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Waste Management's LNG Truck Fleet
The Alternative Motor Fuel Act of 1988 requires the U.S. Department of Energy to demonstrate and evaluate alternative fuels usage in the United States. DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is conducting the Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project to compare alternative fuel and diesel fuel trucks. Information for the comparison comes from data collected on the operational, maintenance, performance, and emissions characteristics of alternative fuel trucks being used in vehicle fleets and comparable diesel fuel trucks servings as controls within the same fleets. This report highlights the start-up experience and presents the lessons learned from a project that operated a fleet of liquefied natural gas (LNG) refuse haulers in Washington, Pennsylvania.
Technologies Recently Available for Licensing - 1999
An NREL Technology Transfer fact sheet describing four technologies that are available for licensing: steel weld weakness detection, cadmium telluride solar cell enhancement, HOMER model for choosing optimal electrical systems for remote areas, and inner-flame matrix burner.
Geothermal heat pumps: FEMP fact sheet
A geothermal heat pump (GHP) system has three major components: a ground loop (buried piping system), the heat pump itself (inside the house), and a heating and cooling distribution system. GHP's are efficient and require no backup heat because the earth stays at a relatively moderate temperature throughout the year.
Solar ventilation preheating: FEMP fact sheet
Installing a ''solar wall'' to heat air before it enters a building, called solar ventilation preheating, is one of the most efficient ways of reducing energy costs using clean and renewable energy. A solar wall can be designed as an integral part of a new building or it can be added in a retrofit project.
Solar water heating: FEMP fact sheet
Using the sun to heat domestic water makes sense in almost any climate. Solar water heaters typically provide 40 to 80{percent} of a building's annual water-heating needs. A solar water-heating system's performance depends primarily on the outdoor temperature, the temperature to which the water is heated, and the amount of sunlight striking the collector.
FEMP: Communication and collaboration keep San Francisco VA Medical Center project on track
The Veterans Affairs Medical Center in San Francisco is saving almost 3 million kilowatt-hours of electricity, more than 70,000 therms of natural gas, and more than $500,000 annually by taking advantage of the Federal Energy Management Program's (FEMP) Super Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPCS).
The Vermont Gasifier
A new demonstration biomass gasifier in Burlington, Vermont, is a major advance toward biopower systems of the 21st century. The purpose of the project is to verify design and operating characteristics of this gasification technology at an intermediate size. The Vermont gasifier is rated at 200 tons of biomass per day. The demonstration will allow further scale-up to a first-of-its-kind commercial gasifier to be demonstrated in the future at an industrial or utility scale.
Application of Synchrotron Radiation in the Geological and Environmental Sciences
A survey of some of the different ways that synchrotrons x-ray beams can be used to study geological materials is presented here. This field developed over a period of about 30 years, and it is clear that the geological community has made major use of the many synchrotrons facilities operating around the world during this time period. This was a time of rapid change in the operational performance of the synchrotrons facilities and this in itself has made it possible for geologists to develop new and more refined types of experiments that have yielded many important results. The advance in experimental techniques has proceeded in parallel with a revolution in computing techniques that has made it possible to cope with the great amount of data accumulated in the experiments. It is reasonable, although risky, to speculate about what might be expected to develop in the field during the next five- to ten-year period. It does seem plausible that the rate of change in the performance of what might now be called conventional x-ray storage rings will slow. There are no new facilities that are superior to the ESRF, ALS, APS, or SPring8 facilities under construction or about to come into operation. Thus, performance increments in the characteristics of the x-ray sources may come through the introduction of specialized devices in existing storage rings. The free electron laser is one example of a developing new technology that should take us into new regions of performance for radiation sources and stimulate new types of experimental applications. It is also likely that major advances will come through the introduction of more sophisticated experimental devices developed for use with the very recently operational undulator or wiggler sources at the newer rings. Improved x-ray optics and x-ray detectors and more powerful computation and high-speed data ...
Synchrotron-Radiation Induced X-Ray Emission (SRIXE)
Elemental analysis using emission of characteristic x rays is a well-established scientific method. The success of this analytical method is highly dependent on the properties of the source used to produce the x rays. X-ray tubes have long existed as a principal excitation source, but electron and proton beams have also been employed extensively. The development of the synchrotron radiation x-ray source that has taken place during the past 40 years has had a major impact on the general field of x-ray analysis. Even tier 40 years, science of x-ray analysis with synchrotron x-ray beams is by no means mature. Improvements being made to existing synchrotron facilities and the design and construction of new facilities promise to accelerate the development of the general scientific use of synchrotron x-ray sources for at least the next ten years. The effective use of the synchrotron source technology depends heavily on the use of high-performance computers for analysis and theoretical interpretation of the experimental data. Fortunately, computer technology has advanced at least as rapidly as the x-ray technology during the past 40 years and should continue to do so during the next decade. The combination of these technologies should bring about dramatic advances in many fields where synchrotron x-ray science is applied. It is interesting also to compare the growth and rate of acceptance of this particular research endeavor to the rates for other technological endeavors. Griibler [1997] cataloged the time required for introduction, diffusion,and acceptance of technological, economic, and social change and found mean values of 40 to 50 years. The introduction of the synchrotron source depends on both technical and non-technical factors, and the time scale at which this seems to be occurring is quite compatible with what is seen for other major innovations such as the railroad or the telegraph. It ...
NREL's Concentrated Solar Radiation User Facility
Declared a national user facility in 1993, NREL's Concentrated Solar Radiation User Facility (CSR) allows industry, government, and university researchers to examine the effects and applications of as much as 50,000 suns of concentrated solar radiation using a High-Flux Solar Furnace and long-term exposure using an ultraviolet (UV) concentrator.
PV working with industry, Second Quarter, 1999: Shedding light on the matter
NREL PV Working With Industry is a quarterly newsletter devoted to the research, development, and deployment performed by NREL staff in concert with their industry and university partners. The Second Quarter, 1999 issue, titled ''Shedding Light on the Matter,'' focuses on the PV-related research activities of NREL's Basic Sciences Center. The editorialist is Satyen Deb, in his role as Director of the Basic Sciences Center.
Choices for A Brighter Future: Perspectives on Renewable Energy
The report discusses the perspectives on the evolving U.S. electricity future, the renewable electric technology portfolio, the regional outlook, and the opportunities to move forward. Renewables are at a critical juncture as the domestic electricity marketplace moves toward an era of increased choice and greater diversity. The cost and performance of these technologies have improved dramatically over the past decade, yet their market penetration has stalled as the power industry grapples with the implications of the emerging competitive marketplace. Renewable energy technologies already contribute to the global energy mix and are ready to make an even greater contribution in the future. However, the renewables industry faces critical market uncertainties, both domestically and internationally, as policy commitments to renewables at both the federal and state levels are being reshaped to match the emerging competitive marketplace. The energy decisions that we make, or fail to make, today will have long-lasting implications. We can act now to ensure that renewable energy will play a major role in meeting the challenges of the evolving energy future. We have the power to choose.
Mid-Atlantic region consumer's guide to buying a solar electric system
Consumers in Pennsylvania, Virginia, Delaware, Maryland, the District of Columbia, West Virginia, and New Jersey are showing increased interest in solar electric systems for their homes and businesses. This booklet provides basic information about buying a PV system. Photovoltaic (PV) systems are reliable, pollution free, and use a renewable source of energy, the sun. A PV system can be a substantial investment and careful planning will help ensure that you make the right decisions.
Save with Solar, Fall 1999, Vol.2, No.2
This is the second issue of the second volume (Fall 1999) of a quarterly bulletin produced under the Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). It's intended for Federal solar energy champions, i.e., all those who are planning or working on projects in which solar and other renewable energy technologies are being installed in Federal government facilities. Contents include articles describing the implications of Executive Order 13123 for Federal renewable energy installations, and recent solar energy projects of the Departments of Defense and the Interior, the General Services Administration, and the U.S. Postal Service.
Distributed generation
Distributed generation, locating electricity generators close to the point of consumption, provides some unique benefits to power companies and customers that are not available from centralized electricity generation. Photovoltaic (PV) technology is well suited to distributed applications and can, especially in concert with other distributed resources, provide a very close match to the customer demand for electricity, at a significantly lower cost than the alternatives. In addition to augmenting power from central-station generating plants, incorporating PV systems enables electric utilities to optimize the utilization of existing transmission and distribution.
Agriculture: Bioconversion of sugar cane molasses
Auxein Corporation is demonstrating for commercial use an organic acid phytochelate, derived from what would otherwise be a discarded portion of sugar cane, that could increase the domestic sugar industry's profit margin from near zero to 7%. Along with helping a struggling industry, the phytochelate will bring substantial improvements to crop and tree production and greatly reduce the environmental threat posed by nitrogen-based fertilizers. Currently, the amount of fertilizer used produces harmful levels of run-off that contaminates ground water with unwanted nitrogen. By utilizing organic acid phytochelates, which assist plant growth by unlocking minerals stored in soil, fertilizer use can be dramatically reduced. This would improve crop yields, remove environmental threats to ground water, and cut fertilizer costs by as much as 50%.
Aluminum: Reducing chloride emissions from aluminum production
Reynolds Metals Company (RMC), with assistance from a NICE{sup 3} grant, is developing for commercialization a closed-loop control process that greatly reduces chlorine emissions and increases plant efficiency while maintaining metal quality. The process still utilizes chlorine to remove impurities during aluminum processing, but is more effective than current methods. With the new technology chlorine in the stack is monitored and input chlorine is adjusted continuously. This optimization of chlorine use results in substantially less waste because less chlorine has to be bought or produced by aluminum manufacturers. This innovation is a significant improvement over conventional aluminum treatments, in which chlorine is injected in a more costly and wasteful manner. By the year 2010, the new technology has the potential to reduce the energy it takes to create chlorine by 8.4 billion Btu per year and to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 1,377 tons per year.
NICE3: Dyebath reuse in carpet manufacturing
Fact sheet on an analysis system for dyebath processes in the carpet manufacturing industry written for the NICE3 Program. The Georgia Institute of Technology (G.I.T.) has developed an effective automated dyebath analysis and reuse system that improves the energy, environmental, and economic performance of dyehouse batch operations. The new system enables dyeing solutions to be accurately monitored and adjusted for reuse. According to industry estimates, 160 pounds of water are used to produce each pound of textile product. The current wasteful batch dyeing process requires all water and residual chemicals, as well as the energy required to heat the mixture for dyeing, to be dumped after one application. Spent dyebaths can only be reused after they are sampled, analyzed, and reconstituted, a process requiring labor and expertise that are unavailable in the dyehouses. Therefore, successful commercial reuse depends on an automated analysis system that precisely analyzes dyebath samples in real-time and provides for reconstitution and reuse. If fully implemented throughout the carpet industry, this innovation is expected to reduce energy consumption by 3.6 trillion Btu/year. Waste and cost savings will also be substantial. Though this project was developed for nylon carpet dyeing, the technology holds promise for widespread implementation in carpet manufacturing. In addition, it offers several opportunities involving other textile products, fiber types, dye classes, and dyeing equipment.
NICE3: Industrial Refrigeration System
Energy Concepts has developed an absorption-augmented system as a cost-effective means of achieving more cooling capacity with a substantial reduction in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions for industrial refrigeration. It cuts fuel consumption by 30% by combining an internal combustion engine with a mechanical compression refrigeration system and an absorption refrigeration system. The absorption system is powered by engine waste heat. Conventional industrial refrigeration uses mechanical vapor compression, powered by electric motors, which results in higher energy costs. By the year 2010, the new system could cut fuel consumption by 19 trillion Btu and greenhouse emissions by more than 1 million tons per year.
Directory of intergovernmental contacts, 1993
The ACIR Library is composed of publications that study the interactions between different levels of government. This document is a directory of intergovernmental contacts.
Directory of intergovernmental contacts, 1994
The ACIR Library is composed of publications that study the interactions between different levels of government. This document is a directory of intergovernmental contacts.
Federal grant profile 1995 : a report on ACIR's federal grant fragmentation index
The ACIR Library is composed of publications that study the interactions between different levels of government. This document is a report on ACIR's federal grant fragmentation index.
Federal grant programs in fiscal year 1992 : their numbers, sizes, and fragmentation indexes in historical perspective
The ACIR Library is composed of publications that study the interactions between different levels of government. This document addresses federal grant programs in fiscal year 1992.
Federal statutory preemption of state and local authority : history, inventory, and issues
The ACIR Library is composed of publications that study the interactions between different levels of government. This document addresses federal statutory preemption of state and local authority.
Federally induced costs affecting state and local governments
The ACIR Library is composed of publications that study the interactions between different levels of government. This document addresses federally induced costs affecting state and local governments.
Mandates, cases in state-local relations
The ACIR Library is composed of publications that study the interactions between different levels of government. This document addresses mandates.
Planning to govern
The ACIR Library is composed of publications that study the interactions between different levels of government. This document addresses planning to govern.
RTS 1991 : state revenue capacity and effort
The ACIR Library is composed of publications that study the interactions between different levels of government. This document addresses state revenue capacity and effort.
Significant features of fiscal federalism, 1995: Volume 1 - Budget processes and tax systems
The ACIR Library is composed of publications that study the interactions between different levels of government. This document addresses significant features of fiscal federalism.
Sourcebook of working documents to accompany high performance public works: a new federal infrastructure investment strategy for America
The ACIR Library is composed of publications that study the interactions between different levels of government. This document is a sourcebook of working documents to accompany high performance public works.
FCC Record, Volume 5, No. 18, Pages 5329 to 5463, August 27 - September 7, 1990
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 5, No. 19, Pages 5464 to 5639, September 10 - September 21, 1990
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 6, No. 18 Pages 5066 to 5267, August 26 - September 6, 1991
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 6, No. 19 Pages 5268 to 5509, August 26 - September 6, 1991
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 7, No. 18, Pages 5439 to 589, August 24 - September 4, 1992
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 7, No. 19, Pages 5890 to 6209, September 7 - September 18, 1992
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 8, No. 18, Pages 6155 to 6620, August 23 - September 3, 1993
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 8, No. 19, Pages 6621 to 6998, September 6 - September 17, 1993
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 9, No. 18, Pages 4387 to 4775, August 22 - September 2, 1994
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 9, No. 19, Pages 4776 to 5221, September 6 - September 16, 1994
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 9, No. 20, Pages 5222 to 5710, September 19 - September 30, 1994
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 10, No. 18, Pages 9254 to 9761, August 21 - September 1, 1995
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 10, No. 19, Pages 9762 to 10320, September 5 - September 15, 1995
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 10, No. 20, Pages 10321 to 10868, September 18 - September 29, 1995
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 11, No. 19, Pages 10232 to 10824, September 3 - September 13, 1996
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 11, No. 20, Pages 10825 to 11418, September 16 - September 19, 1996
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 11, No. 21, Pages 11419 to 11983, September 20 - September 26, 1996
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 12, No. 23, Pages 13132 to 13717, August 25 - September 5, 1997
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 12, No. 24, Pages 13718 to 14306, September 8 - September 19, 1997
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 13, No. 23, Pages 16128 to 16946, August 24 - September 4, 1998
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.