of water-gas reaction within the furnace.
Experimental Fabrication of a Lightweight Control Rod
Abstract: "The possibility of fabricating a lightweight control rod from one of several high cross-section materials was investigated. The major effort was directed toward the development of a titanium-clad rod containing a composite core of 25 weight per cent Gd2O3 in a matrix of titanium. Experimentation on both subscale and full-scale control-rod cores showed that the fabricating behavior of the two was not analogous. To roll the full-scale core successfully, it was necessary to lower the oxide content to 17 weight per cent. Subscale investigations were also carried out on titanium-cadmium, titanium-lanthanum, and titanium-gadolinium alloys."
The Fabrication and Compatibility of Metallic Fuel Elements for High-Temperature Service
From summary: "This report covers an experimental investigation into the fabrication of various potential fuel-element materials and the testing of these materials for compatibility with structural metals at 1090 C (2000 F)."
Examination of Factors Affecting the Quality of Vacuum Induction-Melted Uranium
The following report examines primarily water and air factors that affect the quality of vacuum induction-melted uranium, yet follows experiments with other factors such as graphite and zirconium crucibles under dry and wet conditions, usage of hydrogen, oxygen, CO and other subject admitted to determine pressure-time relationships and residual gas compositions, as well as a study of water-gas reaction within the furnace.
Extrusion Cladding of Uranium Fuel Plates
The following report describes two methods of extrusion cladding of uranium fuel plates that were investigated and evaluated.
The Fabrication of Subassemblies for the Supercritical-Water Reactor
In studies of the fabrication of fuel subassemblies for the supercritical-water reactor, the limited ductility of stainless steel-UO₂ fuel sheet made the fabrication of corrugated-flat-plate-type subassemblies impractical. A fabricable MTR-type assembly, 5/8 in. square and 30 in. long, was developed. Methods for edge cladding fuel sheet were developed and a brazing alloy, GE-75, was found to be corrosion resistant in supercritical water.
Further Studies with the GCRE Critical-Assembly
This report follows ciritical-assembly studies on: the effect on reactivity caused by changes in axial reflector materials; the effect on reactivity and the power perturbation caused by fast safety control-blade guides; the effect of changes in fuel-element material composition; the effect of changes in fuel-elements spacing designed to produce uniform radial power-generation rates.
Grain Refinement of Uranium by Alloying
Binary alloys of uranium with 38 elements in the range 0.01 to 1.0 at.% were made. Three alloys having nominal compositions of 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 at.% were made with most of the elements, and in addition, 12 ternary and quaternary alloys were made. The alloys were cast, rolled to 7/8-inch-diameter bars, heat treated, and examined for grain size.
Final Report on Recovery of Thorium and Uranium From Monazite Sand : Volume 1
Report describing a method for recovery of high yields of thorium and uranium from monazite sand concentrates. Monazite is decomposed into hydrous metal oxides, which are dissolved in an acid. The solution is then separated into a precipitate, which seperates from thorium and uranium. An alternate separation method is evaluated.
Engineering Properties of High-Density Concretes
From summary: "Methods were developed for measuring various engineering properties of high-density concretes. Data are presented on selected thermal properties of a limonite-iron concrete and the mechanical properties of the limonite-iron concrete, a magnesium oxychloride concrete, and a Portland cement concrete containing steel punchings and shot (no limonite)."
Evaluation of Oxidation-Resistant Ceramics for High-Temperature Reactor Elements
Abstract: "As a possible aid in the selection of ceramic materials for use in the fabrication of high-temperature reactor elements, the reported properties of 23 refractory oxidation-resistance ceramic compounds are tabulated. The thermal stresses and heat throughout capacities for nine of these compounds are estimated for conditions of steady heat flow and uniform heat generation in the temperature range of 1500 to 2500 F. The compounds studied have macroscopic thermal-neutron-absorption cross sections lower than 0.2 per centimeter. Data concerning the high-temperature stability of uranium compounds are tabulated for those with melting points above 2450 F."
Fabrication of Dispersed Uranium Fuel Elements Using Powder-Metallurgy Techniques
Abstract: "Fabrication techniques for producing dispersion fuel elements with cores of 30 volume per cost of UC, U2Tl, U3Si, or U6Ni dispersed in Zircology 2 and 30 volume per cent of UC or UN dispersed in Type 18-8 stainless steel have been investigated. Roll-clad plate-type elements of all these compositions may be fabricated by powder-metallurgy methods in such a manner that good core-to-cladding bonds and cores with uniform dispersions of discrete uranium-composed particles are obtained. From the standpoint of fabricability, elements containing UC is Zircology 2, UC in stainless steel, and UN in stainless steel are the most promising. The UN in stainless steel has the best corrosion resistance in 680 F degassed water; however, UC in stainless steel has the best resistance to corrosion in 700 F NaK."
Effect of Ceramic or Metal Additives in High-UO₂ Bodies
The following report focuses on research made to determine whether the service performance of UO₂ fuel-elements cores for the PWR can be improved by certain ceramic or metal additions.
The Effects of Ternary Alloying Additions on the Corrosion Resistance of Epsilon-Phase Uranium-Zirconium Alloys
Abstract: "The corrosion rate in 680 F water of the uranium-50 w/o zirconium binary alloy was found to be -0.20 mg/(cm2)(hr), and that of the uranium-40 w/o zirconium binary alloy was -0.34 mg/(cm2)(hr). Both alloys correlated uniformly, with no evidence of discontinuous failure. Normal variations in interstitial content in either alloy had no significant effect on corrosion behavior. Tantalum additions, in the range of 0.2 to 5 w/o, improved the corrosion rate of the uranium-50 w/o zirconium base, with a minimum rate of -0.06 mg/(cm2)(hr) for the 5 w/o tantalum alloy. The 5 w/o tantalum addition to the uranium-40 w/o zirconium alloy. The 5 w/o tantalum addition to the uranium-40 w/o zirconium alloy decreased the corrosion rate of the base to -0.11 mg/(cm2)(hr) in the [...] condition only. In either conditions, the 5 w/o tantalum alloy failed discontinuously. All other additions to both bases either had no effect or decreased corrosion resistance. These included aluminum, chromium, iron, molybdenum, nickel, platinum, tin, titanium, tungsten, and vanadium additions."
Composition of vapors from boiling nitric acid solutions
From abstract: "The composition of vapors from aqueous nitric acid solutions boiling at 200 mm mercury total pressure is established for solutions containing between - and 67.5 w/o nitric acid. The volatility characteristics of low concentrations of chloride in the same concentration range of nitric acid have been measured in solutions boiling at 200 mm mercury. The effects of chloride concentration and pressure of boiling are evaluated. A spectrophotometric method of the determination of chloride in nitric acid solutions is described."
Centrifugal Casting of Aluminum-Uranium Alloys
"Centrifugal-casting techniques were investigated as a method of producing hollow cylindrical extrusion billets of aluminum-35 w/o uranium. Among the variables evaluated were melt temperature, mold and pouring-spout configurations, mold speed, and method of pouring. With the equipment employed it was found that the best castings were produced stilizing a pouring temperature of 2400 F, a heavy-walled steel cylinder rotating between 700 to 900 rpm for the mold and bottom-pouring technique employing a retractable pouring spout. Sound, nonporous billets 26 in. long and 5 in. in diameter were produced with a yield after machining of over 75 per cent of the original charge. The major losses occurred in the pouring spout-and-cup assembly. This loss is relatively unaffected by the casting length; and, therefore, coatings of greater length than 26 in. should results in even greater recoveries.
The Characteristics of the Bond Interface Formed Between Zircaloy 2 and Uranium-12 w/o Molybdenum
The following report analyzes the results taken from studies on the characteristics of the bond interface formed between zircaloy 2 and uranium-12 w/o molybdenum alloys.
The Cladding of Delta-Phase Zirconium Hydride
Abstract: A study has been made of the cladding of solid and powdered delta-phase zirconium hydride is both red and flat shapes with stainless steel. The program included investigations of metallurgical bonding, both with and without the sore of metallic barrier materials. Types 304 and 347 stainless steel were used for cladding material. The intermediate barrier-layer materials used were niobium, molybdenum, a combination of copper and molybdenum, and a combination of copper and niobium. The pressure-bonding techniques, involving the use of gas pressure at elevated temperatures, was employed in this study. Variable times and temperatures with a constant pressure of 10,000 poi were utilized by produce bonding. In this study, the best results were archived is cladding delta-phase zirconium hydride directly with Types 304 or 347 stainless steel. Good bonds were obtained by pressure bonding at 1600 F for 3 or 4 hr subsequent to pressure bonding at 1900 F for 1 to 2 hr at a pressure of 10,000 poi. Partial bonding was achieved between niobium and zirconium hydride and molybdeum and girconium hydride.
Fused Salt Mixtures as Potential Liquid Fuels for Nuclear Power Reactors
From introduction: "This report summarizes the work done on a study of fused-salt systems in a search for new liquid fuels suitable for use in a nuclear power reactor."
Corrosion of Uranium Alloys in High-Temperature Water
This report is one of a series of five, dealing with alloys of the uranium-zirconium series. Particularly, this report focuses on the corrosion properties of uranium alloys, with zirconium as the major alloying agent, in high-temperature water.
Fast-Neutron and Gamma Spectrum and Dose in Beryllium Oxide
This report follows a series of tests run to determine the shielding properties of beryllium oxide, conducted at the Battelle Lid-Tank Shielding Facility. Neutron and gamma penetrations through and behind beryllium oxide were measured.
Annealing of crystal distortion in irradiated graphite
From introduction: "As part of the program for improvement of graphite, the structural characteristics of graphite have been studied to determine the relation between physical and structural changes during irradiation."