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Farm Practices That Increase Crop Yields in Kentucky and Tennessee
"In the limestone and mountain districts south of the Ohio River there is much land that has been run down by continual cropping without rotation. In some places run-down land is left to grow up in weeds, wild grasses, and brush, a practice known as 'resting' the land. Where this sort of farm management is followed farm manure is largely wasted, little or no attention is paid to green-manure crops or other means of putting humus into the soil, and crop yields are very low. However, progressive farmers throughout the region who have built up run-down lands are now getting heavy yields. In the following pages are described some of the methods by which these farmers get results by making good use of farm manure and crop refuse, using legumes and grasses in regular rotations, and applying lime and commercial fertilizers." -- p. 2
Ways of Making Southern Mountain Farms More Productive
"The southern mountain farm often produces no more than a scant living for the family. Corn is the chief crop grown. Often part of the farm lies idle, being 'rested' while corn is grown on another part year after year until the land is worn out. By growing three or more crops in rotation, including clover, the farmer will be able to produce larger crops, make more money, and keep all crop land under cultivation all the time. Cattle, hogs, and sheep will not only add to the cash income, but will help to increase the fertility of the soil, and render larger crops possible. This bulletin describes crop rotations for small mountain farms in the southern Alleghenies, and gives complete directions for starting a crop rotation that will make poor mountain land more productive." -- p. 2
Bean and Pea Weevils
"This bulletin tells about the principal kinds of bean and pea weevils and explains fully the methods of averting losses from these pests."
How to Use Sorghum Grain
This bulletin discusses the uses of sorghum grain, including in animal feeds, human food, and alcohol production.
Common Birds of Southeastern United States in Relation to Agriculture
Revised edition. This report discusses birds commonly found in the southeastern United States with special regard to their diets and the impact these birds have on agriculture and insects in this region.
Steam Sterilization of Seed Beds for Tobacco and Other Crops
"The tobacco seedling is subject to injury in the seed bed by weeds and a number of parasitic enemies, among which is a fungus root-rot. It is of the utmost importance to secure beds free from weeds and to avoid the use of diseased or weak seedlings. Methods of sterilization have been developed to control seed-bed conditions.... This bulletin describes the necessary equipment and method of operation, with certain special features of seasonal convenience and seed-bed preparation. The method is applicable for working on either small or large seed-bed areas and can be used in all tobacco-growing districts. With necessary modifications in the apparatus which will readily suggest themselves to the truck grower, the method can be used very successfully to control soil conditions in the greenhouse, in cold-frames, or in the field." -- p. 2
The Place of Sheep on New England Farms
"Conditions created by the European war have made sheep raising on a small scale a very profitable enterprise for the New England farmer so situated as to take advantage of the economic conditions. Prior to the recent remarkable advance in prices of wool and mutton, sheep raising in New England was comparatively unprofitable, but now, under certain conditions, a revival of the industry seems desirable. This bulletin tells briefly how the industry was organized in 1914, and discusses the difficulties to be met in expanding the business, with special reference to improvement in breeding stock, better care, and more efficient disease control." -- p. 2
Handling Barnyard Manure in Eastern Pennsylvania
"Barnyard manure is handled with special care and excellent results by farmers in certain parts of Eastern Pennsylvania. For over a century it has been the custom in this region to store stable manure in a walled manure yard, partly or wholly covered, in which the stabled animals are allowed to exercise during the day. Manure thrown into such a yard and thoroughly tramped by stock loses much less through heating and leaching than does manure piled in the open. This bulletin describes the manure-yard method of handling manure and outlines the farm practices of ten successful farmers who follow this method." -- p. 2
Sorghum-Syrup Manufacture
Revised edition. "This bulletin describes the varieties of sorghum and tells how to plant, cultivate, and harvest the crop. It gives the methods for manufacturing sorghum syrup, often incorrectly termed sorghum "molasses," with illustrations of the apparatus used. The approximate yields of cane, of syrup, and of sorghum seed are given. Economic considerations as to the location and arrangement of a sorghum-syrup plant, fuel used, the by-products and their uses, and making syrup on shares are set forth. Tables showing the sugar content of juice from typical varieties of sorghum cane and statistics for the yield of syrup by states from 1859 to 1909 are included." -- p. 2
The Rag-Doll Seed Tester: Its Use in Determining What Ears of Corn Are Fit for Seed
"Almost every fall, hard freezing weather in one or more sections of the United States catches the corn crop in an immature condition and injures or destroys the ears for use as seed. The latest and sappiest ears are often killed, while other ears, somewhat drier, have but a portion of the kernels killed. Frequently there are some ears so mature and dry that they are not injured or but slightly injured. Under such circumstances the uninjured ears are suitable for seed. By inspection they can be separated from the green ears that were killed. However, some of the ears that appear mature and sound have been killed or badly injured. To separate these ears from those that give a good germination, it is necessary to test the germination of a few kernels from each ear. The rag doll has proved a convenient and satisfactory way of making these germination tests. An effective method of making and using the rag doll is here described." -- p. 2
Farm and Home Drying of Fruits and Vegetables
"Imperative necessity demands nation-wide conservation of those portions of our food crops which have heretofore been permitted to go to waste. A considerable portion of this wasted food material is made up of perishable fruits and vegetables produced in home gardens and fruit plats in excess of the immediate needs of the producers and in the absence of accessible markets for the surplus. Drying offers a simple, convenient, and economical method for preserving food materials and permits the carrying over of the surplus into periods in which fresh fruits and vegetables are expensive or unobtainable.... Directions for the preparation, drying, and subsequent storage and care of the dried products are given fully for each of the more important fruits and vegetables." -- p. 2
Hog Pastures for the Southern States
This bulletin describes how farmers in the southern United States can cultivate pastures for hogs using forage crops. Among the crops recommended are corn, sorghum, winter grains, alfalfa, several varieties of clover and beans, cowpeas, peanuts, chufas, sweet potatoes, mangels, and rape.
Control of the Melon Aphis (Attacks Cucumbers, Melons, Other Cucurbits, Cotton, Oranges, Etc.)
"Next to the striped cucumber beetle the melon aphis, or 'melon louse,' is our most important cucumber insect pest and probably the most serious enemy of melons and related crops in this country. It works quickly, sucking the juices of the plants and causing them to wither and die, often before insect injury is suspected. Large fields often are destroyed in a few days.... This bulletin describes several methods of control, the most important of which is spraying with nicotine sulphate, as described on pages 11 and 12. Keep a constant lookout for first signs of injury and employ control measures promptly on the appearance of the insect; otherwise the entire crop may be lost. Be careful to select the best spraying devices appropriate for work against this pest, as described on pages 13 and 14." -- p. 2
Farm Practices That Increase Crop Yields: The Gulf Coast Region
"Gulf Coast region upland soils are ordinarily deficient in nitrogen and need to be supplied with liberal quantities of organic matter if profitable crop yields are to be produced. This condition is most easily and cheaply remedied by growing such legumes as velvet beans, cowpeas, soy beans, bur clover, crimson clover, hairy vetch, and beggar weed, and by carefully utilizing all farm manures, crop residues, and other sources of humus. By a simple readjustment most of the cropping systems followed in this region may be made to include one or more legumes which will increase the supply of nitrogen and humus in the soil and greatly increase crop yields. Systems by means of which crop yields are being increased in the region are discussed in the following pages." -- p. 2
Culture of the Logan Blackberry and Related Varieties
"The Logan blackberry, formerly thought to be a hybrid between a blackberry and a red raspberry, is now considered a variety of the Pacific coast species of trailing blackberry.... In this bulletin, directions are given for planting, training, and pruning the plants and for harvesting and utilizing the fruit. The information should be especially valuable for those who plan to grow this variety either commercially or in their home gardens, as well as for those who grow other kinds of blackberries." -- p. 2
Saving Farm Labor by Harvesting Crops with Live Stock
"Farm labor often may be saved by using livestock to harvest and market part of the crops. By pasturing forage crops, and feeding down grain crops, much labor can be saved. Hay must be secured for winter feeding, and grain for home use and seed, but on many farms a considerable acreage may be turned directly into beef, pork and mutton. Pasturing off the crops also helps to maintain the fertility of the soil without extra labor or expense. The keeping of farm animals furnishes profitable work during the winter when other work is less pressing, and when they require most care. This distributes remunerative labor throughout the year more evenly than otherwise would be possible. This bulletin points out, largely by pictures of actual farm practices, some of the advantages of keeping livestock and of using the hogs, sheep, and beef cattle to help harvest and market farm crops." -- p. 2
"Timothy, usually seeded in mixture with clover, is grown in rotations with other crops on most of the farms in the northeastern fourth of the United States. Timothy is usually seeded with some grain as a nurse crop. Winter wheat and rye are generally better nurse crops than oats or other spring grains. Timothy seeded alone in late August or early September will produce a crop of clear timothy hay the following season. Fertilizers applied on corn, wheat, or other crops grown in rotation with timothy increase the following hay crops. Farm manure or nitrate of soda applied as a top-dressing on meadow is very effective in increasing the yields of timothy. As a rule, timothy should be harvested for hay after the plants have passed out of full bloom and before any of the heads on the earliest plants have begun to turn brown and before the seed has begun to mature." -- p. 2
The Production of Cigar-Leaf Tobacco in Pennsylvania
Revised edition. Report describing the production of tobacco in Pennsylvania, specifically cigar-leaf tobacco. Topics discussed include soil requirements, different planting methods, harvesting practices, curing and handling processes, and diseases and insect enemies of the tobacco plant.
Cooling Milk and Cream on the Farm
This bulletin discusses ways for maintaining the cool temperature of milk and cream on the farm in order to prevent bacterial growth. Among the methods discussed are natural ice, surface coolers, cooling tanks, wells and spring water.
Canada Thistle and Methods of Eradication
Report discussing the weed Canada thistle: ways to identify it, its seed distribution, its root system, and methods of eradication and control.
Eradication of Bermuda Grass
This bulletin describes Bermuda grass, a plant that is both highly valuable to pastures and also invasive in the southern United States, and gives suggestions for its control. Possible methods for eradication include the strategic use of shade, winterkilling, fallowing, hog grazing, and tilling practices.
Control of the Green Clover Worm in Alfalfa Fields
"Severe infestation of alfalfa by the green clover worm has been reported recently from the central part of the United States. Caterpillars, hatching out from eggs laid by small brown and black moths, in some cases have stripped the foliage from alfalfa plants to such an extent that infested fields have been made to appear ragged. The green clover worm is generally distributed over the eastern half of the country. Timely cutting of the crop so as to remove their food supply when the caterpillars are most abundant, with clean culture, is the best control measure. It may be supplemented by the use of the hopper-dozer when outbreaks are particularly bad." -- p. 2
Cereal Smuts and the Disinfection of Seed Grain
"This bulletin is published for the purpose of providing a condensed but complete source of up-to-date information for practical use in controlling cereal smuts by means of the most generally approved methods for the disinfection of seed grain.... Corn, wheat, rye, barley, oats, sorghum (including kafir and broom corn), and millet smuts are described and illustrated with photographs." -- p. 2
Cattle Scab and Methods of Control and Eradication
"Cattle scab can be eradicated by dipping or spraying, but dipping is the better method of treatment. Lime-sulphur dips, nicotine dips, and crude-petroleum dips are efficacious. Methods of preparing and using these dips are described and the intervals between dippings and the conditions under which the various dips may safely be used for the different kinds of scab are discussed. Also, plans of cattle-dipping plants and directions for building vats and dipping cattle are given." -- p. 2
The Spinose Ear Tick and Methods of Treating Infested Animals
"Ear ticks are blood-sucking parasites which infest the ears of cattle, horses, sheep, dogs, and other animals. They are prevalent in the semiarid sections of the southwestern part of the United States, where they cause heavy losses among live stock. The parasites cannot be eradicated by dipping, but they may be controlled and the losses prevented by injecting into the ears of infested animals a mixture of pine tar and cottonseed oil. A brief description of the tick, its life history, and instructions for treating infested animals are given in this bulletin." -- p. 2
Controlling the Garden Webworm in Alfalfa Fields
Report discussing the webworm's effects on alfalfa, its natural enemies, and methods of controlling it.
How to Reduce Weevil Waste in Southern Corn
"In weevil-infested regions ears with poor shuck coverings are damaged before the corn can be stored. To store corn with short, loose shucks results in greatly increased loss. Shucks that extend beyond the tips of the ears and close tightly about the silks are weevil proof both in the field and in storage. Feed or sell the unprotected ears as rapidly as possible. Store the weevil-proof ears in the their shucks. Select the best ears, in the field if possible, for next year's seed. Be sure that these ears have long, tight shucks, so that your next crop will have better shuck protection. If necessary to store corn that does not have good shuck protection, the damage will be reduced if the corn is shucked, shelled, cleaned, and put in bags of close-woven cloth. A slatted crib lined with galvanized-wire netting have 1/4-inch meshes is ideal for the storage of the bags of grain, because it gives good ventilation and excludes rats and mice." -- p. 2
Laws Relating to Fur-Bearing Animals, 1918
Report discussing laws relating to fur-bearing animals in the United States and Canada in 1919. Contains sections on legislation passed in 1919, U.S. federal laws, and state and provincial laws.
Games Laws for 1918: A Summary of the Provisions of Federal, State, and Provincial Statutes
Report presenting information on the game laws effective in the United States and Canada for 1918, with special emphasis on federal laws and provisions governing interstate commerce. The report is not a comprehensive overview of state game laws.
The Southern Corn Rootworm and Farm Practices to Control It
"Of all corn pests in the South one of the most serious is the larva, or young, of the 12-spotted cucumber beetle -- the so-called southern corn rootworm. True to its name, it feeds on the roots, but in young corn it also drills a small hole in the stem just above the first circle of roots, boring out the crown and killing the bud.... Progressive farming methods, as described in this bulletin, will reduce the ravages of this insect. Burn over waste places to destroy dead grass, weeds, and rubbish in which the beetles winter. If possible, avoid planting corn in fields which contained corn the year before. Enrich the soil by planting legumes so that the corn will have a better chance of recovering from rootworm injury. Protect the bobwhite. This bird destroys many beetles of the rootworm. By careful observations, extending over a period of years, find out the dates between which the rooworm does the most damage; then time your planting so that it will fall either before or after these dates, taking into consideration, of course, other important factors in crop production." -- p. 2
Neufchâtel and Cream Cheese: Farm Manufacture and Use
This bulletin gives instructions for producing Neufchâtel and cream cheeses, which are soft cheeses that are useful in cooking. Also discusses the costs and equipment involved, as well as marketing techniques. Recipes included.
Hay Caps
"Hay caps can be used to advantage to keep rain from wetting hay in cocks on many farms in the eastern half of the United States." -- p. 2. This bulletin describes the different types of hay camps, estimates their cost, and explains how hay caps may be used.
"Haymaking is an operation that must be done in a certain space of time that is short at best and that is always liable to be made shorter by bad weather. For this reason there is perhaps no farm operation in which system and efficiency count for more than in haymaking; yet throughout the hay-growing area more or less haphazard methods of haymaking are still very common. This bulletin is designed to point out ways in which the more successful hay growers of the country save time and labor in this important field work. It tells how the growing scarcity of farm labor may be met by rearranging crews and changing methods, and by the adoption of up-to-date implements, such as the hay loader, push rake, and stacker. In addition to outlines of methods for various sized crews and acreages the bulletin presents, briefly, a discussion of the theory of curing hay, a thorough understanding of which is a great help in planning an efficient method of haymaking." -- p. 2
Horse Beans
This bulletin discuss the horse bean (or fava bean), which is a legume cultivated widely in many nations and holds great potential as a crop along the Pacific and Gulf Coasts of the United States.
Purple Vetch
This bulletin discusses purple vetch, a plant used for hay, manure, and pasturage that grows readily along the Pacific and Gulf Coasts of the United States.
Crop Systems for Arkansas
"Crop systems for Arkansas that make for increased food production and increased efficiency in man labor and horse labor are described in the following pages. By the introduction of cowpeas, soybeans, and other legumes, and by second cropping, provision is made for a considerable increase in the number of crop acres that can be farmed by the average family.... In each of the cropping systems suggested the crop acreages are calculated for two men and a team, and for light, medium, and heavy soils. These systems in general apply to all of Arkansas, except the northwestern part, and some of them may be used to advantage in northern Louisiana, northeastern Texas, southeastern Oklahoma, western Tennessee, and the northern half of Mississippi." -- p. 2
A Simple Way to Increase Crop Yields: Methods Followed by Farmers of the Coastal Plain Section of the Central Atlantic States in Building Up Soil Fertility
"The soils of the coastal plain section of the Central Atlantic States, as a rule, are light in character, have been farmed for generations, and need first of all a liberal supply of organic matter. This need should be met by growing such legumes as crimson clover, cowpeas, soy beans, red clover, and hairy vetch. Rye, buckwheat, and the grasses are also valuable in this connection. Commercial fertilizer and lime should be used freely when necessary to stimulate the growth of these soil-improving crops. By arranging the cropping system to include one or more legumes that supply the land with nitrogen and humus, crop yields have been greatly increased on many farms scattered throughout this region. The systems followed on a few of the more successful of these farms are described in detail in the following pages." -- p. 2
The Soy Bean: Its Culture and Uses
This bulletin discusses soybean cultivation and the uses of soybeans. Soybeans may be used in mixtures, hay, pastures, silage, and as fertilizing agents through crop rotation.
The Preparation of Bees for Outdoor Wintering
"One of the most vital parts of the beekeeper's work is the preparation of bees for outdoor wintering. No other phase of beekeeping has so direct an influence on the honey crop of the following season. The apiary should be located in a protected place and the colonies should not be moved at the time of packing. Directions are given in this bulletin for the proper arrangement of the apiary to prevent confusion due to the shifting of hives. The amount and character of the packing materials and the most economical type of packing cases are discussed. A schedule of dates for packing and unpacking the hives is presented for all parts of the United States, and the amount and character of winter stores are indicated. It is important that none of the factors of good wintering be omitted, and several tests are given so that the beekeeper may determine whether his bees are wintering properly." -- p. 2
Wintering Bees in Cellars
This bulletin gives instructions for keeping a colony of bees in a cellar during the cold winter months. It explains how to arrange the apiary in the cellar, transport the bees, maintain the cellar in the winter months, and finally how to remove the bees upon the arrival of spring.
The Wheat Jointworm and Its Control
Revised edition. "The wheat jointworm is a very small grub which lives in stems of wheat, sucking the juices of the plant and causing a swelling in the stem. The egg from which it hatches is laid in the stem by an insect resembling a small black ant with wings. This insect attacks no other kind of plant. The injury which it does to wheat is very distinct from that caused by the Hessian fly, yet the depredations of these two insects are often confused by farmers. This paper is intended, therefore, to give a brief outline of the life history and the nature of the injury to the plant by the jointworm so that any farmer may readily recognize its work and be able to apply the measures of control herein recommended." -- p. 3-4
Terracing Farm Lands
This bulletin discusses the use of terracing on farm lands as a solution to the problem of soil erosion. Two methods of terracing are described: the bench terrace and the ridge terrace. Instructions for creating terrace outlets and for laying and building terraces are also given.
Breeds of Light Horses
"This bulletin gives concise information regarding the breeds of light horses and will be of particular usefulness to the farmer in those sections where light horses are preeminently fitted for his work, such as mountainous and hilly sections and where there are markets for horses for saddle and driving purposes. The breeds discussed are the Arabian, Thoroughbred, Standardbred, American Saddle, Morgan, Hackney, French Coach, German Coach, and Cleveland Bay. Of these, the Standardbred, American Saddle, and Morgan breeds were developed in this country. The origin, development, general appearance, and adaptability of the light breeds are discussed. There is no best breed of light horses. Some breeds are superior to others in certain respects and one breed may be better adapted than another to certain local conditions. The general requirements for a particular section and the popularity of a certain breed in a certain locality should receive the utmost consideration in choosing a breed." -- p. 2
Milk Goats
Report discussing the raising of goats for their milk, including different goat breeds and breeding methods, feed and management, their meat and skins, and problems associated with goat raising.
The Principles of the Liming of Soils
"In the following pages information is presented regarding the materials used in liming, their preparation and use, as well as a discussion of the chemical changes brought about in the soil by lime, so far as they are known. The relative merits of different forms of lime are discussed and data furnished whereby the value of any particular form of lime for agricultural purposes may be determined approximately. The bulletin has been prepared primarily from the point of view of materials used in liming and of the principles involved in their use." -- p. 2
Soy Beans in Systems of Farming in the Cotton Belt
This bulletin discusses ways that soybeans may be used in systems of farming in the Cotton Belt of the United States. Soybeans are a legume that may be used as a fertilizer, livestock feed, oil, or human food.
Sweet-Potato Storage
"The proper storage of sweet potatoes is one of the most important food-conservation measures that can be put into effect in the Southern States. No perishable product produced in the South is of as great importance as the sweet potato, and none is so poorly handled. This bulletin describes in considerable detail the types of storage houses that have proved successful and the proper method of handling sweet potatoes from harvesting to marketing. For those growers who are not able to build storage houses, directions are given for saving the sweet potato crop by using outdoor cellars and banks." -- p. 2
Velvet Beans
This bulletin describes the velvet bean, which is a legume useful in the southern United States for feeds and fertilizers. Topics discussed include varieties, planting practices, hay, feed production, and insect enemies.
Hemorrhagic Septicemia: Stockyards Fever, Swine Plague, Fowl Cholera, Etc.
Report discussing hemorrhagic septicemia, an infectious disease which affects farm animals and has a very high mortality rate. Discussion includes a description of causes, symptoms, diagnostic procedures, prevention methods, and potential treatments.
Cooperative Bull Associations
"Cooperative bull associations are formed by farmers for the joint ownership, use, and exchange of pure-bred bulls. The purchase price and cost of maintenance are distributed according to the number of cows owned by each, thereby giving the farmer an opportunity to build up his herd at minimum expense. The organization also helps its members to market dairy stock and dairy products, to fight contagious diseases of cattle intelligently, and in other ways assists in improving the dairy industry. The bull association does not give something for nothing, but with an outlay of $50 can furnish a share in five pure-bred bulls. These bulls cannot increase the production of the cows in a herd, but they may double the production of their daughters. The daughters of association bulls and grade cows can never be registered, but in all other respects they may be the equal of purebreds." -- p. 2