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FY 2008 Miniature Spherical Retroreflectors – Final Report
Through the duration of the NNSA Office of Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (NA-22) Miniature Spherical Retroreflectors lifecycle project, our research team focused on developing solutions to the fabrication bottleneck that has inhibited development and deployment of wide-angle optically interrogated chemical and radiological remote sensing technology. Our team advanced the concept of step-index clad retroreflectors to approximate an optimized, but yet unrealized spherical gradient index design. An intensive numerical simulation effort was undertaken that resulted in optimized step-index optical designs for mid-infrared applications. Geometric optics ray trace modeling was performed to better understand the geometrical dependencies of the miniature spherical retroreflector application. We adopted and advanced the concept of optical cross section, a metric that provides relative performance comparisons between different retroreflector designs and our cross-section analysis demonstrated that our step-index design provided 90% of the range capacity of the ideal spherical index design.
FY07-08 Implementation Plan Volume 2, Rev. 0.5
The Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) is a single, highly integrated technical program for maintaining the safety and reliability of the U.S. nuclear stockpile. The SSP uses past nuclear test data along with current and future nonnuclear test data, computational modeling and simulation, and experimental facilities to advance understanding of nuclear weapons. It includes stockpile surveillance, experimental research, development and engineering programs, and an appropriately scaled production capability to support stockpile requirements. This integrated national program will require the continued use of current facilities and programs along with new experimental facilities and computational enhancements to support these programs. The Advanced Simulation and Computing Program (ASC) is a cornerstone of the SSP, providing simulation capabilities and computational resources to support the annual stockpile assessment and certification, to study advanced nuclear-weapons design and manufacturing processes, to analyze accident scenarios and weapons aging, and to provide the tools to enable Stockpile Life Extension Programs (SLEPs) and the resolution of Significant Finding Investigations (SFIs). This requires a balanced resource, including technical staff, hardware, simulation software, and computer science solutions. In its first decade, the ASC strategy focused on demonstrating simulation capabilities of unprecedented scale in three spatial dimensions. In its second decade, ASC is focused on increasing its predictive capabilities in a three-dimensional simulation environment while maintaining the support to the SSP. The program continues to improve its unique tools for solving progressively more difficult stockpile problems (focused on sufficient resolution, dimensionality and scientific details); to quantify critical margins and uncertainties (QMU); and to resolve increasingly difficult analyses needed for the SSP. Moreover, ASC has restructured its business model from one that was very successful in delivering an initial capability to one that is integrated and focused on requirements-driven products that address long-standing technical questions related to enhanced predictive capability in the simulation tools. ASC ...
Safeguards Envelope Progress FY08
The Safeguards Envelope Project met its milestones by creating a rudimentary safeguards envelope, proving the value of the approach on a small scale, and determining the most appropriate path forward. The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant’s large cache of reprocessing process monitoring data, dubbed UBER Data, was recovered and used in the analysis. A probabilistic Z test was used on a Markov Monte Carlo simulation of expected diversion data when compared with normal operating data. The data regarding a fully transient event in a tank was used to create a simple requirement, representative of a safeguards envelope, whose impact was a decrease in operating efficiency by 1.3% but an increase in material balance period of 26%. This approach is operator, state, and international safeguards friendly and should be applied to future reprocessing plants. Future requirements include tank-to-tank correlations in reprocessing facilities, detailed operations impact studies, simulation inclusion, automated optimization, advanced statistics analysis, and multi-attribute utility analysis.
Fiscal Year 2008 Phased Construction Completion Report for EU Z2-33 in Zone 2, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
The Record of Decision for Soil, Buried Waste, and Subsurface Structure Actions in Zone 2, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE/OR/01-2161&D2) (Zone 2 ROD) acknowledged that most of the 800 acres in Zone 2 were contaminated, but that sufficient data to confirm the levels of contamination were lacking. The Zone 2 ROD further specified that a sampling strategy for filling the data gaps would be developed. The Remedial Design Report/Remedial Action Work Plan for Zone 2 Soils, Slabs, and Subsurface Structures, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE/OR/01-2224&D3) (Zone 2 RDR/RAWP) defined the sampling strategy as the Dynamic Verification Strategy (DVS), generally following the approach used for characterization of the Zone 1 exposure units (EUs). The Zone 2 ROD divided the Zone 2 area into seven geographic areas and 44 EUs. To facilitate the data quality objectives (DQOs) of the DVS process, the Zone 2 RDR/RAWP regrouped the 44 EUs into 12 DQO scoping EU groups. These groups facilitated the DQO process by placing similar facilities and their support facilities together and allowing identification of data gaps. The EU groups were no longer pertinent after DQO planning was completed and characterization was conducted as areas became accessible. As the opportunity to complete characterization became available, the planned DVS program and remedial actions (RAs) were completed for EU Z2-33. Remedial action was also performed at two additional areas in adjacent EU Z2-42 because of their close proximity and similar nature to a small surface soil RA in EU Z2-33. Remedial actions for building slabs performed in EU Z2-33 during fiscal year (FY) 2007 were reported in the Fiscal Year 2007 Phased Construction Completion Report for the Zone 2 Soils, Slabs, and Subsurface Structures at East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE/OR/01-2723&D1). Recommended RAs for EU Z2-42 were ...
Intelligence Authorization Legislation: Status and Challenges
This report assesses the effects of the absence of intelligence authorization legislation since FY2005. Since FY2005, no annual intelligence authorization bill has been enacted. Although the National Security Act requires intelligence activities to be specifically authorized, this requirement has been satisfied in recent years by one-sentence catch-all provisions in defense appropriations acts authorizing intelligence activities.
Intelligence Authorization Legislation: Status and Challenges
This report assesses the effects of the absence of intelligence authorization legislation since FY2005. Since FY2005, no annual intelligence authorization bill has been enacted. Although the National Security Act requires intelligence activities to be specifically authorized, this requirement has been satisfied in recent years by one-sentence catch-all provisions in defense appropriations acts authorizing intelligence activities.
Intelligence Authorization Legislation: Status and Challenges
This report assesses the effects of the absence of intelligence authorization legislation since FY2005. Since FY2005, no annual intelligence authorization bill has been enacted. Although the National Security Act requires intelligence activities to be specifically authorized, this requirement has been satisfied in recent years by one-sentence catch-all provisions in defense appropriations acts authorizing intelligence activities.
Community Development Block Grants: Funding Issues in the 113th Congress
This report is a review of the Community Development Fund (CDF) account's funding history from FY2000 to FY2014, as well as current funding in FY2015. It includes a discussion of the three primary components of the CDF account: CDBG formula grants; CDBG-related set-asides and earmarks; and CDBG-linked supplemental and special appropriations.
Emergency Funding for Agriculture: A Brief History of Supplemental Appropriations, FY1989-FY2009
This report provides a table which lists supplemental appropriations for Agriculture. From FY1989 through FY2009, 39 appropriations, authorization, or farm disaster acts added approximately $68.7 billion in supplemental funding for U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs (excluding the Forest Service, which is funded annually under the Interior appropriations bill). Approximately $50.2 billion, or just under three-fourths of the total amount, was provided within the last 10 years.
Our Changing Planet: The U.S. Climate Change Science Program Annual Report, 2008
Annual report of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program documenting activities and research, goals for the upcoming year, proposed budget considerations, and other information about the organization for fiscal year 2008.
Water Quality Issues in the 110th Congress: Oversight and Implementation
This report discusses issues surrounding the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1972 and programs set up to meet the water quality standards that it outlined. The report focuses specifically on the legislative issues for the 110th Congress in relation to the CWA. It also includes a brief comparison of the expected appropriations for FY2007 and FY2008.
Second FY2008 Supplemental Appropriations for Military Operations, International Affairs, and Other Purposes
This report discusses supplemental appropriations for fiscal years 2008 and 2009. During its first session, the 110th Congress approved fiscal year 2008 emergency supplemental appropriations of $86.8 billion for the Department of Defense and $2.4 billion for international affairs.
Defense Authorization and Appropriations Bills: FY1970-FY2017
This report is a research aid that lists the Department of Defense (DOD) authorization bills (Table 1) and appropriations bills (Table 2) for FY1970-FY2017. This report includes all the pertinent information on the passage of these bills through the legislative process: bill numbers, report numbers, dates reported and passed, recorded vote numbers and vote tallies, dates of passage of the conference reports with their numbers and votes, vetoes, substitutions, dates of final passage, and public law numbers.
Defense Authorization and Appropriations Bills: FY1961-FY2019
This report is a research aid that lists the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) authorization and appropriations bills for FY1961-FY2019 including: bill numbers, report numbers, dates reported and passed, recorded vote numbers and vote tallies, dates of passage of the conference reports with their numbers and votes, vetoes, substitutions, dates of final passage, and public law numbers. Significant definitions are also included.
FY08 VPP Program Evaluation
The Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) is a recognized third-party certification of worker safety and health program excellence, based on industry best practices that focus on management leadership and employee involvement, as well as other safety and health program elements. This Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) VPP Program Evaluation is the FY-2008 report of the PNNL VPP Steering Committee regarding the status of VPP at PNNL. It is an update of the previous annual report dated January, 2007 and was completed in January 2008. An annual evaluation of the status of VPP is required of all sites that participate in the DOE-VPP. This report provides a detailed summary of the PNNL VPP Steering Committee’s evaluation of program performance and documents both strengths and improvement opportunities related to the various aspects of the VPP model.
The Federal Budget Deficit and the Business Cycle
This report discusses the annual federal budget deficit, which has fallen significantly over the course of the current economic expansion, from a high of 9.8% of gross domestic product (GDP) in FY2009 to 3.2% of GDP in FY2016.
Department of State and Foreign Operations Appropriations: A Fact Sheet on Legislation, FY1995-FY2015
This report discusses the foreign affairs appropriations passed within the last 21 years; nearly all of them were passed within omnibus, consolidated, or full-year continuing resolutions, and usually after the start of the new fiscal year. Many foreign policy experts contend that stand-alone appropriation legislation would allow for a more rigorous debate on specific foreign policy activities. They also believe that the practice of delayed appropriations has constrained ongoing program operating levels and the ability to introduce or fund new programs that did not exist in the previous year's budget.
Funding for Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CSS) at DOE: In Brief
This report discusses current legislation regarding the potential of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) as a mitigation strategy for lowering global emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). Congress has appropriated more than $7 billion since FY2008 to CCS activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).
U.S. Postal Service Workforce Size and Employment Categories, FY1995-FY2014
This report provides data from the past 20 years on the size and composition of the U.S. Postal Service's (USPS's) workforce. Reforms to the size and composition of the workforce have been an integral part of USPS's strategy to reduce costs and regain financial solvency, particularly between FY2007 and FY2014.
Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory1st Quarter FY08 Milestone Report: Report Initial Work on Developing Plasma Modeling Capability in WARP for NDCX ExperimentsReport Initial work on developing Plasma Modeling Capability in WARP for NDCX Experiments
This milestone has been accomplished. The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL) has developed and implemented an initial beam-in-plasma implicit modeling capability in Warp; has carried out tests validating the behavior of the models employed; has compared the results of electrostatic and electromagnetic models when applied to beam expansion in an NDCX-I relevant regime; has compared Warp and LSP results on a problem relevant to NDCX-I; has modeled wave excitation by a rigid beam propagating through plasma; and has implemented and begun testing a more advanced implicit method that correctly captures electron drift motion even when timesteps too large to resolve the electron gyro-period are employed. The HIFS-VNL is well on its way toward having a state-of-the-art source-to-target simulation capability that will enable more effective support of ongoing experiments in the NDCX series and allow more confident planning for future ones.
FY08 parameters for the injection, acceleration, and extraction of gold ions and deuterons in the booster, AGS, and RHIC
A Gold ion with charge eQ has N = 197 Nucleons, Z = 79 Protons, and (Z-Q) electrons. (Here Q is an integer and e is the charge of a single proton.) The mass is m = au - Qm{sub e} + E{sub b}/c{sup 2} (1) where a = 196.966552 is the relative atomic mass [1, 2] of the neutral Gold atom, u = 931.494013 MeV/c{sup 2} is the unified atomic mass unit [3], and m{sub e}c{sup 2} = .510998902 MeV is the electron mass [3]. E{sub b} is the binding energy of the Q electrons removed from the neutral Gold atom. This amounts to 0.332 MeV for the helium-like gold ion (Q = 77) and 0.517 MeV for the fully stripped ion. For the Au{sup 31+} ion we have E{sub b} = 13.5 keV. These numbers are given in Ref. [4]. The deuteron mass [3] is 1875.612762(75) MeV/c{sup 2}.
Hood River Production Program Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) - Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs : Annual Report For Fiscal Year, October 2007 – September 2008.
This progress report describes work performed by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs (CTWSRO) portion of the Hood River Production Program Monitoring and Evaluation Project (HRPP) during the 2008 fiscal year. A total of 64,736 hatchery winter steelhead, 12,108 hatchery summer steelhead, and 68,426 hatchery spring Chinook salmon smolts were acclimated and released in the Hood River basin during the spring. The HRPP exceeded program goals for a release of and 50,000 winter steelhead but fell short of the steelhead release goals of 30,000 summer steelhead and 75,000 spring Chinook in 2008. Passive Integrated Transponders (PIT) tags were implanted in 6,652 hatchery winter steelhead, and 1,196 hatchery summer steelhead, to compare migratory attributes and survival rates of hatchery fish released into the Hood River. Water temperatures were recorded at six locations within the Hood River subbasin to monitor for compliance with Oregon Department of Environmental Quality water quality standards. A preseason spring Chinook salmon adult run forecast was generated, which predicted an abundant return adequate to meet escapement goal and brood stock needs. As a result the tribal and sport fisheries were opened. A tribal creel was conducted from May 22 to July 18 during which an estimated 172 spring Chinook were harvested. One hundred sixteen Spring Chinook salmon redds were observed and 72 carcasses were inspected on 19.4 miles of spawning grounds throughout the Hood River Basin during 2008. Annual salvage operations were completed in two irrigation canals resulting in the liberation of 1,641 fish back to the Hood River.
America Competes 2010: FY2012 Funding and FY2008-FY2011 Funding Summary
This report discusses how funding affects the America COMPETES program, and subsequently U.S. interests in R&D in STEM disciplines.
WASTE SOLIDIFICATION BUILDING BENCH SCALE HIGH ACTIVITY WASTE SIMULANT VARIABILITY STUDY FY2008
The primary objective of this task was to perform a variability study of the high activity waste (HAW) acidic feed to determine the impact of feed variability on the quality of the final grout and on the mixability of the salt solution into the dry powders. The HAW acidic feeds were processed through the neutralization/pH process, targeting a final pH of 12. These fluids were then blended with the dry materials to make the final waste forms. A secondary objective was to determine if elemental substitution for cost prohibitive or toxic elements in the simulant affects the mixing response, thus providing a more economical simulant for use in full scale tests. Though not an objective, the HAW simulant used in the full scale tests was also tested and compared to the results from this task. A statistically designed test matrix was developed based on the maximum molarity inputs used to make the acidic solutions. The maximum molarity inputs were: 7.39 HNO{sub 3}, 0.11618 gallium, 0.5423 silver, and 1.1032 'other' metals based on their NO{sub 3}{sup -} contribution. Substitution of the elements aluminum for gallium and copper for silver was also considered in this test matrix, resulting in a total of 40 tests. During the NaOH addition, the neutralization/pH adjustment process was controlled to a maximum temperature of 60 C. The neutralized/pH adjusted simulants were blended with Portland cement and zircon flour at a water to cement mass ratio of 0.30. The mass ratio of zircon flour to Portland cement was 1/12. The grout was made using a Hobart N-50 mixer running at low speed for two minutes to incorporate and properly wet the dry solids with liquid and at medium speed for five minutes for mixing. The resulting fresh grout was measured for three consecutive yield stress measurements. The cured ...
Earmarks Disclosed by Congress: FY2008 and FY2009 Regular Appropriations Bills
This report provides information on the earmarks disclosed by the House and Senate for the 12 regular, annual appropriations bills for each of FY2008 and FY2009. The report directly analyzes the data in the earmark disclosure lists, without additions or deletions.
FY08 MEMBRANE CHARACTERIZATION REPORT FOR HYBRID SULFUR ELECTROLYZER
This report summarizes results from all of the membrane testing completed to date at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for the sulfur dioxide-depolarized electrolyzer (SDE). Several types of commercially-available membranes have been analyzed for ionic resistance and sulfur dioxide transport including perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA), sulfonated polyether-ketone-ketone (SPEKK), and polybenzimidazole membranes (PBI). Of these membrane types, the poly-benzimidazole membrane, Celtec-L, exhibited the best combination of characteristics for use in an SDE. Several experimental membranes have also been analyzed including hydrated sulfonated Diels-Alder polyphenylenes (SDAPP) membranes from Sandia National Laboratory, perfluorosulfonimide (PFSI) and sulfonated perfluorocyclobutyl aromatic ether (S-PFCB) prepared by Clemson University, hydrated platinum-treated PFSA prepared by Giner Electrochemical Systems (GES) and Pt-Nafion{reg_sign} 115 composites prepared at SRNL. The chemical stability, SO{sub 2} transport and ionic conductivity characteristics have been measured for several commercially available and experimental proton-conducting membranes. Commercially available PFSA membranes such as the Nafion{reg_sign} series exhibited excellent chemical stability and ionic conductivity in sulfur dioxide saturated sulfuric acid solutions. Sulfur dioxide transport in the Nafion{reg_sign} membranes varied proportionally with the thickness and equivalent weight of the membrane. Although the SO{sub 2} transport in the Nafion{reg_sign} membranes is higher than desired, the excellent chemical stability and conductivity makes this membrane the best commercially-available membrane at this time. Initial results indicated that a modified Nafion{reg_sign} membrane incorporating Pt nanoparticles exhibited significantly reduced SO{sub 2} transport. Reduced SO{sub 2} transport was also measured with commercially available PBI membrane and several experimental membranes produced at SNL and Clemson. These membranes also exhibit good chemical stability and conductivity in concentrated sulfuric acid solutions and, thus, serve as promising candidates for the SDE. Therefore, we recommend further testing of these membranes including electrolyzer testing to determine if the reduced SO{sub 2} transport eliminates the formation of sulfur-containing films at the membrane/cathode interface. SO{sub ...
Calibration of an interfacial force microscope for MEMS metrology : FY08-09 activities.
Progress in MEMS fabrication has enabled a wide variety of force and displacement sensing devices to be constructed. One device under intense development at Sandia is a passive shock switch, described elsewhere (Mitchell 2008). A goal of all MEMS devices, including the shock switch, is to achieve a high degree of reliability. This, in turn, requires systematic methods for validating device performance during each iteration of design. Once a design is finalized, suitable tools are needed to provide quality assurance for manufactured devices. To ensure device performance, measurements on these devices must be traceable to NIST standards. In addition, accurate metrology of MEMS components is needed to validate mechanical models that are used to design devices to accelerate development and meet emerging needs. Progress towards a NIST-traceable calibration method is described for a next-generation, 2D Interfacial Force Microscope (IFM) for applications in MEMS metrology and qualification. Discussed are the results of screening several suitable calibration methods and the known sources of uncertainty in each method.
U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production in Federal and Nonfederal Areas
This report examines U.S. oil and natural gas production data for federal and non-federal areas with an emphasis on the past five fiscal years of production.
FY08 Annual Report: Amorphous Semiconductors for Gamma Radiation Detection (ASGRAD)
This is the annual report for an old project funded by NA22. The purpose of the project was to develop amorphous semiconductors for use as radiation detectors. The annual report contains information about the progress made in synthesizing, characterizing, and radiation response testing of these new materials.
Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup for Federal Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation, FY08 Annual Report
The Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS) is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort that the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) developed in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as applied to operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The goal of the EOS project is to facilitate activities of the estuary/ocean RME subgroup as it coordinates design and implementation of federal RME in the lower Columbia River and estuary. In fiscal year 2008 (FY08), EOS project accomplishments included 1) subgroup meetings; 2) participation in the estuary work group of the Pacific Northwest Aquatic Monitoring Partnership; 3) project management via the project tracking system, Pisces; 4) quarterly project status reports; and 5) a major revision to the Estuary RME document and its subsequent regional release (new version January 2008). Many of the estuary RME recommendations in this document were incorporated into the Biological Opinion on hydrosystem operations (May 2008). In summary, the FY08 EOS project resulted in expanded, substantive coordination with other regional RME forums, a new version of the federal Estuary RME program document, and implementation coordination. This annual report is a FY08 deliverable for the project titled Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup.
NIH Funding: FY1994-FY2019
This report discusses funding for the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) from 1994 to 2019. The NIH is the primary federal agency charged with conducting and supporting biomedical and behavioral research. It is the largest of the eight health-related agencies that make up the Public Health Service (PHS) within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).
The FDA FY2009 Budget
This report discusses the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) FY2009 budget request of $2.676 billion that would provide a 17.9% increase ($406 million) over FY2008. It includes an overview and breakdowns for specific programs: Foods Program, Human Drugs Program, Biologics program, Animal Drugs and Feed Program, and the Devices and Radiological Health Program.
Recruiting and Retention: An Overview of FY2008 and FY2009 Results for Active and Reserve Component Enlisted Personnel
This report provides a brief overview of the recruiting and retention rates for Active and Reserve Component enlisted personnel during FY2008 and FY2009.
The Mid-Session Review of the President's Budget: Timing Issues
This report provides information on the timing of submission of the mid-session review for FY1980-FY2009, a 30-year period that covers all or part of the administrations of five Presidents, applying to the last two years of the Carter Administration, and the full terms of the Reagan, George H. W. Bush, Clinton, and George W. Bush Administrations.
Direct Overt U.S. Aid Appropriations for and Military Reimbursements to Pakistan, FY2002-FY2017
This report provides data regarding the direct overt U.S. aid appropriations and military reimbursements to Pakistan.
The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF): Budget and Operations for FY2008, FY2009, and FY2010
This report provides an overview of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) budget and operations for FY2008, FY2009, and FY2010. It chronicles congressional action on the annual Commerce, Justice, Science (CJS), and Related Agencies Appropriations bills for those fiscal years, as well as action on supplemental and stimulus appropriations bills.
Department of Justice (DOJ) Appropriations for FY2008 and FY2009
This report provides a discussion of funding for the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) for fiscal years 2008 and 2009, including background information, a breakdown of funding from FY2008 regular and supplemental funding, and budget requests for FY2009.
Department of Justice (DOJ) Appropriations for FY2008 and FY2009
This report provides coverage of the FY2009 appropriations cycle for the Department of Justice (DOJ), including FY2008 supplemental appropriations.
Advanced Simulation and Computing FY08-09 Implementation Plan, Volume 2, Revision 0.5
The Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) is a single, highly integrated technical program for maintaining the surety and reliability of the U.S. nuclear stockpile. The SSP uses past nuclear test data along with current and future non-nuclear test data, computational modeling and simulation, and experimental facilities to advance understanding of nuclear weapons. It includes stockpile surveillance, experimental research, development and engineering programs, and an appropriately scaled production capability to support stockpile requirements. This integrated national program requires the continued use of current facilities and programs along with new experimental facilities and computational enhancements to support these programs. The Advanced Simulation and Computing Program (ASC)1 is a cornerstone of the SSP, providing simulation capabilities and computational resources to support the annual stockpile assessment and certification, to study advanced nuclear-weapons design and manufacturing processes, to analyze accident scenarios and weapons aging, and to provide the tools to enable Stockpile Life Extension Programs (SLEPs) and the resolution of Significant Finding Investigations (SFIs). This requires a balanced resource, including technical staff, hardware, simulation software, and computer science solutions. In its first decade, the ASC strategy focused on demonstrating simulation capabilities of unprecedented scale in three spatial dimensions. In its second decade, ASC is focused on increasing its predictive capabilities in a three-dimensional simulation environment while maintaining the support to the SSP. The program continues to improve its unique tools for solving progressively more difficult stockpile problems (focused on sufficient resolution, dimensionality and scientific details); to quantify critical margins and uncertainties (QMU); and to resolve increasingly difficult analyses needed for the SSP. Moreover, ASC has restructured its business model from one that was very successful in delivering an initial capability to one that is integrated and focused on requirements-driven products that address long-standing technical questions related to enhanced predictive capability in the simulation tools. ASC must ...
The Impact of Major Legislation on Budget Deficits: 2001 to 2009
This report examines to what extent major legislative changes from 2001 to 2009 caused the budget to move from surplus to deficit. Legislative actions taken in 2009 increased the FY2009 deficit by $509 billion, whereas legislative actions taken between 2001 and 2008 increased the FY2009 deficit by $903 billion. Furthermore, legislative changes have cumulatively increased federal budget deficits over FY2001 to FY2009 by $5.4 trillion.
Direct Overt U.S. Aid Appropriations for and Military Reimbursements to Pakistan, FY2002-FY2018
Table of data outlining direct overt U.S. aid appropriations and military reimbursements to Pakistan including number for fiscal years 2002-2011 (combined), fiscal years 2012-2016 (individually) and estimates for 2017 and 2018.
FY08 LDRD Final Report LOCAL: Locality-Optimizing Caching Algorithms and Layouts
This project investigated layout and compression techniques for large, unstructured simulation data to reduce bandwidth requirements and latency in simulation I/O and subsequent post-processing, e.g. data analysis and visualization. The main goal was to eliminate the data-transfer bottleneck - for example, from disk to memory and from central processing unit to graphics processing unit - through coherent data access and by trading underutilized compute power for effective bandwidth and storage. This was accomplished by (1) designing algorithms that both enforce and exploit compactness and locality in unstructured data, and (2) adapting offline computations to a novel stream processing framework that supports pipelining and low-latency sequential access to compressed data. This report summarizes the techniques developed and results achieved, and includes references to publications that elaborate on the technical details of these methods.
Advanced Simulation and Computing FY08-09 Implementation Plan Volume 2 Revision 0
The Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) is a single, highly integrated technical program for maintaining the safety and reliability of the U.S. nuclear stockpile. The SSP uses past nuclear test data along with current and future nonnuclear test data, computational modeling and simulation, and experimental facilities to advance understanding of nuclear weapons. It includes stockpile surveillance, experimental research, development and engineering programs, and an appropriately scaled production capability to support stockpile requirements. This integrated national program requires the continued use of current facilities and programs along with new experimental facilities and computational enhancements to support these programs. The Advanced Simulation and Computing Program (ASC) is a cornerstone of the SSP, providing simulation capabilities and computational resources to support the annual stockpile assessment and certification, to study advanced nuclear-weapons design and manufacturing processes, to analyze accident scenarios and weapons aging, and to provide the tools to enable Stockpile Life Extension Programs (SLEPs) and the resolution of Significant Finding Investigations (SFIs). This requires a balanced resource, including technical staff, hardware, simulation software, and computer science solutions. In its first decade, the ASC strategy focused on demonstrating simulation capabilities of unprecedented scale in three spatial dimensions. In its second decade, ASC is focused on increasing its predictive capabilities in a three-dimensional simulation environment while maintaining the support to the SSP. The program continues to improve its unique tools for solving progressively more difficult stockpile problems (focused on sufficient resolution, dimensionality and scientific details); to quantify critical margins and uncertainties (QMU); and to resolve increasingly difficult analyses needed for the SSP. Moreover, ASC has restructured its business model from one that was very successful in delivering an initial capability to one that is integrated and focused on requirements driven products that address long-standing technical questions related to enhanced predictive capability in the simulation tools. ASC ...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Overview, FY2009 Budget, and Issues for Congress
This report discusses budget issues for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which conducts U.S. civilian space and aeronautics activities. The President's 2004 Moon/Mars Vision for Space Exploration is the major focus of NASA's activities.
Idaho National Laboratory’s Greenhouse Gas FY08 Baseline
A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic attempt to account for the production and release of certain gasses generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gasses of interest are those which have become identified by climate science as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during fiscal year (FY) 2008 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho. Concern about the environmental impact of GHGs has grown in recent years. This, together with a desire to decrease harmful environmental impacts, would be enough to encourage the calculation of a baseline estimate of total GHGs generated at INL. Additionally, INL has a desire to see how its emissions compare with similar institutions, including other DOE national laboratories. Executive Order 13514 requires that federal agencies and institutions document reductions in GHG emissions in the future, and such documentation will require knowledge of a baseline against which reductions can be measured. INL's FY08 GHG inventory was calculated according to methodologies identified in federal GHG guidance documents using operational control boundaries. It measures emissions generated in three Scopes: (1) INL emissions produced directly by stationary or mobile combustion and by fugitive emissions, (2) the share of emissions generated by entities from which INL purchased electrical power, and (3) indirect or shared emissions generated by outsourced activities that benefit INL (occur outside INL's organizational boundaries but are a consequence of INL's activities). This inventory found that INL generated a total of 113,049 MT of CO2-equivalent emissions during FY08. The following conclusions were made from looking at the results of the individual contributors to INL's baseline GHG inventory: (1) Electricity (including the associated transmission and distribution losses) is the largest contributor to INL's GHG inventory, with over 50% of ...
Multilateral Development Banks: U.S. Contributions FY2000-FY2011
This report shows in tabular form how much the Administration has requested and how much Congress has appropriated for U.S. payments to the multilateral development banks (MDBs) since 2000. It also provides a brief description of the MDBs and the ways they fund their operations. It will be updated periodically as annual appropriation figures are known.
Multilateral Development Banks: U.S. Contributions FY2000-FY2011
This report shows in tabular form how much the Administration has requested and how much Congress has appropriated for U.S. payments to the multilateral development banks (MDBs) since 2000. It also provides a brief description of the MDBs and the ways they fund their operations.
Multilateral Development Banks: U.S. Contributions FY2000-FY2013
This report shows in tabular form how much the Administration requested and how much Congress appropriated for U.S. payments to the multilateral development banks (MDBs) since 2000. It also provides a brief description of the MDBs and the ways they fund their operations. It will be updated periodically as annual appropriation figures are known.
Multilateral Development Banks: U.S. Contributions FY2000-FY2015
This report shows in tabular form how much the Administration requested and how much Congress appropriated for U.S. payments to the multilateral development banks (MDBs) since 2000. It also provides a brief description of the MDBs and the ways they fund their operations.
Multilateral Development Banks: U.S. Contributions FY2000-FY2015
This report shows in tabular form how much the Administration requested and how much Congress appropriated for U.S. payments to the multilateral development banks (MDBs) since 2000. It also provides a brief description of the MDBs and the ways they fund their operations.