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Analysis of Electric Energy Usage in Air Force Houses Equipped with Air-to-Air Heat Pumps
From Introduction: "One part of this study, which is presented in this Monograph, consists of an analysis of electric energy usage and electric power demand data obtained from a sample group of occupied houses at Little Rock Air Force Base in Arkansas, equipped with heat pumps, water heaters, cooking ranges, clothes dryers, and miscellaneous appliances all operated by electricity."
Temperature-Induced Stresses in Solids of Elementary Shape
Report discussing how solids subjected to non-uniform temperature change develop internal stresses determined by, (1) the temperature distribution within the solid, and (2) certain physical constants of the material. For two varieties of heating, the equations determining stress have been put in convenient form for practical use, and tables of certain temperature functions show how to determine stresses in a slab, in a cylinder, or in a sphere subjected to either of two modes of heating. The temperature-distribution tables independently provide a useful means for the ready estimation of temperature gradients.
The Measurement of Noise Performance Factors: A Metrology Guide
From Introduction: "The purpose of this guide is to describe, discuss, and analyze methods of measuring the average noise factor and average effective input noise temperature of an electronic transducer."
Evaluating the Impact of Securities Regulation on Venture Capital Markets
Report providing a detailed and analytical assessment of the economic techniques used by researchers to evaluate the efficiency of capital markets. The application of these techniques to that portion of the capital market which supplies venture funds to small, technology-based firms is emphasized. The primary elements of such analysis are the "efficient market ' hypothesis" and the "capital asset pricing model." The empirical analogue of the latter is commonly referred to as the market model."
A Method for the Dynamic Determination of the Elastic, Dielectric, and Piezoelectric Constants of Quartz
From Abstract: "Several dynamic determinations have been made of the constants of quartz. Most of these determinations do not take into account the piezoelectric effect; those that do, suffer from certain deficiencies which are discussed in this paper."
A Spectrophotometric Atlas of the Spectrum of CH from 3000A to 5000A
Report of the near ultraviolet and visible emission spectrum of CH presented in the form of a spectrophotometric atlas. The spectrum was recorded photoelectrically from an acetylene-oxygen flame in the region 4900 to 3000 A by use of a high-resolution grating monochromator. Each of the lines in the CH spectrum is identified.
Stabilization of Free Radicals at Low Temperatures: Summary of the NBS Program
From Forward: "Although the first paper in this volume describes the general aspects of the technical management of the program, it is important to emphasize that much of success and productivity of this program stemmed from the sympathetic understanding of its basic viewpoint by both the Department of Defense and the National Bureau of Standards."
Causes of Variation in Chemical Analyses and Physical Tests of Portland Cement
Report discussing variations in comparative tests of portland cements that could lead to the rejection of a material fully conforming to specification requirements, or the acceptance of a material with undesirable chemical or physical properties. Many of the causes for variation in chemical analyses and physical test results are listed in this discussion, and remedies for some of the more frequently encountered deficiencies in apparatus and methods are suggested.
Radio Meteorology
Report compiling the work done in radio meteorology over the past ten years at the National Bureau of Standards' Central Radio Propagation Laboratory (CRPL). There is an emphasis upon the effects of the lower atmosphere on the propagation of radio waves. The CRPL group has concentrated upon the refraction of radio waves as well as the refractive index structure of the lower atmosphere on both synoptic and climatic scales. Additional chapters on radio-meteorological parameters and the absorption of radio waves by the various constituents of the lower atmosphere.
CRPL Exponential Reference Atmosphere
From Introduction: "In this monograph, the background of the exponential reference atmosphere will be outlined and a set of radio ray tracings presented. These ray may be used for the solution of many problems involving refraction by means of the exponential reference atmosphere."
Climatic Charts and Data of the Radio Refractive Index for the United States and the World
From Introduction: "This Monograph has as its purpose the compilation and analysis of the extensive radio refractive index data available within the Central Radio Propagation Laboratory of the National Bureau of Standards. This will be accomplished by presenting both tabulations of basic data for specific locations and charts for interpolation to any location."
Applications of Waveguide and Circuit Theory to the Development of Accurate Microwave Measurement Methods and Standards
Report issued by the Bureau of Standards over "the basic theory and analytical methods used in the development of accurate microwave measurement methods and standards" (p. x). These methods are presented and discussed. This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Microwave Attenuation Standards and Measurements
Report discussing microwave attenuation measurement methods and standards. In addition, a relatively new and more precise way of representing and analyzing an attenuation measurement is presented. This in turn permits more rigorous definitions and error analyses than were previously possible. The referral of microwave attenuation measurements to standards operating at lower frequencies is discussed with particular attention to the errors in the referral processes as well as the errors in the standards themselves. Desirable characteristics are listed for attenuators which are suitable for calibration. Measurement methods are classified and described. Comments are made on the accuracy and convenience of various methods, and references are given which cover most of the basic and important research in this field. Key words: Microwave, attenuation, measurements, standards, tutorial.
Microwave Impedance Measurements and Standards
Report presenting a survey and discussion of well-known microwave impedance measurement techniques. The discussion includes an introduction which emphasizes basic concepts and reflection coefficient-voltage standing-wave ratio relationships. Sources of error in the various measurement techniques are discussed and methods to reduce errors are presented. Methods using rotating loops and resonance lines are included and a brief discussion of microwave impedance standards is given.
Automatic Measurement of Network Parameters: A Survey
Report issued by the Bureau of Standards over a survey conducted on measurement methods of network parameters. As stated in the introduction, "this paper is concerned with the development of automatic methods of measuring basically the magnitudes and phase differences, or the complex ratio of two sinusoidal voltages, and applications of this capability to determining complex reflection coefficients and transmission coefficients and group delay times of electrical networks" (p. 1). This report includes tables, and illustrations.
A Gage Block Measurement Process Using Single Wavelength Interferometry
Report describing the interferometric measurement process using a laser light source and a Kosters type gage block interferometer. Continuous evaluation and refinement of the process is aided by statistical treatment and control chart techniques. All error sources, both random and systematic, are evaluated and the process is maintained in a state of statistical control.
The Theory of the Optical Wedge Beam Splitter
Report discussing optical wedge beam splitters and the basic theory for computing the ratio of the intensity of the incident beam to the intensity of any selected emerging beam and also for computing the direction of the emerging beam, assuming that the wedge angle, index of refraction, angle of incidence, and number of reflections are known.
Sound Insulation of Wall, Floor, and Door Constructions
From Abstract: "The data obtained at the National Bureau of Standards on the sound insulating properties of building structures are summarized. A brief description of the sound-measuring techniques is given."
Tables of Electron Radial Functions and Tangents of Phase Shifts for Light Nuclei (Z=1 through 10)
From Introduction: "This Monograph, supplemented by ORNL-3207 [9], should eliminate completely the need for use of approximate formulas (e.g. those of Kotani and Ross [10]). The formulation of the problem has been summarized in sec. II. This is followed in sec. III by a discussion of the methods used in numerical calculations. Sec. IV contains a detailed explanation to facilitate the use of present tables."
Time and Frequency: Theory and Fundamentals
From Abstract: "This is a tutorial Monograph describing various aspects of time and frequency (T/F). Included are chapters relating to elemental concepts of precise time and frequency; basic principles of quartz oscillators and atomic frequency standards; historical review, recent progress, and current status of atomic frequency standards; promising areas for developing future primary frequency standards; relevance of frequency standards to other areas of metrology including a unified standard concept; statistics of T/F data analysis coupled with the theory and construction of the NBS atomic time scale; an overview of T/F dissemination techniques; and the standards of T/F in the USA. The Monograph addresses both the specialist in the field as well as those desiring basic information about time and frequency."
Conductive Flooring for Hospital Operating Rooms
Report issued by the Bureau of Standards over studies on the importance of conductive flooring in hospitals. Types of conductive flooring are compared, and tested. The methods and results are presented, and discussed. This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Colors of Signal Lights: Their Selection, Definition, Measurement, Production, and Use
Report discussing the selection, specifications, and use of signal-light colors. It discusses the nature of the problem, and the mathematical representation, recognition, production, control, and use of such colors. The characteristics of different types of chromaticity boundaries and the purpose and effect of the requirement for similarity of chromaticity characteristics are given special consideration. The treatment is varied according to the intended use. The discussion of the control of colors and the section on the use of colors are nontechnical, whereas the section on the production of signal colors is designed for the colorimetrist who is faced with the problem of selecting limit filters or drafting a specification.
The 1958 He4 Scale of Temperatures: Part 1. Introduction, Part 2. Tables for the 1958 Temperature Scale
Report containing information regarding He4 vapor pressure measurement as of 1958, the recent history of the vapor pressure temperature scale, and a series of tables containing these measurements.
Bibliography and Index on Vacuum and Low Pressure Measurement
From Introduction: "This paper consists essentially of a) a bibliography, b) an author index, and c) an index of the subject matter of the bibliography. While the primary objective is to focus on vacuum measurement, it was believed essential to include in the bibliography articles on vacuum technology in some measure accessory or essential to vacuum measurement. For maximum usefulness, an index of the subject matter of the references has been prepared. The abstract publications listed in the previous paragraph have been freely drawn upon in preparing the bibliography."
Bibliography and Index on Vacuum and Low Pressure Measurement, January 1960 to December 1965
From Abstract: "The bibliography, a supplement to NBS Monograph 35, of the same title, covers the years 1960 to 1965, inclusive, and include 109 references for prior years not listed in Monograph 35. It contains 1787 references, 38 of which are to books. The references, besides those directly concerned with pressure measurement, include those on vacuum technology which may bear on the technique of vacuum measurement, such as on adsorption and desorption, diffusion of gases into solids, gas conductance and hardware such as pumps, seals and traps."
Survey of Micromanometers
This survey is concerned with instrumentation for measuring pressures from about 0.001 to 50mm of mercury (0.13 to 6650 Nm-2), described in publications during the years 1900-1968. U-tube micromanometers and diaphragm-capacitance gages are treated in considerable detail. Other instrumentation described includes gas column manometers; elastic element micromanometers with optical, inductance, resistance wire, strain gage, and vacuum tube transducers; piston gages; vane gages; and centrifugal micromanometers. The measurement of dynamic pressure, atmospheric pressure oscillations, low vapor pressure, and calibration techniques are discussed. Schematic diagrams of approximately 70 instruments are included. References to the sources of information and available performance data are given.
Mercury Barometers and Manometers
From Abstract: "Sources of error in measuring pressures are described in considerable detail, particularly for portable instruments including scale, temperature , gravity, capillarity, vacuum errors and return gas column. Methods of minimizing those errors and of making the corrections, including extensive tables, are presented."
Calibration Procedures for Direct-Current Resistance Apparatus
From Object and Scope of This Paper: "This paper describes the apparatus and procedures used at the National Bureau of Standards for the measurement of d-c resistance when an accuracy of a few parts in a million is required. The object will be to explain procedures in detail and as simply as possible, with a minimum reference to theory."
Stress Corrosion Cracking Control Measures
From Abstract: "This publication attempts to diminish the incidence of stress corrosion failures by assembling the available practical measures to avoid or minimize the problem and present these measures in a form comprehensible to those persons responsible for the design, fabrication, and maintenance of new structures."
The Nicrosil versus Nisil Thermocouple: Properties and Thermoelectric Reference Data
From Abstract: "This monograph deals with the formulation and development of the new highly stable nickel-base thermocouple alloys Nicrosil (Ni-14.2Cr-1.4Si) and Nisil (Ni-4.4Si-0.1Mg) under the leadership of the Materials Research Laboratories (MRL) of the Australian Government of Defence, and their standardization by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) of the U.S. Department of Commerce."
Thermocouple Materials
From Introduction: "The purpose of this paper is to present information on materials that are used from 0 degrees C up in thermocouples intended primarily as immersed temperature sensors, and to give so far as is practical properties of these materials that might affect their use in temperature measurement."
The Role of Standard Reference Materials in Measurement Systems
Report is a guide to Standard Reference Materials (SRM's) and should be useful to all users of SRM's particularly those in countries developing national measurement systems. It is not intended to be an exhaustive description of the NBS-SRM program, but rather a review of the role SRM's play in the measurement system, how SRM's are certified, and what the certification means. To illustrate the use of SRM's, several selected industries are described in which SRM's have made significant contributions.
Investigation of the Exploding Wire Process as a Source for High Temperature Studies
From Introduction: "It is the purpose of this monograph to bring together and report the results of numerous exploding wire experiments performed at the National Bureau of Standards over the past five years."
Thermal Conductivity of Solids At Room Temperature and Below: A Review and Compilation of the Literature
From Abstract: "An extensive compilation is given of the measured values of thermal conductivity for nearly all solid materials from room temperature down to 0.02 kelvin. Experimental methods and physical phenomena are discussed in the text and coded in the tables for references for which curves are shown."
The Mechanics of Pneumatic Tires
From Abstract: "This treatise is an attempt to provide a rational descriptive and analytical basis for tire mechanics. Chapters of this book are contributed by active research workers in the fields of rubber and textile properties, friction, material properties, tire stress problems, tire design and construction, vehicle skid and handling, and tire mechanical properties."
Properties of Glasses in Some Ternary Systems Containing BaO and SiO2
Report discussing the glass forming regions in six ternary oxide systems containing BaO, Si02, and a third oxide. The properties of the resulting glasses were measured and the results reported. The data on refractive indices, dispersions, and specific volumes were evaluated by computer methods in an attempt to identify "substructures" containing the cations present in the glasses.
Table of wavenumbers: Volume 1, 2000 A to 7000 A
From Extension of Tables: "Because of its range and size, this table of wavenumbers is in two volumes, Volume I presenting wavenumbers for all wavelengths between 2000 and 7000 A, and Volume II giving wave-numbers for all wavelengths from 7000 A to 10000000 A=1 mm. In some cases Volume I may suffice for ionic spectra, and in others Volume II may be adequate for molecular spectra, but in general both volumes will needed to cover the entire range of spectral wavelengths measured in standard air."
Table of Wavenumbers: Volume 2, 7000 A to 1000 mu
Report discussing "A two-volume table for converting wavelengths in standard air to wavenumbers in vacuum. Wave-numbers are given to the nearest 0.001 K (cm^-1) for wavelengths from 2000 to 7000 A in volume 1, and 7000 A to 1000 m in volume II."
Microwave Spectral Tables: Volume 5. Spectral Line Listing
From Abstract: "This volume is a listing of the spectral lines reported in Volume I, III, and IV of the Microwave Spectral Tables. These lines are listed according to ascending magnitude of frequency and should provide a steady reference."
Microwave Spectral Tables: Volume 4. Polyatomic Molecules Without Internal Rotation
From Introduction: "This volume contains data on the microwave spectra of 166 polyatomic molecules incapable of exhibiting internal rotation."
Oscillator Strengths and Transition Probabilities fro 3288 Lines of Fe I
Report of a homogeneous set of intensity-related data calculated for 3288 spectral lines of Fe I in the region from 2100 to 9900 angstroms. The quantities tabulated in the present monograph include log (g__), log (gf), gf,f,gA, and A. Since recent investigations do not support excitations corrections in the case of Fe I and certain other spectra, the present tabulation incorporates a removal of that normalization function. This recalculation affects the values for all lines whose upper energy levels lie above 46000 cm -1 and should significantly improve the internal consistency of the present data.
Revision of the NBS Tables of Spectral-Line Intensities Below 2450 Å
From Abstract: "A calibration is applied to the intensity measurements of the 1400 lines below 2450 A in the NBS Tables of Spectral-Line Intensities. Tables of the new values are presented with the lines arranged by elements and by wavelengths."
Experimental Transition Probabilities for Spectral Lines of Seventy Elements: Derived from the NBS Tables of Spectral-line Intensities
From introduction: "The goal of the work was to provide lists of the principal lines of the elements generally observed under ordinary conditions in arc spectra, together with their relative intensities on a true scale of relative energy."
Hearing Aids
From Abstract: "This publication contains information, useful to the hard of hearing, on several topics relating to hearing and hearing aids. This publication represents an extensive revision of NBS Circular 534, Hearing Aids. It includes new material based upon research conducted at the National Bureau of Standards during the intervening years."
Specific Heats and Enthalpies of Technical Solids at Low Temperatures: A Compilation from the Literature
Report giving tables of the specific heat, cp, and the enthalpy of 28 metals, 3 alloys, 8 other inorganic substances, and 8 organic substances in the temperature range, 1º to 300º K.
Thermal Expansion of Technical Solids at Low Temperatures: A Compilation From the Literature
Report giving tables of the linear contraction relative to 293 ºK, (L293ºLT)/L293, and the linear expansion coefficient, dL/L293dT, of thirty elements, forty-five alloys, twenty-two other inorganic substances and twenty plastics and elastomers in the temperature range, 0 to 300 ºK.
Amplitude-Probability Distributions for Atmospheric Radio Noise
Report providing detail measurements and percentages in charts, using three statistical parameters, for amplitude-probability distributions of atmospheric radio noise.
Measurement Assurance for Gage Blocks
Report discussing the philosophy of measurement assurance and the three levels of measurement assurance programs. The measurement assurance programs are outlined to show how control over the measurement process can be maintained and how the offset (or systematic error) from the unit of length maintained by the National Bureau of Standards ban be made negligible. This monograph is intended for those who need to know on a continuing basis the uncertainty of their gage block calibration procedure.
Reduction of Data for Piston Gage Pressure Measurements
Report issued by the U.S. National Bureau of Standards discussing piston gage pressure and reducing errors of measurement. Sources of error are described and evaluated in order to "reduce the magnitude of overall error of measurement" (p. 1). This report includes tables, and illustrations.
Reduction of Data for Piston Gage Pressure Measurements
Report discussing pressure measurements made with piston gages that are affected by gravity, temperature, pressure, and several other variables. For accurate determinations of pressure the calculations must take these variables into account. A general equation is developed and simplified procedures for calculating pressure are illustrated.