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POPULATION DISTRIBUTION DURING THE DAY
Population distribution during the day can be defined as distribution of population in an area during the daytime hours. However, a precise definition of daytime hours is challenging given the geographic variability in the length of a day or daylight hours. The US Census Bureau used "normal business hours" as the span of time to describe daytime population. Given that Censuses typically estimates residential population, it represents a nighttime population distribution. In that respect, daytime population in an area may be broadly defined as distribution of population at times other than when they are expected to be at their residences at night which extends the duration from business hours to include the evening hours as well.
The Value of Renewable Energy as a Hedge Against Fuel Price Risk: Analytic Contributions from Economic and Finance Theory
For better or worse, natural gas has become the fuel of choice for new power plants being built across the United States. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA), natural gas-fired units account for nearly 90% of the total generating capacity added in the U.S. between 1999 and 2005 (EIA 2006b), bringing the nationwide market share of gas-fired generation to 19%. Looking ahead over the next decade, the EIA expects this trend to continue, increasing the market share of gas-fired generation to 22% by 2015 (EIA 2007a). Though these numbers are specific to the US, natural gas-fired generation is making similar advances in many other countries as well. A large percentage of the total cost of gas-fired generation is attributable to fuel costs--i.e., natural gas prices. For example, at current spot prices of around $7/MMBtu, fuel costs account for more than 75% of the levelized cost of energy from a new combined cycle gas turbine, and more than 90% of its operating costs (EIA 2007a). Furthermore, given that gas-fired plants are often the marginal supply units that set the market-clearing price for all generators in a competitive wholesale market, there is a direct link between natural gas prices and wholesale electricity prices. In this light, the dramatic increase in natural gas prices since the 1990s should be a cause for ratepayer concern. Figure 1 shows the daily price history of the 'first-nearby' (i.e., closest to expiration) NYMEX natural gas futures contract (black line) at Henry Hub, along with the futures strip (i.e., the full series of futures contracts) from August 22, 2007 (red line). First, nearby prices, which closely track spot prices, have recently been trading within a $7-9/MMBtu range in the United States and, as shown by the futures strip, are expected to remain there through 2012. These price ...
EVAPORITE MICROBIAL FILMS, MATS, MICROBIALITES AND STROMATOLITES
Evaporitic environments are found in a variety of depositional environments as early as the Archean. The depositional settings, microbial community and mineralogical composition vary significantly as no two settings are identical. The common thread linking all of the settings is that evaporation exceeds precipitation resulting in elevated concentrations of cations and anions that are higher than in oceanic systems. The Dead Sea and Storrs Lake are examples of two diverse modern evaporitic settings as the former is below sea level and the latter is a coastal lake on an island in the Caribbean. Each system varies in water chemistry as the Dead Sea dissolved ions originate from surface weathered materials, springs, and aquifers while Storrs Lake dissolved ion concentration is primarily derived from sea water. Consequently some of the ions, i.e., Sr, Ba are found at significantly lower concentrations in Storrs Lake than in the Dead Sea. The origin of the dissolved ions are ultimately responsible for the pH of each system, alkaline versus mildly acidic. Each system exhibits unique biogeochemical properties as the extreme environments select certain microorganisms. Storrs Lake possesses significant biofilms and stromatolitic deposits and the alkalinity varies depending on rainfall and storm activity. The microbial community Storrs Lake is much more diverse and active than those observed in the Dead Sea. The Dead Sea waters are mildly acidic, lack stromatolites, and possess a lower density of microbial populations. The general absence of microbial and biofilm fossilization is due to the depletion of HCO{sub 3} and slightly acidic pH.
World at Risk: The Report of the Commission on the Prevention of Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation and Terrorism
This book outlines the findings of the bipartisan Commission on the Prevention of Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation and Terrorism, established to build on the work of the 9/11 Commission. The Commission's report examines the government's current policies and programs, identifies gaps in prevention strategy and recommends ways to close them. It sets forth the possible threats to the United States if terrorists acquire weapons of mass destruction and provides thirteen recommendations for unilateral and international actions that could increase worldwide safety.
Acquisition of Crosswell Seismic Monitoring Data
Crosswell seismic acquisition provides an ideal geometry for monitoring travel time changes in the subsurface. Analysis of delay time in terms of a characteristic frequency allows us to estimate optimal acquisition parameters (frequency and distance). We have deployed standard data acquisition equipment for continuous monitoring of crosswell travel time in two separate field experiments, with well spacing of 3 and 30 m. The acquisition hardware used for the field experiments is described, along with environmental effects (such as temperature) that influence the measurements. Two field experiments are described that correlate changes in travel time (and therefore velocity) with changes in barometric pressure. The results from the two field sites show a pressure sensitivity for velocity of 10{sup -6}/Pa to 10{sup -8}/Pa.
Application of Electron Backscatter Diffraction to Phase Identification
The identification of crystalline phases in solids requires knowledge of two microstructural properties: crystallographic structure and chemical composition. Traditionally, this has been accomplished using X-ray diffraction techniques where the measured crystallographic information, in combination with separate chemical composition measurements for specimens of unknown pedigrees, is used to deduce the unknown phases. With the latest microstructural analysis tools for scanning electron microscopes, both the crystallography and composition can be determined in a single analysis utilizing electron backscatter diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy, respectively. In this chapter, we discuss the approach required to perform these experiments, elucidate the benefits and limitations of this technique, and detail via case studies how composition, crystallography, and diffraction contrast can be used as phase discriminators.
Electron Backscatter Diffraction in Low Vacuum Conditions
Most current scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) have the ability to analyze samples in a low vacuum mode, whereby a partial pressure of water vapor is introduced into the SEM chamber, allowing the characterization of nonconductive samples without any special preparation. Although the presence of water vapor in the chamber degrades electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) patterns, the potential of this setup for EBSD characterization of nonconductive samples is immense. In this chapter we discuss the requirements, advantages and limitations of low vacuum EBSD (LV-EBSD), and present how this technique can be applied to a two-phase ceramic composite as well as hydrated biominerals as specific examples of when LV-EBSD can be invaluable.
Tribal Identifier Data Standard
This standard specifies the set of tribal names and codes necessary to constitute consistent and unambiguous identification of federally-recognized American Indian and Alaska Native entities.
Population Evacuations
Emergency evacuation is one of the most important protective action alternatives when facing a natural or a man-made disaster. The planning and implementation of a large-scale emergency evacuation is a difficult and complex problem that requires the interactions of many agencies and involves a large amount of information. This article focuses on the latter and discusses the models that are normally used in the planning phase to evaluate this type of protective action alternatives and the information requirements for their implementation. Although many advances have been achieved in this area, especially during the last few years, a considerable amount of work still remains incomplete. Some of the important areas that need attention, such as improvements in the demographic models, integration of traffic simulation and threat evolution models, and real-time information for the deployment phase, are also discussed in this paper.
The Exosporium of B.cereus Contains a Binding Site for gC1qR/p33: Implication in Spore Attachment and/or Entry.
B. cereus, is a member of a genus of aerobic, gram-positive, spore-forming rod-like bacilli, which includes the deadly, B. anthracis. Preliminary experiments have shown that gC1qR binds to B.cereus spores that have been attached to microtiter plates. The present studies were therefore undertaken, to examine if cell surface gC1qR plays a role in B.cereus spore attachment and/or entry. Monolayers of human colon carcinoma (Caco-2) and lung cells were grown to confluency on 6 mm coverslips in shell vials with gentle swirling in a shaker incubator. Then, 2 {micro}l of a suspension of strain SB460 B.cereus spores (3x10{sup 8}/ml, in sterile water), were added and incubated (1-4 h; 36{sup 0} C) in the presence or absence of anti-gC1qR mAb-carbon nanoloops. Examination of these cells by EM revealed that: (1) When B. cereus endospores contacted the apical Caco-2 cell surface, or lung cells, gClqR was simultaneously detectable, indicating upregulation of the molecule. (2) In areas showing spore contact with the cell surface, gClqR expression was often adjacent to the spores in association with microvilli (Caco-2 cells) or cytoskeletal projections (lung cells). (3) Furthermore, the exosporia of the activated and germinating spores were often decorated with mAb-nanoloops. These observations were further corroborated by experiments in which B.cereus spores were readily taken up by monocytes and neutrophils, and this uptake was partially inhibited by mAb 60.11, which recognizes the C1q binding site on gC1qR. Taken together, the data suggest a role, for gC1qR at least in the initial stages of spore attachment and/or entry.
Rapid Data Assimilation in the Indoor Environment: theory and examples from real-time interpretation of indoor plumes of airborne chemicals
Releases of acutely toxic airborne contaminants in or near a building can lead to significant human exposures unless prompt response measures are identified and implemented. Commonly, possible responses include conflicting strategies, such as shutting the ventilation system off versus running it in a purge (100percent outside air) mode, or having occupants evacuate versus sheltering in place. The right choice depends in part on quickly identifying the source locations, the amounts released, and the likely future dispersion routes of the pollutants. This paper summarizes recent developments to provide such estimates in real time using an approach called Bayesian Monte Carlo updating. This approach rapidly interprets measurements of airborne pollutant concentrations from multiple sensors placed in the building and computes best estimates and uncertainties of the release conditions. The algorithm is fast, capable of continuously updating the estimates as measurements stream in from sensors. The approach is employed, as illustration, to conduct two specific investigations under different situations.
Bacteria in Permafrost
Significant numbers of viable ancient microorganisms are known to be present within the permafrost. They have been isolated in both polar regions from the cores up to 400 m deep and ground temperatures of -27 C. The age of the cells corresponds to the longevity of the permanently frozen state of the soils, with the oldest cells dating back to {approx}3 million years in the Arctic, and {approx}5 million years in the Antarctic. They are the only life forms known to have retained viability over geological time. Thawing of the permafrost renews their physiological activity and exposes ancient life to modern ecosystems. Thus, the permafrost represents a stable and unique physicochemical complex, which maintains life incomparably longer than any other known habitats. If we take into account the depth of the permafrost layers, it is easy to conclude that they contain a total microbial biomass many times higher than that of the soil cover. This great mass of viable matter is peculiar to permafrost only.
Anisotropic Hexagonal Boron Nitride Nanomaterials - Synthesis and Applications
Boron nitride (BN) is a synthetic binary compound located between III and V group elements in the Periodic Table. However, its properties, in terms of polymorphism and mechanical characteristics, are rather close to those of carbon compared with other III-V compounds, such as gallium nitride. BN crystallizes into a layered or a tetrahedrally linked structure, like those of graphite and diamond, respectively, depending on the conditions of its preparation, especially the pressure applied. Such correspondence between BN and carbon readily can be understood from their isoelectronic structures [1, 2]. On the other hand, in contrast to graphite, layered BN is transparent and is an insulator. This material has attracted great interest because, similar to carbon, it exists in various polymorphic forms exhibiting very different properties; however, these forms do not correspond strictly to those of carbon. Crystallographically, BN is classified into four polymorphic forms: Hexagonal BN (h-BN) (Figure 1(b)); rhombohedral BN (r-BN); cubic BN (c-BN); and wurtzite BN (w-BN). BN does not occur in nature. In 1842, Balmain [3] obtained BN as a reaction product between molten boric oxide and potassium cyanide under atmospheric pressure. Thereafter, many methods for its synthesis were reported. h-BN and r-BN are formed under ambient pressure. c-BN is synthesized from h-BN under high pressure at high temperature while w-BN is prepared from h-BN under high pressure at room temperature [1]. Each BN layer consists of stacks of hexagonal plate-like units of boron and nitrogen atoms linked by SP{sup 2} hybridized orbits and held together mainly by Van der Waals force (Fig 1(b)). The hexagonal polymorph has two-layered repeating units: AA'AA'... that differ from those in graphite: ABAB... (Figure 1(a)). Within the layers of h-BN there is coincidence between the same phases of the hexagons, although the boron atoms and nitrogen atoms are alternatively located along ...
ACCELERATED PROCESSING OF SB4 AND PREPARATION FOR SB5 PROCESSING AT DWPF
The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) initiated processing of Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) in May 2007. SB4 was the first DWPF sludge batch to contain significant quantities of HM or high Al sludge. Initial testing with SB4 simulants showed potential negative impacts to DWPF processing; therefore, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed extensive testing in an attempt to optimize processing. SRNL's testing has resulted in the highest DWPF production rates since start-up. During SB4 processing, DWPF also began incorporating waste streams from the interim salt processing facilities to initiate coupled operations. While DWPF has been processing SB4, the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) and the SRNL have been preparing Sludge Batch 5 (SB5). SB5 has undergone low-temperature aluminum dissolution to reduce the mass of sludge for vitrification and will contain a small fraction of Purex sludge. A high-level review of SB4 processing and the SB5 preparation studies will be provided.
Network Communication as a Service-Oriented Capability
In widely distributed systems generally, and in science-oriented Grids in particular, software, CPU time, storage, etc., are treated as"services" -- they can be allocated and used with service guarantees that allows them to be integrated into systems that perform complex tasks. Network communication is currently not a service -- it is provided, in general, as a"best effort" capability with no guarantees and only statistical predictability. In order for Grids (and most types of systems with widely distributed components) to be successful in performing the sustained, complex tasks of large-scale science -- e.g., the multi-disciplinary simulation of next generation climate modeling and management and analysis of the petabytes of data that will come from the next generation of scientific instrument (which is very soon for the LHC at CERN) -- networks must provide communication capability that is service-oriented: That is it must be configurable, schedulable, predictable, and reliable. In order to accomplish this, the research and education network community is undertaking a strategy that involves changes in network architecture to support multiple classes of service; development and deployment of service-oriented communication services, and; monitoring and reporting in a form that is directly useful to the application-oriented system so that it may adapt to communications failures. In this paper we describe ESnet's approach to each of these -- an approach that is part of an international community effort to have intra-distributed system communication be based on a service-oriented capability.
Associations between iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticle growth and metal adsorption/structural incorporation
The interaction of metal ions and oxyanions with nanoscale mineral phases has not yet been extensively studied despite the increased recognition of their prevalence in natural systems as a significant component of geomedia. A combination of macroscopic uptake studies to investigate the adsorption behavior of As(V), Cu(II), Hg(II), and Zn(II) onto nanoparticulate goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH) as a function of aging time at elevated temperature (75 C) and synchrotron-based X-ray studies to track changes in both the sorption mode and the rate of nanoparticle growth reveal the effects that uptake has on particle growth. Metal(loid) species which sorb quickly to the iron oxyhydroxide particles (As(V), Cu(II)) appear to passivate the particle surface, impeding the growth of the nanoparticles with progressive aging; in contrast, species that sorb more slowly (Hg(II), Zn(II)) have considerably less impact on particle growth. Progressive changes in the speciation of these particular metals with time suggest shifts in the mode of metal uptake with time, possibly indicating structural incorporation of the metal(loid) into the nanoparticle; this is supported by the continued increase in uptake concomitant with particle growth, implying that metal species may transform from surface-sorbed species to more structurally incorporated forms. This type of incorporation would have implications for the long-term fate and mobility of metals in contaminated regions, and affect the strategy for potential remediation/modeling efforts.
MSTD 2007 Publications and Patents
The Materials Science and Technology Division (MSTD) supports the central scientific and technological missions of the Laboratory, and at the same time, executes world-class, fundamental research and novel technological development over a wide range of disciplines. Our organization is driven by the institutional needs in nuclear weapons stockpile science, high-energy-density science, nuclear reactor science, and energy and environment science and technology. We maintain expertise and capabilities in many diverse areas, including actinide science, electron microscopy, laser-materials interactions, materials theory, simulation and modeling, materials synthesis and processing, materials science under extreme conditions, ultrafast materials science, metallurgy, nanoscience and technology, nuclear fuels and energy security, optical materials science, and surface science. MSTD scientists play leadership roles in the scientific community in these key and emerging areas.
Hadronic Correlations and Fluctuations
We will provide a review of some of the physics which can be addressed by studying fluctuations and correlations in heavy ion collisions. We will discuss Lattice QCD results on fluctuations and correlations and will put them into context with observables which have been measured in heavy-ion collisions. Special attention will be given to the QCD critical point and the first order co-existence region, and we will discuss how the measurement of fluctuations and correlations can help in an experimental search for non-trivial structures in the QCD phase diagram.
Chapter 2: Sustainable and Unsustainable Developments in the U.S. Energy System
Over the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the United States developed a wealthy society on the basis of cheap and abundant fossil fuel energy. As fossil fuels have become ecologically and economically expensive in the twenty-first century, America has shown mixed progress in transitioning to a more sustainable energy system. From 2000 to 2006, energy and carbon intensity of GDP continued favorable long-term trends of decline. Energy end-use efficiency also continued to improve; for example, per-capita electricity use was 12.76 MWh per person per year in 2000 and again in 2006, despite 16 percent GDP growth over that period. Environmental costs of U.S. energy production and consumption have also been reduced, as illustrated in air quality improvements. However, increased fossil fuel consumption, stagnant efficiency standards, and expanding corn-based ethanol production have moved the energy system in the opposite direction, toward a less sustainable energy system. This chapter reviews energy system developments between 2000 and 2006 and presents policy recommendations to move the United States toward a more sustainable energy system.
Quantitive DNA Fiber Mapping
Several hybridization-based methods used to delineate single copy or repeated DNA sequences in larger genomic intervals take advantage of the increased resolution and sensitivity of free chromatin, i.e., chromatin released from interphase cell nuclei. Quantitative DNA fiber mapping (QDFM) differs from the majority of these methods in that it applies FISH to purified, clonal DNA molecules which have been bound with at least one end to a solid substrate. The DNA molecules are then stretched by the action of a receding meniscus at the water-air interface resulting in DNA molecules stretched homogeneously to about 2.3 kb/{micro}m. When non-isotopically, multicolor-labeled probes are hybridized to these stretched DNA fibers, their respective binding sites are visualized in the fluorescence microscope, their relative distance can be measured and converted into kilobase pairs (kb). The QDFM technique has found useful applications ranging from the detection and delineation of deletions or overlap between linked clones to the construction of high-resolution physical maps to studies of stalled DNA replication and transcription.
Genomic Prospecting for Microbial Biodiesel Production
Biodiesel is defined as fatty acid mono-alkylesters and is produced from triacylglycerols. In the current article we provide an overview of the structure, diversity and regulation of the metabolic pathways leading to intracellular fatty acid and triacylglycerol accumulation in three types of organisms (bacteria, algae and fungi) of potential biotechnological interest and discuss possible intervention points to increase the cellular lipid content. The key steps that regulate carbon allocation and distribution in lipids include the formation of malonyl-CoA, the synthesis of fatty acids and their attachment onto the glycerol backbone, and the formation of triacylglycerols. The lipid biosynthetic genes and pathways are largely known for select model organisms. Comparative genomics allows the examination of these pathways in organisms of biotechnological interest and reveals the evolution of divergent and yet uncharacterized regulatory mechanisms. Utilization of microbial systems for triacylglycerol and fatty acid production is in its infancy; however, genomic information and technologies combined with synthetic biology concepts provide the opportunity to further exploit microbes for the competitive production of biodiesel.
Detection of hexavalent uranium with inline and field-portable immunosensors
An antibody that recognizes a chelated form of hexavalent uranium was used in the development of two different immunosensors for uranium detection. Specifically, these sensors were utilized for the analysis of groundwater samples collected during a 2007 field study of in situ bioremediation in a aquifer located at Rifle, CO. The antibody-based sensors provided data comparable to that obtained using Kinetic Phosphorescence Analysis (KPA). Thus, these novel instruments and associated reagents should provide field researchers and resource managers with valuable new tools for on-site data acquisition.
The effect of temperature on the speciation of U(VI) in sulfate solutions
Sulfate, one of the inorganic constituents that could be present in the nuclear waste repository, forms complexes with U(VI) and affects its migration in the environment. Results show that the complexation of U(VI) with sulfate is enhanced by the increase in temperature. The effect of temperature on the complexation and speciation of U(VI) in sulfate solutions is discussed.
Theoretical Studies in Heterogenous Catalysis: Towards a Rational Design of Novel Catalysts for Hydrodesulfurization and Hydrogen Production
Traditionally, knowledge in heterogeneous catalysis has come through empirical research. Nowadays, there is a clear interest to change this since millions of dollars in products are generated every year in the chemical and petrochemical industries through catalytic processes. To obtain a fundamental knowledge of the factors that determine the activity of heterogeneous catalysts is a challenge for modern science since many of these systems are very complex in nature. In principle, when a molecule adsorbs on the surface of a heterogeneous catalyst, it can interact with a large number of bonding sites. It is known that the chemical properties of these bonding sites depend strongly on the chemical environment around them. Thus, there can be big variations in chemical reactivity when going from one region to another in the surface of a heterogeneous catalyst. A main objective is to understand how the structural and electronic properties of a surface affect the energetics for adsorption processes and the paths for dissociation and chemical reactions. In recent years, advances in instrumentation and experimental procedures have allowed a large series of detailed works on the surface chemistry of heterogeneous catalysts. In many cases, these experimental studies have shown interesting and unique phenomena. Theory is needed to unravel the basic interactions behind these phenomena and to provide a general framework for the interpretation of experimental results. Ideally, theoretical calculations based on density-functional theory have evolved to the point that one should be able to predict patterns in the activity of catalytic surfaces. As in the case of experimental techniques, no single theoretical approach is able to address the large diversity of phenomena occurring on a catalyst. Catalytic surfaces are usually modeled using either a finite cluster or a two-dimensionally periodic slab. Many articles have been published comparing the results of these two approaches. An ...
Proceedings of the 4th Annual Workshop on Cyber Security and Information Intelligence Research: Developing Strategies To Meet The Cyber Security And Information Intelligence Challenges Ahead
As our dependence on the cyber infrastructure grows ever larger, more complex and more distributed, the systems that compose it become more prone to failures and/or exploitation. Intelligence is information valued for its currency and relevance rather than its detail or accuracy. Information explosion describes the pervasive abundance of (public/private) information and the effects of such. Gathering, analyzing, and making use of information constitutes a business- / sociopolitical- / military-intelligence gathering activity and ultimately poses significant advantages and liabilities to the survivability of "our" society. The combination of increased vulnerability, increased stakes and increased threats make cyber security and information intelligence (CSII) one of the most important emerging challenges in the evolution of modern cyberspace "mechanization." The goal of the workshop was to challenge, establish and debate a far-reaching agenda that broadly and comprehensively outlined a strategy for cyber security and information intelligence that is founded on sound principles and technologies. We aimed to discuss novel theoretical and applied research focused on different aspects of software security/dependability, as software is at the heart of the cyber infrastructure.
Optics and multilayer coatings for EUVL systems
EUV lithography (EUVL) employs illumination wavelengths around 13.5 nm, and in many aspects it is considered an extension of optical lithography, which is used for the high-volume manufacturing (HVM) of today's microprocessors. The EUV wavelength of illumination dictates the use of reflective optical elements (mirrors) as opposed to the refractive lenses used in conventional lithographic systems. Thus, EUVL tools are based on all-reflective concepts: they use multilayer (ML) coated optics for their illumination and projection systems, and they have a ML-coated reflective mask.
Philosophy of Mind and the Problem of FreeWill in the Light of Quantum Mechanics.
Arguments pertaining to the mind-brain connection and to the physical effectiveness of our conscious choices have been presented in two recent books, one by John Searle, the other by Jaegwon Kim. These arguments are examined, and it is argued that the difficulties encountered arise from a defective understanding and application of a pertinent part of contemporary science, namely quantum mechanics.
Storage and turnover of organic matter in soil
Historically, attention on soil organic matter (SOM) has focused on the central role that it plays in ecosystem fertility and soil properties, but in the past two decades the role of soil organic carbon in moderating atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations has emerged as a critical research area. This chapter will focus on the storage and turnover of natural organic matter in soil (SOM), in the context of the global carbon cycle. Organic matter in soils is the largest carbon reservoir in rapid exchange with atmospheric CO{sub 2}, and is thus important as a potential source and sink of greenhouse gases over time scales of human concern (Fischlin and Gyalistras 1997). SOM is also an important human resource under active management in agricultural and range lands worldwide. Questions driving present research on the soil C cycle include: Are soils now acting as a net source or sink of carbon to the atmosphere? What role will soils play as a natural modulator or amplifier of climatic warming? How is C stabilized and sequestered, and what are effective management techniques to foster these processes? Answering these questions will require a mechanistic understanding of how and where C is stored in soils. The quantity and composition of organic matter in soil reflect the long-term balance between plant carbon inputs and microbial decomposition, as well as other loss processes such as fire, erosion, and leaching. The processes driving soil carbon storage and turnover are complex and involve influences at molecular to global scales. Moreover, the relative importance of these processes varies according to the temporal and spatial scales being considered; a process that is important at the regional scale may not be critical at the pedon scale. At the regional scale, SOM cycling is influenced by factors such as climate and parent material, which affect ...
Atomic lifetime measurements of highly charged ions
Abstract not provided
FCC Record, Cumulative Index, Volumes 20-22
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 23, No. 1, Pages 1 to 666, January 2 - January 18, 2008
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 23, No. 2, Pages 667 to 1621, January 22 - February 1, 2008
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 23, No. 3, Pages 1622 to 2581, February 4 - February 15, 2008
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 23, No. 4, Pages 2582 to 3503, February 19 - February 29, 2008
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 23, No. 5, Pages 3504 to 4464, March 3 - March 14, 2008
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 23, No. 6, Pages 4465 to 5426, March 17 - March 28, 2008
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 23, No. 7, Pages 5427 to 6392, March 31 - April 11, 2008
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 23, No. 8, Pages 6393 to 7336, April 14 - May 2, 2008
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 23, No. 9, Pages 7337 to 8152, May 5 - May 16, 2008
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 23, No. 10, Pages 8153 to 9023, May 19 - June 6, 2008
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 23, No. 11, Pages 9024 to 9896, June 9 - June 20, 2008
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 23, No. 12, Pages 9897 to 10818, June 23 - July 11, 2008
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 23, No. 13, Pages 10819 to 11823, July 14 - August 1, 2008
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 23, No. 14, Pages 11824 to 12631, August 4 - August 15, 2008
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 23, No. 15, Pages 12632 to 13204, August 18 - August 29, 2008
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 23, No. 16, Pages 13205 to 13758, September 2 - September 19, 2008
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 23, No. 17, Pages 13759 to 14567, September 22 - October 3, 2008
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 23, No. 18, Pages 14568 to 15222, October 6 - October 17, 2008
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 23, No. 19, Pages 15223 to 16004, October 20 - October 31, 2008
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
FCC Record, Volume 23, No. 20, Pages 16005 to 16942, November 3 - November 14, 2008
Biweekly, comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.