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Sodium Waste Technology : a Summary Report
The Sodium Waste Technology (SWT) Program was established to resolve long-standing issues regarding disposal of sodium-bearing waste and equipment. Comprehensive SWT research programs investigated a variety of approaches for either removing sodium from sodium-bearing items, or disposal of items containing sodium residuals. The most successful of these programs was the design, test, and the production operation of the Sodium Process Demonstration Facility at ANL-W. The technology used was a series of melt-drain-evaporate operations to remove nonradioactive sodium from sodium-bearing items and then converting the sodium to storable compounds.
7-GeV Advanced Photon Source : Conceptual Design Report
During the past decade, synchrotron radiation emitted by circulating electron beams has come into wide use as a powerful, versatile source of x-rays for probing the structure of matter and for studying various physical processes. Several synchrotron radiation facilities with different designs and characteristics are now in regular operation throughout the world, with recent additions in this country being the 0.8-GeV and 2.5-GeV rings of NSLS at Brookhaven National Laboratory. However, none of the operating facilities has been designed to use a low-emittance, high-energy stored beam, together with modern undulator devices, to produce a large number of hard x-ray beams of extremely high brilliance. This document is a proposal to the Department of Energy to construct and operate high-energy synchrotron radiation facility at Argonne National Laboratory. We have now chosen to set the design energy of this facility at 7.0 GeV, with the capability to operate at up to 7.5 GeV.
1986 Annual Site Environmental Report for Argonne National Laboratory
Report on the ongoing environmental monitoring program at Argonne National Laboratory.
Chemical Technology Division Annual Technical Report: 1986
Annual report of Argonne National Laboratory's Chemical Technology (CMT) Division. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in areas that include the following: (1) high-performance batteries--mainly lithium-alloy/metal sulfide and sodium/sulfur; (2) aqueous batteries (lead-acid, nickel/iron, etc.); (3)advanced fuel cells with molten carbonate or solid oxide electrolytes; (4) coal utilization, (5) methods for recovery of energy from municipal waste; (6) methods for the electromagnetic continuous casting of steel sheet; (7) techniques for treatment of hazardous waste such as reactive metals and trichloroethylenes; (8) nuclear technology related to waste management.
Physics Division Annual Review 1 April 1986 - March 1987
Report of activities of the Argonne Physics Division, including medium-energy physics research, ATLAS research, theoretical nuclear physics, superconducting LINAC development, and accelerator operations.
Insertion Device and Beam Line Plans for the Advanced Photon Source : a Report and Recommendations by the Insertion Device and Beam Line Planning Committee
In the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) Conceptual Design Report (CDR), fifteen complete experimental beam lines were specified in order to establish a representative technical and cost base for the components involved. In order to optimize the composition of the insertion devices and the beam line, these funds are considered a ''Trust Fund.'' The present report evaluates the optimization for the distribution of these funds so that the short- and long-term research programs will be most productive, making the facility more attractive from the user's point of view. It is recommended that part of the "Trust Fund" be used for the construction of the insertion devices, the front-end components, and the first-optics, minimizing the cost to potential users of completing a beam line. In addition, the possibility of cost savings resulting from replication and standardization of high multiplicity components (such as IDs, front ends, and first-optics instrumentation) is addressed.
Ring Energy Selection and Extra Long Straight Sections for the Advanced Photon Source
Recommended criteria are given for the performance of Advanced Photon Source (APS), taking into consideration undulator tunability criteria and their relationship to the storage ring energy and undulator gap, length of straight sections.
A Review of Two-Phase Flow-Induced Vibration
Two-phase flow exists in many shell-and-tube heat exchangers and power generation components. The flowing fluid is a source of energy that can induce small-amplitude subcritical oscillations and large-amplitude dynamic instabilities. In fact, many practical system components have experienced excessive flow-induced vibrations. To prevent unacceptable flow-induced vibration, we must understand excitation mechanisms, develop analytical and experimental techniques, and provide reliable design guidelines. Thus, we are conducting a comprehensive program to study structural vibration in components subjected to two-phase flow. This report reviews the current understanding of vibration of circular cylinders in quiescent fluid, cross-flow, and axial flow, with emphasis on excitation mechanisms, mathematical models, and available experimental data. A unified theory is presented for cylinders oscillating under different flow conditions. Based on the theory, future research needs are outlined.
Screening and Degradation Tests of Linear-Polymer Additives for District Heating Applications
In closed-loop district heating and cooling (DHC) systems, the addition of a friction-reducing additive to the working fluid conveying energy between the energy sources and end users would allow increased load-handling capability (in an existing system) or the use of much smaller pipes and/or pumps (in a new system). As the first step in identifying friction-reducing additives that have a reasonable lifetime at DHC temperatures, two high-molecular-weight linear-polymer additives have been tested at two different temperatures (25.0 C and 87.8 C). The additives are Polyox WSR-301 and Separan AP-273 at 200 wppm in deionized water. Results of capillary tube screening tests with fresh solutions show that both polymers can give more than 60% friction reduction. However, Separan is effective at high temperatures, whereas Polyox undergoes thermal degradation. Degradation tests in a closed recirculatory flow system show that (1) friction reduction is always accompanied by heat transfer reduction regardless of the hours of shear, (2) Polyox cannot be used in recirculatory systems because it is very sensitive to mechanical degradation, and (3) although Separan does degrade under high flow shear conditions, it does not degrade completely; it achieves a plateau value of friction reduction even under continuous shear. This is an important discovery and implies that Separan is still a good candidate for closed-loop DH systems.
Users' Guide to Toolpack/1 (Release 2) in a Unix Environment
This is a guide to the use of a collection of Unix shell scripts that extend the Fortran analyzing and transforming capabilities of Unix by invoking a set of tools from Toolpack/1 (Release 2). It is a substantial revision and update of Argonne report ANL/MCS-TM-77, which served as a Unix users' guide to the first release of Toolpack/1.
Toolpack/1 Release 2 : Introductory Guide
This guide introduces Toolpack/1 Release 2, the second public release of Toolpack/1, an integrated suite of Fortran 77 software tools. The guide describes the background to the Toolpack project and explains the basic concepts and terms involved in the design and use of the tool suite. It also summarizes the facilities available in the second release and refers readers to other Toolpack/1 documentation for more detailed discussion. This guide should be regarded as essential preliminary reading for all prospective users of Toolpack/1.
Beyond "'Speedup": Performance Analysis of Parallel Programs
This paper addresses the problem of measuring and analyzing the performance of fine-grained parallel programs running on shared-memory multiprocessors. Such processors use locking (either directly in the application program, or indirectly in a subroutine library or the operating system) to serialize accesses to global variables. Given sufficiently high rates of locking, the chief factor preventing linear speedup (besides lack of adequate inherent parallelism in the application) is lock contention - the blocking of processes that are trying to acquire a lock currently held by another process.
X-ray Computed Tomography for Structural Ceramic Applications : Beam Hardening Corrections
Beam hardening (BH), caused by the energy dependence of x-ray attenuation in materials, reduces the reliability of images generated by computed tomographic (CT) when polychromatic x-ray sources are used. The magnitude of the BH effect was calculated, and four different approaches to BH correction for CT imaging of ceramics were investigated: the ''water bag'' approach, pre-hardening of the beam by use of a filter, linearization correction, and dual-energy methods. The dual-energy approach appears to be a promising means of BH correction for CT imaging of ceramics.
An Algebraic Theory of Program Specification and Correctness Using Symmetry Operations
This report applies some methods from the theory of group representation to the questions of program specification and knowledge about programs. The theory is that of a program as a transformation on a state space, and operators commuting with that transformation being symmetries of the program, means of specifying properties, and generators of program invariants. Because a program can simulate a system in the real world, there is a corresponding model of engineered artifacts, that is, manmade objects having a theory for their design.
A Theory of Program Correctness, and Algorithms for Proofs
A model of program correctness is given where a problem domain is defined by its language, variable names, and an abstract machine defining the semantics of the language. The set of all computations in this domain is shown to be a semigroup. A corresponding statement is true of a more general programming language. A program P in the general language is an element of the semigroup. If P performs computations in some domain, a connection can be established between P and the semigroup of computations in that domain. Methods already used in proofs about hardware are shown to be useful in proofs about this software model. The paradigm is capable of reasoning about multiprocessor hardware and of ''proving'' theorems about execution times, that is, ''performance.''
An Approach to Implementing State Space Searches on Heterogeneous Systems of Multiprocessors
We report on experiments run on a set of shared-memory multiprocessors. Our goal was to demonstrate that one could conveniently utilize a set of shared-memory multiprocessors cooperatively working on typical state-space searches. We utilized a technology for writing portable code for multiprocessors, coded three depth-first state-space searches, and ran them on a set of multiprocessors. The final problem used substantial resources (over 65 hours on a single processor) and was successfully distributed over four distinct shared memory multiprocessors (2 Sequents and 2 Encores), reducing the time to perform the computation to slightly over 2 hours.
Site Surveillance and Maintenance Program for Palos Park : Report for 1986
The results of the environmental monitoring program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Park Forest Preserve area for CY 1986 are presented. The monitoring program is the ongoing remedial action that resulted from the original radiological characterization of the site. The program consists of sample collection and analysis of air, surface and subsurface water, and bottom sediment to determine the migration pathway of water from the burial ground (Plot M) to hand-operated picnic wells, establish if buried radionuclides other than hydrogen-3 have migrated, and generally characterize the radiological environment of the area.
Final Report for the Light Water Breeder Reactor Proof-of-Breeding Analytical Support Project
The technology of breeding uranium-233 from thorium-232 in a light water reactor is being developed and evaluated by the Westinghouse Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory (BAPL) through operation and examination of the Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR). Bettis is determining the end-of-life (EOL) inventory of fissile uranium in the LWBR core by nondestructive assay of a statistical sample comprising approximately 500 EOL fuel rods. This determination is being made with an irradiated-fuel assay gauge based on neutron interrogation and detection of delayed neutrons from each rod. The EOL fissile inventory will be compared with the beginning-of-life fissile loading of the LWBR to determine the extent of breeding. In support of the BAPL proof-of-breeding (POB) effort, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) carried out destructive physical, chemical, and radiometric analyses on 17 EOL LWBR fuel rods that were previously assayed with the nondestructive gauge. The ANL work included measurements on the intact rods; shearing of the rods into pre-designated contiguous segments; separate dissolution of each of the more than 150 segments; and analysis of the dissolver solutions to determine each segment's uranium content, uranium isotopic composition, and loading of selected fission products. This report describes the facilities in which this work was carried out, details operations involved in processing each rod, and presents a comprehensive discussion of uncertainties associated with each result of the ANL measurements.
The SUPRENUM (Supercomputer Numerical) Communications Subroutine Library for Grid-Oriented Problems
In the application software development of the SUPRENUM project (the German supercomputer project) many parallel grid-oriented algorithms are being programmed, especially multigrid and computational fluid dynamics codes. As the communication tasks are similar, a central SUPRENUM communications library with subroutines covering all communication requirements of the applications programs has been created. By implementing versions of the library for the Intel iPSC hypercube and the planned SUPRENUM machine, full portability of the applications software has been achieved.
Proceedings of the Focused Research Program on Spectral Theory and Boundary Value Problems, Vol. 1: Singular Differential Systems
Report on the development of square integrable solutions for Hamiltonian systems in all cases, including intermediate cases.
Assessment of Impact of Advanced Energy Transmission Fluids on District Heating and Cooling Systems : (Phase 1)
Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Buildings and Community Systems, has embarked upon a comprehensive, long-range program to develop high-performance advanced energy transmission fluids for use in district heating and cooling (DHC) systems. ANL has the lead technical role in this DOE program. These advanced fluids will substantially reduce flow frictional losses and enhance energy transfer. In system enhancement scoping studies conducted by ANL, the fluids yielded potentially significant upfront capital equipment cost reductions by allowing the use of smaller pipes, pumps, heat exchangers, and storage tanks as well as reductions in operational costs. This report presents the first-phase results of assessment of impact of the advanced fluids on DHC systems. Future reports will focus on assessment of impact on hardware performance, capital equipment, and operation costs.
Decontamination and Decommissioning of the Argonne National Laboratory East Area Radioactively Contaminated Surplus Facilities : Final Report
ANL has decontaminated and decommissioned (D and D) seven radiologically contaminated surplus facilities at its Illinois site: a ''Hot'' Machine Shop (Building 17) and support facilities; Fan House No. 1 (Building 37), Fan House No. 2 (Building 38), the Pangborn Dust Collector (Building 41), and the Industrial Waste Treatment Plant (Building 34) for exhaust air from machining of radioactive materials. Also included were a Nuclear Materials Storage Vault (Building 16F) and a Nuclear Research Laboratory (Building 22). The D and D work involved dismantling of all process equipment and associated plumbing, ductwork, drain lines, etc. After radiation surveys, floor and wall coverings, suspended ceilings, room partitions, pipe, conduit and electrical gear were taken down as necessary. In addition, underground sewers were excavated. The grounds around each facility were also thoroughly surveyed. Contaminated materials and soil were packaged and shipped to a low-level waste burial site, while nonactive debris was buried in the ANL landfill. Clean, reusable items were saved, and clean metal scrap was sold for salvage. After the decommissioning work, each building was torn down and the site relandscaped. The project was completed in 1985, ahead of schedule, with substantial savings.
REDUCE-Aided Study of a Problem in Hermitian Matrix Theory
Let A be any n x n positive definite matrix and B any n x n non-negative definite matrix. In an earlier paper we showed that for each n there is a real number t/sub n/> 2 such that if t <t/sub n/ then the solution X of the matrix equation A²X + XA² + tAXA = B is non-negative definite. For n = 2, t₂ = infinity and for n = 3, t₃ = 8. In this report we show that t₄ = 4, t₅ <3.02048507 and t₆ <2.62120330.
A Review of Parameterizations of Microphysical Processes in Clouds for Application in Models of Regional Atmospheric Deposition
The literature on parameterizations of cloud microphysical processes was reviewed to examine the theoretical bases of those parameterizations and to evaluate their applicability to regional models. New parameterizations were produced by multiple regression upon the solution fields derived from simulations of a cloud model incorporating sophisticated microphysics. The currently available rates for cloud microphysical interactions were generally derived under the assumption that the size distribution functions for various hydrometeors are given. Such parameterizations must therefore be applied with caution because the spectral evolution of various types of hydrometeors in reality varies significantly during the stages of cloud development. Uncertainties exist in assigning values for aerodynamic properties such as the bulk collection efficiency, and the growth processes for various types of ice crystals are not well enough known for accurate multiphase cloud-microphysics parameterizations. The new parameterizations, in general, compare favorably with those currently available and are more efficient and applicable to regional models. The largest discrepancies occur in the autoconversion rates, whereas the accretion rates agree closely when the assumed collection efficiencies in other formulas are smaller than unity.
Analysis of Proposed Gamma-Ray Detection System for the Monitoring of Core Water Inventory in a Pressurized Water Reactor
An initial study has been performed of the feasibility of employing an axial array of gamma detectors located outside the pressure vessel to monitor the coolant in a PWR. A one-dimensional transport analysis model is developed for the LOFT research reactor and for a mock-PWR geometry. The gamma detector response to coolant voiding in the core and down-comer has been determined for both geometries. The effects of various conditions (for example, time after shutdown, materials in the transport path, and the relative void fraction in different water regions) on the detector response are studied. The calculational results have been validated by a favorable comparison with LOFT experimental data. Within the limitations and approximations considered in the analysis, the results indicate that the gamma-ray detection scheme is able to unambiguously respond to changes in the coolant inventory within any vessel water region.
Measurement of Stibine and Arsine Generation from the Exide 3100-Ah Lead-Acid Module
Stibine and arsine evolution from lead-acid cells in a 36-kWh Exide load-leveling module was measured as this module approached 1900 cycles of operation. A specially prepared gas-collection apparatus enabled us to determine the maximum and average rates for evolution of both toxic hydrides. Hydride generation began once the cell voltage exceeded 2.4 V. The maximum rate for arsine occurred just above 2.5 V and consistently preceded the peak rate for stibine for each sampled cell. When adjusted for size effects, the degree of stibine and arsine evolution was greater than found in a continuous overcharge study conducted by Exide. The average rates of hydride generation were found to be 175 microgm/min for stibine and 12.6 microgm/min for arsine. The former rate proved to be the critical value in determining safe ventilation requirements for cell off-gases. The minimum airflow requirement was calculated to be 340 L/min per cell. Projections for a hypothetical 1-MWh Exide battery without an abatement system indicated that the normal ventilation capacity in the Battery Energy Storage Test facility provides nearly five times the airflow needed for safe hydride removal.
Post-Test Analyses of Aqueous Batteries Developed for Electric Propulsion : Summary Report for January 1985-September 1986
This document is a summary of the activities conducted on post-test examination of aqueous electric-vehicle batteries from January 1985 to September 1986. The post-test analyses were conducted to determine the causes of performance degradation (e.g., capacity decline, power loss, self-discharge) in lead-acid and nickel/iron batteries. For the lead-acid batteries, the primary causes of capacity decline were generally found to be morphological changes in the positive active material, corrosion of the positive electrode grid, and loss of contact between the active material and grid in the positive electrode. For the nickel/iron batteries, the primary factors responsible for performance degradation were transport of iron through the separator to the nickel electrode and loss of contact between the active materials and current collector. These results have permitted more accurate assessments of current technical progress in development of aqueous electric-vehicle batteries and have helped to direct future R and D efforts.
One-Dimensional Leakage-Flow Vibration Instabilities
Simple boundary conditions, pressure losses, and channel geometries necessary for the unstable, rigid-body translational vibrations of the wall of one-dimensional leakage-flow channel are identified. General expressions for the flow damping and stiffness forces acting on the vibrating channel wall are derived and specific results are given for channels with wall friction, point pressure losses, sharp-edged constrictions, and diverging or converging widths. The minimum conditions necessary for dynamic and static (divergence) instability were found to be an upstream point pressure loss and a diverging channel width with a finite-length throat region, respectively.
Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment : 1000-h Laboratory Test A
A laboratory test program is described to evaluate the corrosion behavior of several metallic alloys, coatings, claddings, and weldments in support of the atmospheric fluidized-bed air heater experiment. Results are presented from the first 1000-h test (Test A) conducted at metal and gas temperatures of 871 C and 899 C, respectively. Detailed information is also presented on the corrosion scale morphologies, scale compositions and thicknesses, intergranular penetration of the substrate material, and metal recession.
Computerized Operating Procedures for Shearing and Dissolution of Segments from LWBR (Light Water Breeder Reactor) Fuel Rods
This report presents two detailed computerized operating procedures developed to assist and control the shearing and dissolution of irradiated fuel rods. The procedures were employed in the destructive analysis of end-of-life fuel rods from the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) that was designed by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory. Seventeen entire fuel rods from the end-of-life core of the LWBR were sheared into 169 precisely characterized segments, and more than 150 of these segments were dissolved during execution of the LWBR Proof-of-Breeding (LWBR-POB) Analytical Support Project at Argonne National Laboratory. The procedures illustrate our approaches to process monitoring, data reduction, and quality assurance during the LWBR-POB work.
Review of the Analyses of the Doppler-Effect Measurements in SEFOR (Southwest Experimental Fast Oxide Reactor)
The SEFOR experimental results and the three original analyses are reviewed and discussed. The emphasis of the review is placed on aspects that are pertinent to a possible modern re-analysis of the experimental results. Looking at the analysis results in terms of zero and first order effects shows that the zero order effects, the Doppler constant of the two SEFOR cores, are obtained by the three analyses in satisfactory agreement. But the first order effects, but temperature variation of this Doppler-constant quantity, cannot be determined with any informative accuracy. Since this is likely due to limitations in the experiments, a re-analysis - except for methodological reasons - does not appear to be fruitful.
Activities and Operations of the Advanced Computing Research Facility : October 1986-October 1987
This paper contains a description of the work being carried out at the advanced computing research facility at Argonne National Laboratory. Topics covered are upgrading of computers, networking changes, algorithms, parallel programming, programming languages, and user training.
²³⁵U(n,f), ²³⁸U(n, gamma), ²³⁸U(n,f), ²³⁹Pu(n,f) Reaction Rate Measurement Calibrations at ZPPR
New reference deposits for uranium-235, plutonium-239 and uranium-238 have been established with mass uncertainties of <0.2%. These new deposits replace the older reference deposits which were used during the last 17 years and improve the uncertainty of reaction rate measurements due to reference mass uncertainties by about a factor of 6. Measurements of the fission fragment absorption in 2 pi and low-geometry count rates. Two measurements of the uranium-238 capture rate in depleted uranium samples based upon the thermal cross sections of uranium-238(n, gamma), uranium-235(n,f) and plutonium-239(n,f) and based upon the americium-243 calibration technique confirm the ZPPR measurement technique within the quoted uncertainty of +/-0.5%
Investigation of Primary Li-Si/FeS2 Cells
The factors that limit the performance of thermally activated Li-Si/FeS2 batteries were defined through the use of electrochemical characterization tests and post-test examinations. For the characterization tests, 82 individual cells were instrumented with multiple voltage sensors and discharged under isothermal and isobaric conditions. The voltage data for the sensors were recorded to determine the ohmic and electrochemical impedances of each cell component at different levels of discharge. The data analysis completed to date has demonstrated that this approach can successfully differentiate the influence of various operating parameters (e.g., temperature, current density), electrode structures (e.g., FeS2 particle size), and additives on cell capacity, specific energy, and power capability. Thirty cells selected from these tests and additional tests at SNL were examined using optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. These analyses documented microstructural and compositional changes in the active materials and electrolyte. In general, the electrochemical impedance of the FeS2 electrode limited cell performance. Several methods (including use of fine FeS2 particle size, graphite additions, and higher operating temperatures) produced measurable reductions in this impedance and yielded significant improvements in specific energy and power. Additions of KCl to the negative electrode extended the low-temperature capacity of this electrode by counterbalancing gradients in electrolyte composition that develop during discharge.
A Review and Analysis of Fortran 8x
The ANSI Standards Subcommittee X3J3 on Fortran has recently completed a draft proposed standard for the Fortran programming language. The draft proposed standard, known informally as Fortran 8x, is a revision of the current standard X3.9-1978, known informally as Fortran 77. This report is a review of Fortran 8x and consists of a series of six articles. The first article gives a general overview of Fortran 8x. The next three articles give brief discussions of the array facilities; the enhanced numeric facilities; and user-defined data types, procedure interfaces, and the new program unit called a module. The fifth article provides a brief analysis of the controversial issues discussed by X3J3 (including both the accepted and rejected facilities for Fortran 8x). The sixth article gives a brief comparison with Ada. The report concludes with a summary giving information on how and where to express opinions of the draft proposed standard.
Application of a Multigrid Method to a Buoyancy-Induced Flow Problem
The numerical prediction of buoyancy-induced flows provides special difficulties for standard numerical techniques associated with velocity-buoyancy coupling. We present a multigrid algorithm based upon a novel relaxation scheme that handles this coupling correctly. Numerical experiments have been performed that show that this approach is reasonably efficient and robust for a range of Rayleigh numbers and a variety of cycling strategies.
Weight Losses of Marble and Limestone Briquettes Exposed to Outdoor Environments in the Eastern United States
Weight losses of marble and limestone samples exposed to outdoor environments at field sites in the eastern United States have been monitored in studies initiated in 1984. The procedures are described, and the results are tabulated and discussed. A rate of marble loss approximately equivalent to 16 micrometers of surface recession per year was found in North Carolina, and losses of this order were also observed in New Jersey, New York, and Washington, DC. Limestone weight losses were much higher than for marble in the first year; loss of extraneous materials from the porous limestone appeared to be a likely contributor to the overall loss. The rate of limestone loss diminished in the second year, though it continued to be higher than for marble. Exposures are continuing in a planned 10-yr program of tests.