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Shock Signatures and Spectra from Railroad Switching Loads
Abstract: This report describes two tests made to obtain data on the loads that equipment is subjected to during railroad switching.
Design and Construction of a Unit for Measuring Metal Skin Temperatures
From summary: This report concerns the theoretical evaluation and experimental development of special thermocouples capable of being accurately located at or near the surface of metal structures to permit measurement of temperature distribution through the strictures.
Power Cable Carrier Control (PC3) System
A control system has been developed that uses a carrier signal imposed on an existing ac power circuit to transmit commands. This system was specifically developed to control an entire solar collector field by sending sun-tracking information to the trough collectors or by commanding them to assume safe positions (STOW) if out-of-limit conditions were encountered. Objectives were to develop a control system that operates reliably and has enough functions to control an entire collector field, yet do it at less cost than for conventional approaches. Development, design, operating characteristics, and field testing and results of the new system, the Power Cable Carrier Control (PC³) System are described.
Analysis of the Mount Laguna Photovoltaic Cell Failure
From summary: The purpose of this analysis is to provide photovoltaic (P/V) system design and field engineers with an understanding of the primary factors which can cause individual P/V cells in a module or an array to be forced into reverse bias and eventual failure and to provide guidelines for the adequate protection of the cells.
Results of a Force Test of Four Configurations of the Hi-Lo Instrumented and Chaff Rockets in the Sandia Corporation 12 x 12 inch Transonic Wind Tunnel (Program III-46)
Abstract: Force, moment, and center of pressure information are presented for four models of the Hi-Lo configuration.
SOLSTOR Description and User's Guide
Abstract: This report describes the computer simulation code SOLSTOR. The code simulates energy systems in which electricity is generated by either a photovoltaic (PV) system or a wind turbine generator (WTG). Storage may or may not be present. Backup electricity, if needed, is provided either from a utility grid or from a fuel-burning generator. SOLSTOR minimizes the life cycle cost of providing energy by choosing the optimal solar or wind system component sizes. Rates for electricity purchased from the grid can include time-of-day (TOD) energy charges as well as time-of-day peak demand changes. Sell-back to the grid of excess collected energy is also considered.
Photovoltaic Applications Definition and Photovoltaic System Definition Study in the Agricultural Sector: Volume 1, Executive Summary
From summary: The purpose of the study is to develop information that will contribute to the definition of the potential role of photovoltaics in meeting future energy demands in agriculture.
Photovoltaic Applications Definition and Photovoltaic System Definition Study in the Agricultural Sector: Volume 2, Technical Results
From introduction: The objectives of the technical effort are to identify and characterize agricultural energy demands that can effectively use P/V power systems and to determine performance and cost-estimates for the designs.
Photovoltaic Applications Definition and Photovoltaic System Definition Study in the Agricultural Sector: Volume 3, Appendixes
Forward: The Final Report summarizes the findings and project work in conjunction with the "Photovoltaic" Applications Definition and Photovoltaic System Definition Study in the Agricultural Sector" under Contract Number 07-6951.
Calibration of a Peak Current Gage Developed at Sandia Corporation
Abstract: Methods are presented for calibrating a peak current gage which was developed at Sandia in the spring of 1953.
Prediction of Shock Response
Abstract: A method is presented of predicting the shock response of a friction-damped vibratory system.
Vapor Pressures of the Rare Earths
Abstract: This report presents the vapor pressures versus temperature data graphically for the rare earth elements, yttrium and scandium.
Vapor Pressures of the Rare Earths
Abstract: This report presents the vapor pressures versus temperature data graphically for the rare earth elements, yttrium and scandium.
A Digital Comparator
A digital comparator has been designed to flag data which goes above a maximum limit or below a minimum limit.
IBM Problem M Curves
Abstract: Presented here are working graphs of pressure, density, velocity, and temperature from the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory calculations (IBM Problem M) of a spherically symmetric explosion in a homogeneous atmosphere.
Infrared Spectrophotometric Analysis of Urethane Compounds
Abstract: This report presents a simple, quantitative analytical method for determining the percent of a particular group or structure within a urethane compound by means of the infrared spectrophotometer.
Neutron Flux and Spectra Measurements in the Sandia Pulsed Reactor Facility (SPRF)
Introduction: Neutron measurements were made in the pulsed reactor building and on the safety screen of the pulsed reactor in order to determine the neutron yield of the reactor as a function of (1) distance from the reactor centerline, (2) direction in the reactor building, and (3) position on the reactor safety screen.
Design of the Sandia High-Altitude Sampler Rocket System (HAS)
Abstract: "This report presents the characteristics incorporated in the design of a ballistic rocket system that is capable of carrying recoverable payloads varying in weight from 75 to 200 pounds to altitudes of 600,000 to 1,000,000 feet (msl)."
High-Explosive Ditching from Linear Charges
Abstract: "Weights of linear high-explosive charges fired on the Yucca Lake playa of the Nevada Test Site varied from 0.23 to 42.7 pounds per foot. Crater and ditch dimensions and volumes resulting from these shots, fired during the fall of 1959 and spring of 1960, are presented here as a function of charge burst depths. Scaling relationships determined are as expected; i.e., square-root scaling of linear-charge weight per foot for ditch width and depth and a direct linear-charge weight relationship to ditch volume are obtained. Permanent ground surface displacement varies as the -3.22 power of the scaled distance from the charge. Detonation effects, charge shape effects, ditch erosion, and ditch cross sections are discussed. The appendixes present Toboggan data, results of soil investigation, and mathematical treatment given the data."
Preliminary Report on Magnetogasdynamic Aspects
Report describing studies on magnetogasdynamic aspects, presented in three sections: a summary of relevant magnetofluidmechanic fundamentals; a review of relevant literature on flow modification in magnetofluidmechnics; and the results of analytical investigations on highly restricted magnetofluidmechanic flows.
Physical Properties of Fused Salt Mixtures
Foreword: The purpose of the present work was to collect and tabulate data on fused salt mixtures.
An Exploding Wire as a Fuse for the LASL Capacitor Bank--Zeus
Abstract: "An exploding copper wire, one millimeter in diameter, 30 centimeters long, has been developed as a fuse component for a Los Alamos capacitor energy source to be employed in controlled thermonuclear research studies. The fuse allows the passage of the high normal duty "action" (13,700 ampere-coulombs per capacitor) at a 20-second repetition rate. However, it interrupts the circuit to a shorted capacitor in 12 microseconds, thereby protecting the faulted capacitor from explosive energy consumption. The initial phase of the development included observations of various metals (copper, silver, iron, and nickel) as well as various configurations (straight wires, helixes, foils, and tubes). Direct scaling of previous small exploding wire studies at Sandia Corporation was demonstrated with scaling factors up to 700,000."
Initial Peak Surge Current Detection Circuits
Test requirements for several components specifies that surge currents be monitored to determine if the initial peak surge current exceeds a certain predetermined amplitude. This report describes and evaluates two circuits which were developed by Organization 2451 to meet this requirement in production testing.
Re-entry Flight Demonstration Number Two: Interim Flight-Test Report
Abstract: This report presents a summary and brief evaluation of the RFD-2 flight-test data reduced as of December 16, 1964.
A Transistorized Reactivity Measurement System
An all-transistor system has been developed to be used in measuring the reactivity of the reactor in the Sandia Engineering Reactor Facility. In operation, the system triggers a pulsed neutron source (PNS) in the reactor and counts the resulting neutron flux, thus giving a measure of the time constant of the reactor. The counting is done in eleven time-sequenced counting channels. The reactor time constant is a measure of the reactor reactivity.
Re-entry Flight Demonstration Number One (RFD-1): Data Book
Re-entry flight demonstration number one (RFD-1) was launched on May 22, 1963 from the Scout launch complex at NASA Wallops Station, Wallops Island, Virginia.
Re-entry Flight Demonstration Number One (RFD-1): Design, Development, and Performance of the Re-entry Vehicle
This report documents the design, development, and performance of the flight vehicle for Re-entry Flight Demonstration Number One (RFD-1).
Re-entry Flight Demonstration Number One (RFD-1): Final SNAP-10A Safety Flight-Test Plan
Abstract: This report constitutes the RFD-1 Safety Flight Plan for investigating the disassembly, distraction, and disposal of the SNAP-10A reactor during re-entry.
Photovoltaic Advanced Systems Test Facility: Description and Operations Plan
From abstract: Photovoltaic modules and arrays are tested in the PASTF, along with power conditioning units and energy storage equipment related to photovoltaic systems.
Interpretation of Wireline Geophysical Logs : ERDA No.9 Stratigraphic Test Borehole DOE WIPP Site, Eddy County, New Mexico
From introduction: This report describes a stratigraphic core hole known as ERDA No. 9 drilled at the approximate center of the WIPP site.
Experimental Pressure Distributions and Force Coefficients on Block Forms for Varying Mach Number, Reynolds Number, and Yaw Angle
Abstact: "Wind tunnel tests were performed to determine pressure distributions and normal force coefficients on three block forms on mounting planes. The dimension ratios of the blocks were 1:1:1, 1:1:2, and 1:1:4. Results are given for variation in Mach number from 0.066 to 0.8, in Reynolds number from 0.28 x 10(exp 6) to 4 x 10(exp 6), and in yaw angle from 0 to 90 degrees. Results show a Reynolds number independence over the range examined. Windward face force coefficients for a given block form are approximately proportional to the ratio of impact to dynamic pressure. Pressure distribution and resultant coefficients are affected by mounting planes."
Final Report on Re-entry Flight Demonstration Number Two
Abstract: RFD-2 was the second of Sandia's operational safety flight tests of systems for nuclear auxiliary power.
Shear Strength of Simply Supported Prestressed Concrete Beams Having Web Reinforcement
Abstract: Tests were made on 24 simply supported, post-tensioned, end-anchored, prestressed concrete beams with and without web reinforcement.
An Approximate Solution for the Vaporization of Liquid Droplets Formed During Re-Entry Ablation
Introduction: The purpose of this report is to describe a mathematical model which will help solve the ultimate-particle-size problem by estimating the evaporative mass losses during that portion of re-entry when the fuel is in liquid form.
A Method of Calculating Boundary-Layer Thickness in Axisymmetric Nozzles with Laminar Hypersonic Flow
Abstract: "The excellent agreement between measured boundary layer thickness and thickness calculated by Sivells and Payne recommends their method for calculating turbulent boundary layer growth in axisymmetric hypersonic nozzles. It was thought worthwhile to adapt their approach to the laminar boundary layer. This analysis, along with a limited amount of corroborating data, is presented herein."
Salton Sea Meteorological Instrumentation Test Series, Salton Sea, California, Conducted in September 1959
Abstract: "This report discusses tests conducted to determine the accuracy of meteorological equipment which is used to gather upper air data. Equipment tested was the GMD-2, SMD-1A, GMD-1B, and the WBRT-57. A four-station phototheodolite network was used as a standard for point-in-space determinations."
A High-Voltage Pulse Generator for Testing Dielectric Samples
Abstract: The purpose of this report is to describe the problems inherent to general dielectric strength measurements, and to act as a guide in establishing a method for pulse dielectric strength measurements.
Re-entry Flight Demonstration Number One (RFD-1): Preflight Disassembly Analysis and Observed Disassembly of the Simulated SNAP-10A Reactor
Abstract: This report describes the SNAP-10A Simulated Test Reactor, the test philosophy of Re-entry Flight Demonstration Number One, the analytical analysis of reactor disassembly, and the results of the flight test.
Irreducible Representations of Line Groups: the Dynamics of Polymer Chains
Abstract: "The symmetries of infinite polymer chain molecules are discussed using the concept of line groups. Explicit directions are given for obtaining the irreducible representations of line groups employing the formalism developed for three-dimensional space groups. Line groups containing primitive and nonprimitive operations are discussed. Detailed considerations of the line group Vh are given with specific applications to the polyethylene molecule. Directions for generating symmetry-adapted vibrational coordinates for chain molecules are outlined."
Pressure Calibration of a Reflection Plane in the Sandia 12-inch Transonic Wind Tunnel (Program III-40)
Abstract: Results of pressure tests of a reflection plane in the Sandia 12-inch transonic wind tunnel to determine lateral and longitudinal Mach distribution over the plate at 0.5≤M≤1.30 are presented.
The Use of Compensation With Directional Couplers
Abstract: The accurate measurement of voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) is of prime importance in the production of microwave systems. The work reported in this memorandum was undertaken in the development of a faster system for measuring VSWR.
Automatic Tester for Electrical Fuses
Abstract: This technical memorandum describes an automatic tester and recorder as it is used in obtaining fusing time information from electrical fuses for subsequent analysis in the IBM 704 computer.
The Sandia Corporation 12-inch Transonic Wind Tunnel Analog-to-Digital Data Gathering System
Abstract: This memorandum describes the components and presents the operating and maintenance instructions for the 12-inch transonic wind tunnel analog-to-digital data gathering systems.
Project SAND Final Program Report: Volume 1
This report presents a summary of all the SAND (Sampling of Aerospace Nuclear Debris) ballistic vehicle firings, and an analysis of the first SAND sampler flight test.
The Design of a Side-by-Side Photovoltaic Thermal Systems for a Northeast All-Electric Residence
From background: The solar system design described in this report is for a residential two story house located in the Northeast region of the country typified by the Boston/Madison weather environment. A side-by-side photovoltaic/thermal system design was developed for the application.
Basic Data Report for Drilling and Hydrologic Testing of Drillhole DOE-2 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site
From abstract: Drillhole DOE-2 was drilled to investigate a structural depression marked by the downward displacement of stratigraphic markers in the Salado Formation ~ 2 mi north of the center of the WIPP site. This depression was named informally after the shallow borehole FC-92 in which the structure was described. The presence of the depression was confirmed by drilling.
Low-Cost Photovoltaic Cell Mount Study
From abstract: This report is a technical and economic evaluation of five representative cell laydown techniques with the final goal being a determination of which was most promising from a cost performance basis.
The Cumulative Binomial Distribution Computer
Acknowledgement: The cumulative Binomial Distribution Computer incorporates valuable suggestions made by supervision and members of the Sandia Corporation Reliability Department.
A Confidence Limit Computer
Introduction: Confidence limits as a mathematical tool are applicable to many development engineering and production engineering situations. In order to make confidence limits readily available to engineers, a computer was designed which will approximate certain confidence limits.
High Explosive Crater Studies: Desert Alluvium
From abstract: Crater dimensions have been determined for 23 explosions of 256-pound spherical TNT charges buried in desert alluvium. As opposed to previous work covering depths of burst as great as 6 feet, the work presented in this report extends knowledge of apparent crater radius and depth to depths of burst as great as 30 feet.