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Advanced Fuel Cell Development Progress Report: July-September 1983
Quarterly report discussing fuel cell research and development work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This report describes activities seeking alternative cathode materials to NiO for molten carbonate fuel cells.
Advanced Fuel Cell Development Progress Report: July-September 1984
Quarterly report discussing fuel cell research and development work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This report describes studies directed toward seeking alternative cathode materials to NiO for molten carbonate fuel cells.
Reactor Development Program Progress Report: May 1966
Report issued by the Argonne National Laboratory discussing progress made by the Reactor Development Program during May 1966. Reactor physics, experiments, and safety studies are presented. This report includes tables, and illustrations.
An Interim Report on the Development and Application of Environmental Mapped Data Digitization, Encoding, Analysis, and Display Software for the ALICE System, Volume 1
Report discusses the development of the existing ALICE Image Processing System into a computer-aided digitization, encoding, analysis and display system for mapped information pertaining to the environment and its elements.
Argonne Solar Energy Program Annual Report: 1979
This report describes the R&D work done at Argonne National Laboratory on solar energy technologies during the period October 1, 1978, to September 30, 1979. Technical areas included in the ANL solar program are solar energy collection, heating and cooling, thermal energy storage, ocean thermal energy conversion, photovoltaics, biomass conversion, satellite power systems, and solar liquid-metal MHD power systems.
Argonne Solar Energy Program Annual Report: 1979
This report describes the R&D work done at Argonne National Laboratory on solar energy technologies during the period October 1, 1978, to September 30, 1979. Technical areas included in the ANL solar program are solar energy collection, heating and cooling, thermal energy storage, ocean thermal energy conversion, photovoltaics, biomass conversion, satellite power systems, and solar liquid-metal MHD power systems.
Light-Water-Reactor Safety Research Program Quarterly Progress Report: January-March 1977
Quarterly report summarizing work by Argonne National Laboratory on water-reactor-safety heat-transfer and flow problems.
Midwest Tandem Cyclotron: A Proposal for a Regional Accelerator Facility
Report issued by the Argonne National Laboratory discussing the proposal of the Midwest Tandem-Cyclotron accelerator facility. Descriptions of the facility designs, methods, and operations are presented. This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Proceedings of the 1978 Symposium on Instrumentation and Control for Fossil Demonstration Plants : June 19-21, 1978, Newport Beach Marriott, Newport Beach, California
This conference covers various aspects of fossil-fuel power plants based on coal or coal-conversion products, as well as the process control equipment involved in the conversion or combustion processes.
An Interim Report on the Development and Application of Environmental Mapped Data Digitization, Encoding, Analysis, and Display Software for the ALICE System, Volume 2
Volume 2 presents information which is directly related to the actual computer code arid operational characteristics (keys and subroutines) of the software. The authors expect that Volume I will be of more interest to developers of software than to users of the software. However, developers of software should be aware that the code developed for the ALICE System operates in an environment where much of the peripheral hardware to the PDP-10 is ANL/AMD built. For this reason, portions of the code may have to be modified for implementation on other computer system configurations.
Physics of Reactor Safety, Quarterly Report: January-March 197
Quarterly report on reactor safety including analysis of safety-related critical assembly experiments, planning of DEMI safety-related critical experiments, and work on reactor core thermal-hydraulic performed in the Components Technology Division.
Chemical Engineering Division Research Highlights 1979
Report of activities of Argonne Chemical Engineering Division, including advanced battery project, electro-chemical project management, advanced fuel cell development, utilization of coal, magnetohydrodynamics heat and seed recovery technology, solar energy, fast reactor chemistry research, nuclear fuel cycle studies, magnetic fusion energy research, and basic energy science.
Decontamination of Metals containing Plutonium and Americium
Evaluation of melt-slagging techniques as a decontamination and consolidation step for metals contaminated with oxides of plutonium and americium.
Experiments on Cold-Trap Regeneration by NaH Decomposition
Cold-trap regeneration may be very important in future LMFBRs because of the expected high hydrogen source from the steam generators. This hydrogen precipitates as NaH in the cold trap and may fill the trap within one year of operation. Several methods of cold-trap regeneration were considered, but the simplest and least expensive appears to be decomposition of NaH under vacuum at elevated temperatures. Experiments were done to assess the feasibility of this method for cold-trap regeneration. Small-scale simulated cold traps (SCT) were loaded with NaH and NaH plus Na2O, and were heated both under vacuum and under a sweep gas at 100 kPa. The evolved hydrogen was converted to water by a CuO bed and collected in a weighing tube.
Chemical Technology Division Annual Technical Report: 1986
Annual report of Argonne National Laboratory's Chemical Technology (CMT) Division. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in areas that include the following: (1) high-performance batteries--mainly lithium-alloy/metal sulfide and sodium/sulfur; (2) aqueous batteries (lead-acid, nickel/iron, etc.); (3)advanced fuel cells with molten carbonate or solid oxide electrolytes; (4) coal utilization, (5) methods for recovery of energy from municipal waste; (6) methods for the electromagnetic continuous casting of steel sheet; (7) techniques for treatment of hazardous waste such as reactive metals and trichloroethylenes; (8) nuclear technology related to waste management.
Chemical Technology Division Annual Technical Report: 1992
Annual report of the Argonne National Laboratory Chemical Technology Division (CMT) discussing the group's activities during 1992. These included electrochemical technology; fossil fuel research; hazardous waste research; nuclear waste programs; separation science and technology; integral fast reactor pyrochemical processes; actinide recovery; applied physical chemistry; basic chemistry research; analytical chemistry; applied research and development; and computer applications.
Chemical Technology Division Annual Technical Report: 1994
Annual report of the Argonne National Laboratory Chemical Technology Division (CMT) discussing the group's activities during 1994. These included electrochemical technology; fossil energy research; hazardous waste research; nuclear waste programs; separation science and technology; electrometallurgical technology; actinide recovery; applied physical chemistry; basic chemistry research; analytical chemistry.
Division of Biological and Medical Research Annual Technical Report 1981
This report summarizes research during 1981 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory. Studies in Low Level Radiation include comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low level neutron and gamma irradiation, delineation of the responses of dogs to continuous low level gamma irradiation, elucidation of mechanisms of radiation damage and repair in mammalian cells, and study of the genetic effects of high LET radiations.
Environmental Research Division Technical Progress Report: January 1986-October 1987
Report of Argonne Environmental Research Division activities, including atmospheric physics, environmental effects research, organic geochemistry and environmental instrumentation, and fundamental molecular physics and chemistry.
Materials Technology for Coal-Conversion Processes Quarterly Report: January-March 1980
Quarterly report on the activities of the Argonne National Laboratory Materials Science Division regarding economical conversion of coal into clean and usable alternate fuels will be advanced through the use of durable materials systems. This program is designed to provide part of the materials information necessary for successful operation of coal-conversion systems.
Practical Superconductor Development for Electrical Power Applications Semiannual Report: October 1989-June 1990
Progress report for the superconductor program at Argonne National Laboratory discussing the group's activities and research. This report describes technical progress of research and development efforts aimed at producing superconducting components based on the Y-Ba-Cu, Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu, and Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu oxide systems.
Physics Division Annual Review: April 1, 1987-March 31, 1988
Annual report of activities of the Argonne National Laboratory Physics Division, including ATLAS research, medium-energy nuclear physics and weak interactions, theoretical nuclear physics, and atomic and various molecular physics research.
Physics Division Annual Review: April 1, 1990-March 31, 1991
Annual report of activities of the Argonne National Laboratory Physics Division, including research at ATLAS, medium-energy nuclear physics, theoretical nuclear physics, and atomic and molecular physics.
ANL Technical Support Program for DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Annual Report October 1993 - September 1994
A program was established for DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) to evaluate factors that are anticipated to affect waste glass reaction during repository disposal, especially in an unsaturated environment typical of what may be expected for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository site.
ANL Technical Support Program for DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management
A program was established for DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) to evaluate factors that are anticipated to affect waste glass reaction during repository disposal, especially in an unsaturated environment typical of what may be expected for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository site.
Seasonal-Storage Solar-Energy Heating System for the Charlestown, Boston Navy Yard National Historic Park
This Phase II study provides further analysis for a seasonal-storage solar-heating system utilizing two existing underground, concrete tanks in the National Historic Park of the Charlestown Navy Yard in Boston. The initial Phase I study was reported in ANL-82-90. The new results focus on the effect of including a heat pump in the system to extend the useful heat-storage capacity of the tanks. The analysis was performed with MINSUN Version III, a computer simulation model written particularly for seasonal storage systems. Input parameters were derived in Phase I and reviewed and updated for this study. Three collector types were studied with and without a heat pump. Results indicate a definite performance and economic improvement for all collector types by including the heat pump. Flat plate collectors showed substantially greater improvement due to their more pronounced increase in efficiency at the lower inlet temperatures. With the heat pump, all three collectors provide comparable performance, and the flat plates were chosen as the design system due to their lower cost. A design system of 2300 meters sq. flat plate collectors with heat pump was selected. The system provides a solar fraction of 50% for the 2167 MWH annual heat load. The annualized cost of the solar energy supplied is $66.60/MWH which is competitive with the conventional heating alternative for a conventional heating cost of $0.05/kWh. Considerations regarding the implementation and financing of this project are also discussed.
Annual Technical Report 1980
Report of activities of Argonne Chemical Engineering Division, including advanced battery project, electro-chemical project management, advanced fuel cell development, utilization of coal, magnetohydrodynamics heat and seed recovery technology, solar energy, fast reactor chemistry research, nuclear fuel cycle studies, magnetic fusion energy research, and basic energy science.
Design Guide for Calculating Fluid Damping for Circular Cylindrical Structures
Fluid damping plays an important role for structures submerged in fluid, subjected to flow, or conveying fluid. This design guide presents a summary of calculational procedures and design data for fluid damping for circular cylinders vibrating in quiescent fluid, crossflow, and parallel flow.
Flow-Induced Vibration of Circular Cylindrical Structures
This report summarizes the flow-induced vibration of circular cylinders in quiescent fluid, axial flow, and crossflow, and applications of the analytical methods and experimental data in design evaluation of various system components consisting of circular cylinders.
Fluidelastic Instabilities in Tube Bundles Exposed to Nonuniform Crossflow
A mathematical model is presented for fluidelastic instabilities in tube bundles exposed to nonuniform crossflow to develop an equivalent flow velocity. The model incorporates all motion-dependent fluid forces based on the unsteady flow theory. Published fluid-force coefficients are compiled and examined; all fluid-force coefficients are approximately independent of the reduced flow velocity when it is large but are strongly dependent on reduced flow velocity when it is lower. The unsteady flow model is used to show that the mode-weighted averaging method is valid for large reduced flow velocity, but that it is incorrect at lower reduced flow velocity. In the lower reduced flow velocity range, an iterative procedure is needed to establish the critical flow velocity. The results from the unsteady flow model are compared with those of other mathematical models. A general procedure is recommended to predict the equivalent flow velocity under different situations.
Experiment on Fluidelastic Instability of Loosely Supported Tube Arrays in Crossflow
A tube array supported by baffle plates in crossflow may be subjected to fluid-elastic instability in the tube-support-plate-inactive mode. An experimental study is presented to characterize the tube motion. Three series of tests were performed to measure tube displacements as a function of flow velocity for different clearances. The motion was examined by root-mean-square values of tube displacements, power spectral densities, phase planes, Poincare maps, and Lyapunov exponents. The experimental data agree reasonably well with the analytical model, based on the unsteady flow theory.
Motion-Dependent Fluid Forces Acting on Tube Arrays in Crossflow
Motion-dependent fluids forces acting on a tube array were measured as a function of excitation frequency, excitation amplitude, and flow velocity. Fluid-damping and fluid-stiffness coefficients were obtained from measured motion-dependent fluid forces as a function of reduced flow velocity and excitation amplitude. The water channel and test setup provide a sound facility for obtaining key coefficients for fluid-elastic instability of tube arrays in crossflow. Once the guideline, based on the unsteady flow theory, can be developed for fluid-elastic instability of tube arrays crossflow.
Thermal-Storage Device Based on High-Density Polyethylene: Interim Progress Report, June 1983
Report discussing a project to design, build, and test a latent heat storage device using cross-linked, high-density polyethylene (HDPE). This report provides an update on progress up to the point that the device is ready to test.
Estimation of Sparse Jacobian Matrices and Graph Coloring Problems
Given a mapping with a sparse Jacobian matrix, the problem of minimizing the number of function evaluations needed to estimate the Jacobian matrix by differences is investigated. This problem can be attacked as a graph coloring problem and this approach leads to very efficient algorithms. The behavior of these algorithms is studied and, in particular, it is proved that two of the algorithms are optimal for band graphs. Numerical evidence is presented which indicates that these two algorithms are nearly optimal on practical problems.
Simple Procedure for Predicting Long-Term Average Performance of Nonconcentrating and of Concentrating Solar Collectors
The Liu and Jordan method of calculating long term average energy collection of flat plate collectors is simplified (by about a factor of 4), and generalized to all collectors, concentration and non-concentrating. The only meteorological input needed are the long term average daily total hemispherical insolation H/sub h/ on a horizontal surface and, for thermal collectors the average ambient temperature. The collector is characterized by optical efficiency, heat loss (or U-value), heat extraction efficiency, concentration ratio and tracking mode. An average operating temperature is assumed. Interaction with storage can be included by combining the present model with the f-chart method of Beckman, Klein and Duffie. Formulas and examples are presented for five collector types: flat plate, compound parabolic concentrator, concentrator with E.-W. tracking axis, concentrator with polar tracking axis, and concentrator with two axis tracking. The examples show that even for relatively low temperature applications and cloudy climates (50 degrees C in New York in February), concentrating collectors can outperform the flat plate. The method has been validated against hourly weather data (with measurements of hemispherical and beam insolation), and has been found to have an average accuracy better than 3% for the long term average radiation available to solar collectors. The suitability of this method for comparison studies is illustrated by comparing in a location independent manner the radiation availability for several collector types or operating conditions: two axis tracking versus one axis tracking; polar tracking axis versus east-west tracking axis; fixed versus tracking flat plate; effect of ground reflectance; and acceptance for diffuse radiation as function of concentration ratio.
Frequency Response Measurements of the EBWR Automatic Steam by-Pass Valve Control System
Report describing the steam by-pass system of the Economic Simplified Boiling Water (EBWR) Reactor. The control system and errors are described.
Summary and Evaluation of Fuel Dynamics Transient-Overpower Experiments : Status 1974
The report summarizes and evaluates experiments conducted in the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) using the Mark-II loop facility. The tests discussed are of the E and H series. Detailed descriptions of test conditions and test results as of February 1974 are presented. Since all data have not been acquired on all experiments, this report must be considered interim in nature. Particular emphasis is placed on data relevant to Fast Test Reactor (FTR) safety-analysis efforts.
A Summary on Experimental Methods for Statistical Transient Analysis of Two-Phase Gas-Liquid Flow
Much work has been done in the study of two-phase gas-liquid flows. Although it has been recognized superficially that such flows are not homogeneous in general, little attention has been paid to the inherent discreteness of the two-phase systems. Only relatively recently have fluctuating characteristics of two-phase flows been studied in detail. As a result, new experimental devices and techniques have been developed for use in measuring quantities previously ignored. This report reviews and summarizes most of these methods in an effort to emphasize the importance of the fluctuating nature of these flows and as a guide to further research in this field.
The Proceedings of the 1980 Symposium on Instrumentation and Control for Fossil Energy Processes : June 9-11, 1980, New Cavalier, Virginia Beach, Virginia
This proceedings covers instruments and process control involved in the conversion of fossil fuels into synthetic fuels, spurred in part by response to the energy crisis of the 1970s and attending inflation.
Theory of Ionization by Electron Collisions
The problem of calculating comprehensive sets of cross sections for ionization of atoms and molecules is reviewed. Emphasis is put on targets that are already ionized and lower-energy collisions for which the incident electron must be treated on a par with target electrons. The physical circumstances are discussed in which perturbation methods should be adequate, and special investigations are recommended to identify the relevant ranges of parameters more precisely and dependably. A new R-matrix approach is outlined which should permit rather simple, approximate, but dependable calculations when the perturbation methods fail.
Advanced Fuel Cell Development Progress Report: October-December 1978
Quarterly report discussing fuel cell research and development work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This report describes efforts directed toward understanding and improving the components of molten-carbonate-electrolyte fuel cells operated at temperatures near 925 K.
Fuel Dynamics Loss-of-Flow Test L3 : Final Report
The behavior of FTR-type, mixed-oxide, pre-irradiated, ''intermediate-power-structure'' fuel during a simulation of an FTR loss-of-flow accident was studied in the Mark-IIA integral TREAT loop. Analysis of the data reported here leads to a postulated scenario (sequence and timing) of events in the test. This scenario is presented, together with the calculated timing of events obtained by use of the SAS code.
Examination and Evaluation of in-Reactor Fracture of Shroud Tubes in Mixed-Oxide Fuel Experiment X159
During disassembly and subsequent visual examinations of X159 (a Mark A-19A type of subassembly containing mixed-oxide fuel), 11 of 19 shroud tubes were found fully or partially severed. Several of the capsules within their shroud tubes were distinctly kinked at axial locations near those at which the shroud tubes were severed. The examination also disclosed that the shroud-tube fractures occurred during reactor operations.
Tutorial on the Warren Abstract Machine for Computational Logic
Tutorial description of the Warren machine with a basic introduction to the motivation of the machine and the instructions that define it. Discussion of the fairly limited extensions required to extend the machine for more general use outside of implementations of logic programming. Substantial speedups will occur due to improvements in the implementation of the basic algorithms.
Uniaxial Tensile Properties of Zircaloy Containing Oxygen : Summary Report
The uniaxial stress-strain behavior of Zircaloy-2 and -4, Zircaloy-oxygen alloys with a uniform oxygen distribution, and composite specimens with a ZrO2/alpha/beta layer structure was investigated over the range of experimental conditions: temperature 25-1400 degrees C; strain rate ; oxygen content 0.11 - 4.4 wt %; grain size 5-50 micrometers; texture longitudinal, transverse, and diagonal orientations; and microstructural state, which consists of the equiaxed alpha phase and various transformed beta acicular structures. The work-hardening and strain-rate sensitivity parameters were determined from the experimental results, and the tensile properties were correlated with oxygen concentration, oxygen distribution in the material, and microstructure. Dynamic strain-aging phenomena were observed in Zircaloy at 200, 400, and 700 degrees C, and super-plastic deformation occurred at 850 and 1000 degrees C. An increase in the oxygen concentration in homogeneous Zircaloy-oxygen alloys increased the ultimate tensile strength and decreased the total strain, particularly below approximately 900/sup 0/C. In composite specimens with the ZrO2/alpha/beta structure, the total oxygen content had little effect on the ultimate tensile strength below approximately 1000 degrees C, but the strength increased with oxygen content at higher temperatures. Information on the effects of grain size, oxygen content, texture, and strain rate on the stress-strain behavior suggests that the dominant mechanism of super-plastic deformation in Zircaloy near approximately 850/sup 0/C is grain-boundary sliding at the alpha-beta interface with accommodation by diffusional creep, dislocation slip, and grain-boundary migration. Good correlation was obtained between ductility and values of the strain-rate sensitivity parameter.
Physics Division Annual Review: 1 April 1982-31March 1983
The research program in nuclear physics in the Physics Division spans a broad range of activities and contributes to many of the major questions in the discipline. Activities may be roughly divided into three broad categories. Research with the tandem-linac in heavy-ion physics is doing well, though laboring under severe budgetary constraints, and outside use of the facility has increased substantially. Progress on the construction of the full ATLAS facility is coming along expeditiously and it is expected to be completed on schedule in 1985. In medium-energy physics, activities are continuing at LAMPF, as well as other accelerators, though considerable effort was devoted this year to the preparation of a proposal for a national electron accelerator facility.
Users manual for the Chameleon Parallel Programming Tools
Message passing is a common method for writing programs for distributed-memory parallel computers. Unfortunately, the lack of a standard for message passing has hampered the construction of portable and efficient parallel programs. In an attempt to remedy this problem, a number of groups have developed their own message-passing systems, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. Chameleon is a second-generation system of this type. Rather than replacing these existing systems, Chameleon is meant to supplement them by providing a uniform way to access many of these systems. Chameleon`s goals are to (a) be very lightweight (low over-head), (b) be highly portable, and (c) help standardize program startup and the use of emerging message-passing operations such as collective operations on subsets of processors. Chameleon also provides a way to port programs written using PICL or Intel NX message passing to other systems, including collections of workstations. Chameleon is tracking the Message-Passing Interface (MPI) draft standard and will provide both an MPI implementation and an MPI transport layer. Chameleon provides support for heterogeneous computing by using p4 and PVM. Chameleon`s support for homogeneous computing includes the portable libraries p4, PICL, and PVM and vendor-specific implementation for Intel NX, IBM EUI (SP-1), and Thinking Machines CMMD (CM-5). Support for Ncube and PVM 3.x is also under development.
HYCSOS: a Chemical Heat Pump and Energy System Based on Metal Hydrides
The HYCSOS chemical heat pump and energy conversion system based on metal hydrides are described. The HYCSOS thermal energy storage and recovery modes; the chemical heat pump heating and cooling modes as well as the energy conversion mode are discussed in detail with the aid of heat transfer fluid and hydrogen flow diagrams. The thermodynamic efficiencies of the two metal hydride system are calculated for the heat pump and conversion modes. Design and construction features of a demonstration test facility which utilizes four stainless steel tanks holding 10 lbs. each of either LaNi5 or CaNi5 are given. The operation, instrumentation and control of the system is detailed with the aid of photographs, drawings and a system layout diagram. Initial operation of the system has shown that 33 moles of hydrogen can be transferred from CaNi5 at approximately 100 degrees C to LaNi5 at approximately 40 degrees C and recovered from LaNi5 at approximately 8 degrees C to reform CaNi5H4 at 40 degrees C with cycle times approaching 2 minutes for 50 percent hydrogen transfer. The relevant data pertaining to these experiments are given in graphs and tables. The next phase of operations will be done on the fully insulated system to establish a firmer data base, obtain power balances and determine optimum operating parameters. In order to achieve these goals in a reasonable time frame, a data display and handling system is required. A materials development program is being carried out concurrently with HYCSOS operations. Significant progress is being made in the development of new, more cost effective alloy systems displaying superior properties for heat pump action.
Time-Independent One-Speed Neutron Transport Equation with Anisotropic Scattering in Absorbing Media
This report treats the time-independent, one-speed neutron transport equation with anisotropic scattering in absorbing media. For nuclear gain operators existence and uniqueness of solutions to the half-space and finite-slab problems are proved in L₂-space. The formulas needed for explicit calculations are derived by the use of perturbation theory techniques.
The SUPRENUM (Supercomputer Numerical) Communications Subroutine Library for Grid-Oriented Problems
In the application software development of the SUPRENUM project (the German supercomputer project) many parallel grid-oriented algorithms are being programmed, especially multigrid and computational fluid dynamics codes. As the communication tasks are similar, a central SUPRENUM communications library with subroutines covering all communication requirements of the applications programs has been created. By implementing versions of the library for the Intel iPSC hypercube and the planned SUPRENUM machine, full portability of the applications software has been achieved.