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Design and Construction of a Unit for Measuring Metal Skin Temperatures
From summary: This report concerns the theoretical evaluation and experimental development of special thermocouples capable of being accurately located at or near the surface of metal structures to permit measurement of temperature distribution through the strictures.
Design of the Sandia High-Altitude Sampler Rocket System (HAS)
Abstract: "This report presents the characteristics incorporated in the design of a ballistic rocket system that is capable of carrying recoverable payloads varying in weight from 75 to 200 pounds to altitudes of 600,000 to 1,000,000 feet (msl)."
High-Explosive Ditching from Linear Charges
Abstract: "Weights of linear high-explosive charges fired on the Yucca Lake playa of the Nevada Test Site varied from 0.23 to 42.7 pounds per foot. Crater and ditch dimensions and volumes resulting from these shots, fired during the fall of 1959 and spring of 1960, are presented here as a function of charge burst depths. Scaling relationships determined are as expected; i.e., square-root scaling of linear-charge weight per foot for ditch width and depth and a direct linear-charge weight relationship to ditch volume are obtained. Permanent ground surface displacement varies as the -3.22 power of the scaled distance from the charge. Detonation effects, charge shape effects, ditch erosion, and ditch cross sections are discussed. The appendixes present Toboggan data, results of soil investigation, and mathematical treatment given the data."
An Exploding Wire as a Fuse for the LASL Capacitor Bank--Zeus
Abstract: "An exploding copper wire, one millimeter in diameter, 30 centimeters long, has been developed as a fuse component for a Los Alamos capacitor energy source to be employed in controlled thermonuclear research studies. The fuse allows the passage of the high normal duty "action" (13,700 ampere-coulombs per capacitor) at a 20-second repetition rate. However, it interrupts the circuit to a shorted capacitor in 12 microseconds, thereby protecting the faulted capacitor from explosive energy consumption. The initial phase of the development included observations of various metals (copper, silver, iron, and nickel) as well as various configurations (straight wires, helixes, foils, and tubes). Direct scaling of previous small exploding wire studies at Sandia Corporation was demonstrated with scaling factors up to 700,000."
Re-entry Flight Demonstration Number Two: Interim Flight-Test Report
Abstract: This report presents a summary and brief evaluation of the RFD-2 flight-test data reduced as of December 16, 1964.
Re-entry Flight Demonstration Number One (RFD-1): Data Book
Re-entry flight demonstration number one (RFD-1) was launched on May 22, 1963 from the Scout launch complex at NASA Wallops Station, Wallops Island, Virginia.
Re-entry Flight Demonstration Number One (RFD-1): Design, Development, and Performance of the Re-entry Vehicle
This report documents the design, development, and performance of the flight vehicle for Re-entry Flight Demonstration Number One (RFD-1).
Re-entry Flight Demonstration Number One (RFD-1): Final SNAP-10A Safety Flight-Test Plan
Abstract: This report constitutes the RFD-1 Safety Flight Plan for investigating the disassembly, distraction, and disposal of the SNAP-10A reactor during re-entry.
Experimental Pressure Distributions and Force Coefficients on Block Forms for Varying Mach Number, Reynolds Number, and Yaw Angle
Abstact: "Wind tunnel tests were performed to determine pressure distributions and normal force coefficients on three block forms on mounting planes. The dimension ratios of the blocks were 1:1:1, 1:1:2, and 1:1:4. Results are given for variation in Mach number from 0.066 to 0.8, in Reynolds number from 0.28 x 10(exp 6) to 4 x 10(exp 6), and in yaw angle from 0 to 90 degrees. Results show a Reynolds number independence over the range examined. Windward face force coefficients for a given block form are approximately proportional to the ratio of impact to dynamic pressure. Pressure distribution and resultant coefficients are affected by mounting planes."
Final Report on Re-entry Flight Demonstration Number Two
Abstract: RFD-2 was the second of Sandia's operational safety flight tests of systems for nuclear auxiliary power.
An Approximate Solution for the Vaporization of Liquid Droplets Formed During Re-Entry Ablation
Introduction: The purpose of this report is to describe a mathematical model which will help solve the ultimate-particle-size problem by estimating the evaporative mass losses during that portion of re-entry when the fuel is in liquid form.
A Method of Calculating Boundary-Layer Thickness in Axisymmetric Nozzles with Laminar Hypersonic Flow
Abstract: "The excellent agreement between measured boundary layer thickness and thickness calculated by Sivells and Payne recommends their method for calculating turbulent boundary layer growth in axisymmetric hypersonic nozzles. It was thought worthwhile to adapt their approach to the laminar boundary layer. This analysis, along with a limited amount of corroborating data, is presented herein."
Salton Sea Meteorological Instrumentation Test Series, Salton Sea, California, Conducted in September 1959
Abstract: "This report discusses tests conducted to determine the accuracy of meteorological equipment which is used to gather upper air data. Equipment tested was the GMD-2, SMD-1A, GMD-1B, and the WBRT-57. A four-station phototheodolite network was used as a standard for point-in-space determinations."
Re-entry Flight Demonstration Number One (RFD-1): Preflight Disassembly Analysis and Observed Disassembly of the Simulated SNAP-10A Reactor
Abstract: This report describes the SNAP-10A Simulated Test Reactor, the test philosophy of Re-entry Flight Demonstration Number One, the analytical analysis of reactor disassembly, and the results of the flight test.
Irreducible Representations of Line Groups: the Dynamics of Polymer Chains
Abstract: "The symmetries of infinite polymer chain molecules are discussed using the concept of line groups. Explicit directions are given for obtaining the irreducible representations of line groups employing the formalism developed for three-dimensional space groups. Line groups containing primitive and nonprimitive operations are discussed. Detailed considerations of the line group Vh are given with specific applications to the polyethylene molecule. Directions for generating symmetry-adapted vibrational coordinates for chain molecules are outlined."
Project SAND Final Program Report: Volume 1
This report presents a summary of all the SAND (Sampling of Aerospace Nuclear Debris) ballistic vehicle firings, and an analysis of the first SAND sampler flight test.
High Explosive Crater Studies: Desert Alluvium
From abstract: Crater dimensions have been determined for 23 explosions of 256-pound spherical TNT charges buried in desert alluvium. As opposed to previous work covering depths of burst as great as 6 feet, the work presented in this report extends knowledge of apparent crater radius and depth to depths of burst as great as 30 feet.
High Explosive Crater Studies: Tuff
Abstract: "Spherical charges of TNT, each weighing 256 pounds, were exploded at various depths in tuff to determine apparent crater dimensions in a soft rock. No craters were obtained for depths of burst equal to or greater than 13.3 feet. It was deduced that rock fragments were sufficiently large that charges of greater magnitude should be employed for crater experiments intended as models of nuclear explosions."
Project Scooter: Final Report, October 1963
From abstract: This report includes results of studies of crater dimension, throwout material distribution, ground motion, dust cloud growth, and long-range air blast.
Analysis of Pressure Drop and Heat Transfer of a Pebble-Bed-Storage Heater for a Hypersonic Wind Tunnel
Abstract: "The pressure drop and the time-temperature variation of the air test medium and heat storage material in a pebble-bed heater (designed for intermittent hypersonic wind-tunnel operation at test section Mach numbers of 4 to 11) are presented."
Experimental Determination of the Pressure Drop Through a Pebble Bed
Abstract: "The pressure drop associated with the flow of air through a cylindrical bed of spherical pebbles has been investigated experimentally. The results of this investigation are reported here."
Comparison of Fallout Doses from Nevada Tests (Revised)
From abstract: Many residents of the Nevada area carried film badge radiation dosimeters during Operation Plumbbob in 1957. Badge readings in specific localities appear to follow the logarithmic-normal distribution.
Estimating Safety Probabilities from Fallout Forecasts for Nevada Test Site
Abstract: "Available data on wind persistence and wind forecasting capability have been applied in estimating the probability of a fallout pattern shifting from an uninhabited safe sector into a populated region. Safety probability is computed from win variability, forecasting accuracy, initial height and particle size of radioactivity landing at a point in the predicted fallout pattern, predicted wind speed, length of forecast period, and safe-sector angular width."
A Study of Nevada Test Site Wind Variability
Abstract: "Wind observations collected at Yucca Flat since 1951 are analyzed for timewise variability. Variability functions of altitude, season, wind speed, and vector wind are described. Derived variability parameters are incorporated into calculations of fallout safety probability for NTS operations."
Stress Pulse-Trains from Multiple Reflection at a Zone of Many Discontinuities: a Notation for Machine Solution
Abstract: "Presented in this report is a numerical method by which may be calculated the amplitudes of the trains of pulses that result when a single simple stress pulse encounters a zone of many abrupt discontinuities in a slender rod. The notational scheme employed enables the system of multitudes of individual progagating waves to be studied in terms of analogous number sets which may be mechanically generated. The notational concept and related operational rules, described in this report, have been used to program the problem for solution with the IBM 704 computer. The program is briefly discussed. Illustrative examples were computed for rods of two to ten discontinuities. These were compared with a pulse reflected in a rod of an unlimited number of steps."
The Sandia APAR-3G system: Automatic Programming, Recording, and Control for Development and Production Testing
Abstract: The APAR-3G system is an automatic programming, controlling and recording machine which is readily adaptable to a wide variety of automated data acquisition and constrol system applications. It is physically and logically modular to permit the assemby of minimum or maximum capability machines. This system can perform the necessary acquisition and control in a typical factory environment and can generate an output (for data reduction) which is compatible with available computer systems.
Spectrographic Analysis of Plasmajets: Progress Report 2
Abstract: This is the second progress report on the work performed at Sandia Corporation in the use of spectrographic techniques in plasmajet diagnostics. Typical results of spectrographic data from argon and nitrogen plasmajets are included. For the argon jet, the results from line intensity measurements of ionized and unionized atoms generally give good information. However, results from hydrogen line broadening measurements indicate several unexplained discrepancies. For the nitrogen jet, the N2 (0, 0) and N2 (0, 1) bands from the first negative series were used to determine a rotational temperature.
20-ton and 1/2-ton High Explosive Cratering Experiments in Basalt Rock: Final Report, August 1962
From preface: Project Buckboard, a Plowshare sponsored effort, involved the detonation of three 40,000-pound and ten 1000-pound high-explosive charges in basalt rock.
Construction of a Sea-Level, Transisthmian Canal Using Nuclear Explosives
Partial abstract: "This report is based: (1) on information developed in earlier high explosive experiments which determined the optimum spacing and burial depth of charges in a row to produce a channel uniformly wide and deep, and (2) on the Sedan and Danny Boy experiments, which provided data on dimensions of nuclear craters in both soil and basalt rock. This information has been combined with the 1947 route surveys of the Panama Canal company, and estimates have been made not only of the number and yield of nuclear explosives required to excavate a Transisthmian canal with nuclear explosives, but also of the cost of the explosives and the cost of their replacement."
Craters From Four Equal Charges in a Horizontal Square Array
Craters were observed resulting from square arrays of 64-pound charges at various spacings and depths. The closest spacings yielded craters very like those from single 256-pound charges, while wider spacings yielded craters more or less square in shape and with a mound or pier at the center. Generally, the areas so uncovered were greater than for single 256-pound charges, except for very deep charges. Volumes, too, were enhanced by this configuration by as much as a factor of three. If the same factor is maintained for nuclear charges, the cost per unit volume of a crater from such an array will be within 20 percent of that for a single charge.
A Scale-Model Experiment of the Crater Produced Through Terrain of Randomly Varying Elevation by Row Charges
Abstract: "A scale-model experiment was made to check the application of charge spacing rules developed from earlier studies to terrain of randomly varying elevation. Since a prominent possible peacetime use of nuclear explosives is the excavation of a trans-Isthmian canal, the model used was a portion of such a route. The experiment resulted in nearly the desired linear crater dimensions; the spacing rules developed for level trerain give a satisfactory channel when applied to terrain with elevations varying in random fashion."
A Small-scale Investigation of the Possibility of Constructing Low-Relief Earth-Fill Dams Using Nuclear Explosives
The experiment described herein has shown that the concept of low dams produced by ballistic collision of ejecta from simultaneous detonation of properly spaced parallel rows of charges is a feasible one. Rows of 8-pound charges were buried 3 feet deep with 4-foot spacing between charges. When two such rows of charges were placed parallel and 17.5 feet apart, the maximum height of the "dam" was achieved. The spacing of 17.5 feet between rows corresponds to 4.7 times the crater radius of one 8-pound charge at the burial depth which maximizes the single-charge crater. The extrapolation of these results to larger explosions is discussed. The height decreases and the width increases as the spacing between rows is further increased. The mass of material in the "dam" cannot exceed that in the crater of one of the rows. At the spacing between rows which maximizes height, the volume of the "dam'' is about 50 percent of maximum volume theoretically achievable. At wider spacings, the volume increases to 75 percent.
20-ton HE Cratering Experiments in Desert Alluvium: Final Report, May 1962
From abstract and summary: Project Stagecoach consisted of the detonation of three 40,000-pound charges. Blocks of cast TNT were stacked to resemble a sphere and, the whole center-detonated.
The Effect of Row Charge Spacing and Depth on Crater Dimensions
From preface: The work described in this document is directed toward determining the optimum method of employing explosives to form a ditch, channel, or canal of certain desired dimensions.
Re-entry Flight Demonstration No. 1 (RFD-1): Optical Data and Fuel-Element Experiment
This report on the RFD-1 optical data and external fuel-element experiment includes a description of the instruments and test components used, a presentation of the data obtained, an explanation of the methods of data reduction employed, and a statement of the conclusions derived. It covers the theory, design, qualification tests, flight-test data, and results of the external fuel-element experiment. Also presented is a theoretical analysis of observed versus predicted ablation times and altitudes for the external fuel elements. In addition, this report presents recommendations for improvements to data acquisition and reduction methods in future, similar flight tests.
Interim Report on Investigation of Dynamic Characteristics of Relays: June-July 1959
From scope of work: This report investigates the dynamic characteristics of sealed military type relays as affected by applied coil voltage and/or current, temperature, spring tension, contact force, contact overtravel, and mechanical clearances.
Interim Report on Investigation of Dynamic Characteristics of Relays: September-October 1959
From scope of work: This report investigates the dynamic characteristics of sealed military type relays as affected by applied coil voltage and/or current, temperature, spring tension, contact force, contact overtravel, and mechanical clearances.
Microbarograph Evaluation Report
From introduction: This report describes the procedures used and the results obtained in evaluating the Wiancko type 3-PBM-2 microbarograph system.
Proceedings of the International Symposium for Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials: 1965
Forword: The International Symposium for Packaging and Transportation of radioactive materials held at Albuquerque, New Mexico, January 12 to 15, 1965, was a joint effort on the part of the Sandia Corporation, the Albuquerque Operations Office, and the Headquarters, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.