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The Knock-Limited Performance of Several Fuels Blended With S-2 Reference Fuel
Report discussing the results of testing conducted to determine the knock-limited performance of fuel blends containing 80 percent of S-2 reference fuel and 20 percent of several exploratory fuels. Butyl acetate, sec-butyl acetate, isopropyl acetate, sec-butyl alcohol, tert-butyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, cyclohexanol, methylcyclohexanol, isobutylcarbinol, sec-butylcarbinol, triethyl borate, and dimethylfuran were examined.
Maximum Lift Coefficients of Airplanes Based on Sum of Wing and Tail Areas
Report discusses the maximum lift coefficients for conventional and tailless airplanes in the gliding and landing conditions. Three areas are used to calculate the coefficients: wing area alone, wing area plus horizontal-tail area, and wing area plus horizontal- and vertical-tail areas.
A simplified chart for determining Mach number and true airspeed from airspeed-indicator readings
"The determination of flight Mach number from measurements of indicated airspeed and pressure altitude is shown to be relatively simple and leads to direct and accurate computation of true airspeed. A simplified chart is presented for determining flight Mach number and true airspeed for a range of values of indicated airspeed, pressure altitude, and air temperature. A table of standard atmospheric values is included" (p. 1).
Effects of Fuel-Vapor Loss on Knock-Limited Performance and Inspection Properties of Aviation Fuels
Report discussing the results of testing to discover the effects of fuel-vapor loss on F-3 and F-4 knock-limited performance ratings and inspection properties of two aviation fuels, 28-R and 33-R. The percentage of loss at several temperatures, ability to meet Army-Navy fuel specifications, and antiknock rating change is described.
Variation of Hydrodynamic Impact Loads With Flight-Path Angle for a Prismatic Float at 3 Degree Trim and With a 22 1/2 Degree Angle of Dead Rise
Report discusses the results of testing "to determine the relationship between impact normal acceleration and flight-path angle for seaplanes landing on smooth water" (from Summary). The testing was done with a model at high and low forward speeds at 3 degrees trim, a dead-angle rise of 22.5 degrees, and consistent weight.
Variation of Hydrodynamic Impact Loads With Flight-Path Angle for a Prismatic Float at 12 Degree Trim and With a 22-1/2 Degree Angle of Dead Rise
Report discusses the results of testing "to determine the relationship between impact normal acceleration and flight-path angle for seaplanes landing on smooth water" (from Summary). The tests were performed at 12 degrees trim, 22.5 degree angle of dead rise, and a total weight of 1100 pounds. The effect on the maximum impact normal acceleration and the effects of immersion on acceleration are described.
Variation of Hydrodynamic Impact Loads With Flight-Path Angle for a Prismatic Float at 6 Degrees and 9 Degrees Trim and a 22-1/2 Degree Angle of Dead Rise
Report discusses the results of testing "to determine the relationship between impact normal acceleration and flight-path angle for seaplanes landing in smooth water" (from Summary). The tests were done at high and low forward speeds and trims at 6 degrees and 9 degrees, a 22.5 degree angle of dead rise, and a gross weight of 1100 pounds. Information about the forces acting on the aircraft and maximum depth of immersion and trim is provided.
Maximum Rates of Control Motion Obtained From Ground Tests
Report discusses the results of testing to determine the maximum rates of control stick (elevator) motion and corresponding maximum stick forces that could be exerted based on experiments with several pilots. The main topics explored were the comparison of the maximum rates of push and pull, maximum rates of push and pull when a mental restriction was placed on the pilot, and maximum rates at which the pilot though he would apply the elevator control forces versus the actual application of forces. Information about experimental procedures and the rig the testing occurred on is included.
Early Detection of Cracks Resulting From Fatigue Stressing
Report discusses an apparatus that may be used for indicating the formation of fatigue cracks or for following the progress of cracks. Details of the experiment and discussion of the way in which the deflection-crack area relationship may be used to monitor fatigue cracks are included.
Hydrodynamic-stability tests of a model of a flying boat and of a planing surface having a small downward projection (hook) on the planing bottom near the step
Report presenting stability testing of two dynamic models in tank no. 1 in order to investigate the effects of adding a small projection, or hook, on the planing bottom of the forebody near the step of a seaplane. Tests with two different projections had a rather large effect on all of the trim limits and the landing stability.
Landing Characteristics of a Model of a Flying Boat With the Depth of Step Reduced to Zero by Means of a Retractable Planing Flap
"A model of a flying boat was tested to determine the landing characteristics when the depth of the step was reduced to zero by means of a retractable planing flap on the forebody" (p. 4). The results of stability and resistance testing are presented.
Preliminary Tests to Determine the Dynamic Stability Characteristics of Various Hydrofoil Systems for Seaplanes and Surface Boats
Report discusses the results of testing on the dynamic stability characteristics of various hydrofoil systems for seaplanes, including a flat-hydrofoil tandem system, a 20 degree V-hydrofoil tandem system, a curved-hydrofoil tandem system, a flat-hydrofoil ladder system, a Guidoni S.V.A.-type hydrofoil on a streamline spindle, and several self-propelled models, including the Tietjens hydrofoil system. The instability and spray were compared for the different systems.
Wind-Tunnel Tests of a Piston-Type Control Booster on an Airfoil and Aileron Model
"Measurements of control moments were made in the NACA stability tunnel to determine the operational characteristics of a piston-type control booster on an aileron. The booster was so constructed and installed that pressures picked up from the air stream below the wing acted on a pair of pistons. The data are presented in the form of curves of pressure coefficients acting on the pistons, hinge-moment coefficients, and booster coefficients plotted against aileron deflection" (p. 1).
Tables and Charts for the Evaluation of Profile Drag From Wake Surveys at High Subsonic Speeds
Report presents tables and charts for the evaluation of profile drag from wake surveys at high supersonic speeds. Two methods of evaluation are presented: an exact method that can be used on a wake of any shape and a simple approximate method that can be used when the variation of total-pressure loss across the wave has a typical form.
Computation of the Mean Tangential Velocity of the Air Leaving the Blade Tips of a Centrifugal Supercharger
Report discusses the differences between the mean tangential velocity of the air leaving the blade tips of a centrifugal supercharger calculated by the conventional turbine equation and by an equation that uses the isentropic increase in total enthalpy. The velocities are compared to experimental values observed with three diffusers.
Progress Summary Number 1: Mechanical Properties of Flush-Riveted Joints Submitted by Five Airplane Manufacturers
Summary presenting information on flush-riveted joints for aircraft construction, including the strength, occurrence of defects, and effect of the angle of rivet head. The current tests covers specimens from 15 manufacturers of which 5 series have been completed and are described in this report.
End-zone water injection as a means of suppressing knock in a spark-ignition engine
Report discusses the results of an investigation into the effectiveness of water injection into the combustion end zone of a spark-ignition engine cylinder for the suppression of knock. The injection angle was found to be very important for obtaining maximum results. The results of various angles and amounts of water were examined.
Dilution of Exhaust-Gas Samples From a Multicylinder Engine Equipped With an Exhaust-Gas Collector
Report discusses the results of an investigation to determine the effect of a collector ring on exhaust-gas sampling. The results of tests to determine the percentage by volume of exhaust gas from the collector ring are presented for several engine powers and speeds. The danger of air dilution from the breathing action of the engine is almost entirely eliminated by the use of a collector ring.
Some Strength Tests of Stiffened Curved Sheets Loaded in Shear
Report discusses the results of strength tests of several curved-sheet 24S-T aluminum alloy specimens stiffened longitudinally and transversely and loaded in shear. Curved-web beams and cylindrical shells were both examined in the tests. Results provided include the load at which the sheet began to show shear buckles, where the buckles occurred, and whether or not the failures involved rupture of the sheet.
A Positive-Replica Technique for Examining Finished Metal Surfaces and Its Application to Aircraft Engine Cylinders
Report discusses a method of replica creation and testing of the surface-finish variation of aircraft engine parts subject to wear. In this report, a positive replica is created, the surface is treated, the replica is tested to make sure the fidelity is high enough, and a series of ring-sticking tests are conducted on the replicas. A summary of the results of the testing is also included.
The belt method for measuring pressure distribution
"The measurement of pressure distribution may be accomplished rapidly for any number of locations deemed necessary in model or full-scale investigations by use of the 'belt' method. Reasonable accuracy may be obtained by careful use of this method" (p. 1).
A Preliminary Study of Machine-Countersunk Flush Rivets Subjected to a Combined Static and Alternating Shear Load
Report discusses the results of an investigation to study the effect of the height of a rivet head on the number of cycles required to cause failure of a machine-countersunk flush-riveted joint under a combined static and alternating shear load. A tight joint and a loose joint were tested and the number of cycles to failure and location of fatigue failure were compared.
A Preignition Indicator for Aircraft Engines
Report describes an electrical-relay circuit that uses cylinder thermocouples for indicating preignition or misfiring in an aircraft engine. The potential dangers of preignition and the importance of an easy-to-use, practical preignition indicator are provided. The operating principles of the indicator and a description of its functioning, calibration, and installation procedures are also included.
Effect of Variation in Diameter and Pitch of Rivets on Compressive Strength of Panels With Z-Section Stiffeners 1 - Panels With Close Stiffener Spacing That Fail by Local Buckling
An experimental investigation is being conducted to determine the effect of varying the rivet diameter and pitch on the compressive strength of 24S-T aluminum-alloy panels with longitudinal Z-section stiffeners. The average stress at failing load for each rivet diameter, depth of countersink, and pitch of rivet is provided
Preliminary Investigation of the Relation of the Compressive Strength of Sheet-Stiffener Panels to the Diameter of Rivet Used for Attaching Stiffeners to Sheet
Report discusses the results of compressive testing of 24S-T aluminum-alloy sheet-stiffener panels with five ratios of stiffener thickness to sheet thickness. For each ratio, rivets of five different diameters were used to attach the stiffeners to the sheets. The compressive strengths were found to increase with an increase in the diameter of the rivets until the ratio of rivet diameter to over-all thickness reached a certain point.
The Preparation of 2, 2, 4, 4-Tetramethylpentane
Report presenting seven distinct operations in the preparation of 2,2,4,4-tetramethylpentane, including the preparation of di-isobutylene hydrochloride, preparation of dimethylzinc, reaction of dimethylzinc in dry benzene with di-isobutylene hydrochloride, preliminary distillation of the reaction products, treatment of the first distillate with sodium and alcohol, final distillation after appropriate washing of the products, and recovery of the iodine in the zinc residues of II as methyl iodide.
Use of Water Injection to Decrease Gasoline Consumption in an Aircraft Engine Cruising at High Power
Report discusses the results of testing water injection on a multicylinder aircraft engine and the potential fuel savings from the procedure. The speeds at which water injection for engine cooling is beneficial are illustrated and information about the manifold pressures and average rear spark-plug-gasket temperatures are also included.
An Estimation of the Internal-Cooling Requirements of an Aircraft-Engine Cylinder When Using Oxygen Boost
Report discusses a method developed to estimate the quantities of internal coolants required to prevent overheating of the aircraft cylinder when oxygen boost is applied. The formula and calculations related to inlet-air pressure, added oxygen, added water, added nitrogen, and total fluid weight are detailed.
A Study of the Effects of Radii of Gyration and Altitude on Aileron Effectiveness at High Speed
"The variation in the necessary aileron control and in the time required to bank to 45 degrees and 90 degrees with altitude and radii of gyration for a typical fighter or a pursuit airplane have been computed and are presented herein." The lateral motions and impact pressure for several conditions of flight are provided. The report concludes that "the aileron system...should be designed for rolling-moment requirements at high altitude and the hinge-moment limitations at low altitude".
XC-35 Gust Research Project Operation in Cumulus Congestus Cloud on July 31, 1941 Maximum Gust Intensities
"On July 31, 1941 a turbulence survey was made with the XC-35 airplane of a large cumulus congestus cloud near Langley Field, Va. This bulletin presents a general description of conditions and the maximum gust intensities recorded during the flight" (p. 1).
An Automatically Variable Control Linkage and Its Effect on the Lateral-Control Characteristics of a High-Speed Fighter Airplane
Report discusses an analysis and preliminary design of a control linkage that varies automatically with dynamic pressure. The advantages of the device, including greater lateral control than a fixed control linkage without additional aerodynamic balance, are detailed. The effect of variable linkage on lateral-control characteristics is also described.
Effect of Countersunk Depth on the Tightness of Two Types of Machine-Countersunk Rivet
Bulletin presenting an investigation conducted to determine the effect of countersunk depth on the tightness of two types of machine-countersunk flush rivet. The specimens tested in the study were simple lap joints made by two different riveting methods. The results indicated that roundheaded rivets inserted from the back of the joint with the countersunk heads formed int he driving of the rivets produce tighter joints over a large range of depths than ordinary flush rivets.
Test Data on the Shear Strength of Machine Countersunk-Riveted Joints Assembled by an NACA Flush-Riveting Procedure
Bulletin presenting load-displacement curves for use in establishing allowable-load values for riveted joints assembled by an NACA flush-riveting procedure. Comparative data are also given to show the effect of variations in the procedure on the yield and maximum shear loads for the rivets.
Tests of a Stress-Carrying Door in Compression
Bulletin presenting the results of bending tests on a monocoque box with the door on the compression side. The results indicate that the effectiveness of a stress-carrying door depends on the intended function of the door.
Tests of a Stressed-Carrying Door in Shear
Bulletin presenting testing of a monocoque box with a stress-carrying door made and tested in torsion. The results indicate that if a stress-carrying door and its frame are made sufficiently heavy, the torsional stiffness of the box with the door can be made greater than the torsional stiffness of the box without the cut-out" (p. 1).
Shear Tests on DuPont Explosive Rivets With the Countersunk Head Milled Flush After Expansion
Report discusses the results of shear testing in which the heads of Du Pont explosive countersunk rivets were allowed to protrude above the skin surface before expansion and the protruding portions were removed after expansion. As the height of the rivet head above the skin increases, the tightness of the rivet was found to increase. The report concludes that it may be desirable to investigating filling an entire shank with an explosive charge in order to permit greater tolerances in the drilled hole diameter and still have consistently tight rivets.
Comparison of tightness of 78 degrees machine-countersunk rivets driven in holes prepared with 78 degrees and 82 degrees countersinking tools
Report presenting an investigation to determine whether the use of a 78 degree countersinking tool instead of a 82 degree countersinking tool for riveting would substantially alter the conclusion reached in a previous paper regarding the placement of rivets for maximum strength.
Calculation of Stick Forces for an Elevator With a Spring Tab
"Formulas for the calculation of hinge-moment characteristics of an elevator with a spring tab have been developed in terms of basic aerodynamic parameters, spring stiffness, and airspeed. The formulas have been used in a study of the stick-force gradients on a pursuit airplane equipped with an elevator with a spring tab. Charts are presented showing the variation of stick-force gradient in accelerated flight over a large range of speed and the complete range of spring stiffness for various center-of-gravity locations, altitudes, and airplane sizes" (p. 1).
Determination of desirable lengths of Z- and channel-section columns for local-instability tests
From Summary: "Local-instability tests of 24S-T aluminum-alloy formed Z- and channel-section columns were made in order to determine a length of test specimen that would avoid the increased strength associated with short lengths and also permit the occurrence of a convenient buckling pattern. The effect of column length on the critical compressive stress, on the average stress at maximum load, and on the number of half-waves of the buckling pattern is shown."
A Method for the Determination of Aromatics in Hydrocarbon Mixtures
Bulletin discusses a method to estimate aromatic hydrocarbons in hydrocarbon mixtures, which is important for determining the percentage of aromatics in fuel blends. The method was tested with nine base stocks at several levels of aromatics concentration and the maximum level of error was found to be about 0.5 percent. The speed and simplicity of the testing is emphasized.
Effects of Compressibility and Large Angles of Yaw on Pressure Indicated by a Total-Pressure Tube
Report discusses the effects of compressibility and angle of yaw on the pressure measured by a round-nose and a flat-nose total-pressure tube. The error incurred in the pressure measurements and factors affecting the total-pressure area are described.
The Effect of Oil Consumption and Piston Cooling on Knock-Limited Aircraft-Engine Performance
Report discusses the "effects of oil introduced into the combustion chamber and of oil-spray piston cooling on the knock-limited performance of aircraft engines" (from Summary). A CFR engine and Allison V-1710 cylinder were used to test the rate of oil consumption, knock, and knock-limited brake mean effective pressure.
An Approximate Determination of the Power Required to Move Control Surfaces as Related to Control-Booster Design
"As a part of a general investigation of control boosters, preliminary calculations were made to indicate the sizes of control boosters necessary to move the controls of airplanes of various sizes. The analysis was based on the assumption that the controls were moved with a rapidity and amplitude equal to that measured with a fighter airplane in simulated combat. A corollary purpose consisted in determining the effect on reducing booster-power unit size of incorporating an energy accumulator in the booster system" (p. 1).
A Comparison of Data Obtained by Two Flight Techniques for Determining the Sideslip Characteristics of a Fighter Airplane
Report discusses data obtained from measuring sideslip characteristics via the continuous-record method and the steady-record method. The situations in which each recording method is preferred are presented.
NACA Procedure for Flight Tests of Aileron Characteristics of Airplanes
Report describes the standard procedure that NACA used for evaluating the aileron characteristics of airplanes. The variables measured in the testing are rolling velocity, aileron positions, aileron stick forces or tangential wheel force, indicated airspeed, altitude, free-air temperature, and rudder position. The step-by-step flight procedure is described and information regarding evaluation of the control data and general suggestions is included.
Flight investigation of a stall-warning indicator for operation under icing conditions
Report presenting an investigation to determine whether some characteristic of the boundary layer could be used to provide warning of the increase in stalling speed of a wing caused by ice formations on the leading edge. Results were analyzed by referring the total pressures at the rake to the free-stream total pressure, static pressure at the rake, free-stream static pressure, and static pressure from wind-tip swiveling head.
Emergency Measures for Increasing the Range of Fighter Airplanes
"An analysis was made to show the relative effectiveness of streamline external fuel tanks, a fuel tank in the form of a wing mounted in a biplane position, and auxiliary wing panels attached at the wing tips to increase the span as temporary means for increasing the range of a fighter-type airplane. Figures and charts for the various devices considered show the results of calculations of range, duration of flight, and take-off distance for both land-base and carrier operation. The results indicated that the wing-tip extensions were the most promising of the devices considered" (p. 1).
Heat-Capacity Lag in Turbine-Working Fluids
Report discusses measurements of the relaxation time of steam and nitrogen due to their importance as turbine-working fluids. Additional calculations regarding different nozzle lengths are included.
Use of Variable-Ratio Geared Tabs to Improve Stick-Force Characteristics in Turning Flight
Report discussing the use of variable-ratio geared tabs with an experimental elevator to improve stick-force characteristics in turning flight. The stick forces with the tabs were found to be satisfactory for a variety of center-of-gravity ranges. The ability of pilots to use the controls is also described.
Investigation of Methods of Supporting Single-Thickness Specimens in a Fixture for Determination of Compressive Stress-Strain Curves
"An investigation was made of the methods of supporting single-thickness specimens of aluminum-alloy sheet material in a fixture for determination of compressive stress-strain curves. The specimens were supported in the fixture by rollers, offset-grooved plates, opposite-grooved plates, flat brass plates, or flat wooden plates. The investigation also showed that the compression fixture, the specimen support, and the single-thickness specimens must be accurately made in order to obtain accurate stress-strain curves consistently" (p. 1).