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TRITIUM UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS FOR SURFACE WATER SAMPLES AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE
Radiochemical analyses of surface water samples, in the framework of Environmental Monitoring, have associated uncertainties for the radioisotopic results reported. These uncertainty analyses pertain to the tritium results from surface water samples collected at five locations on the Savannah River near the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). Uncertainties can result from the field-sampling routine, can be incurred during transport due to the physical properties of the sample, from equipment limitations, and from the measurement instrumentation used. The uncertainty reported by the SRS in their Annual Site Environmental Report currently considers only the counting uncertainty in the measurements, which is the standard reporting protocol for radioanalytical chemistry results. The focus of this work is to provide an overview of all uncertainty components associated with SRS tritium measurements, estimate the total uncertainty according to ISO 17025, and to propose additional experiments to verify some of the estimated uncertainties. The main uncertainty components discovered and investigated in this paper are tritium absorption or desorption in the sample container, HTO/H{sub 2}O isotopic effect during distillation, pipette volume, and tritium standard uncertainty. The goal is to quantify these uncertainties and to establish a combined uncertainty in order to increase the scientific depth of the SRS Annual Site Environmental Report.
Going Extreme For Small Solutions To Big Environmental Challenges
This chapter is devoted to the scale, scope, and specific issues confronting the cleanup and long-term disposal of the U.S. nuclear legacy generated during WWII and the Cold War Era. The research reported is aimed at complex microbiological interactions with legacy waste materials generated by past nuclear production activities in the United States. The intended purpose of this research is to identify cost effective solutions to the specific problems (stability) and environmental challenges (fate, transport, exposure) in managing and detoxifying persistent contaminant species. Specifically addressed are high level waste microbiology and bacteria inhabiting plutonium laden soils in the unsaturated subsurface.
The DOE Bioethanol Pilot Plant: A Tool for Commercialization
With funding from the DOE National Biofuels Program, NREL has constructed a fermentation pilot plant facility. The plant was explicitly designed to assist industry and outside researchers develop commercial bioprocessing technology. Companies that are exploring biofuels technologies can utilize the facilities and expertise of NREL through a variety of flexible business-venture arrangements.
OUT Success Stories: Four National Magnetic Field Exposure Facilities
The National Magnetic Field Exposure Facilities program is regarded internationally as the standard of excellence for EMF research. Results of research conducted with the four exposure systems have been included in a 1998 report to Congress. The program has already produced a steady improvement of exposure systems and methodology for EMF experiments.
OUT Success Stories: Chemical Treatments for Geothermal Brines
DOE research helped develop the large, untapped geothermal resource beneath the Salton Sea in California's Imperial Valley. The very hot brines under high pressure make them excellent for electric power production. The brines are very corrosive and contain high concentrations of dissolved silica. DOE worked with San Diego Gas and Electric Company to find a solution to the silica-scaling problem. This innovative brine treatment eliminated scaling and made possible the development of the Salton Sea geothermal resource.
OUT Success Stories: Diamond-Cutter Drill Bits
DOE contributed markedly to the geothermal, oil, and gas industries through the development of the advanced polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) drill bit. Diamond-cutter drill bits cut through tough rock quicker, reducing the cost of drilling for energy resources.
Exceptional groups, symmetric spaces and applications
In this article we provide a detailed description of a technique to obtain a simple parameterization for different exceptional Lie groups, such as G{sub 2}, F{sub 4} and E{sub 6}, based on their fibration structure. For the compact case, we construct a realization which is a generalization of the Euler angles for SU(2), while for the non compact version of G{sub 2(2)}/SO(4) we compute the Iwasawa decomposition. This allows us to obtain not only an explicit expression for the Haar measure on the group manifold, but also for the cosets G{sub 2}/SO(4), G{sub 2}/SU(3), F{sub 4}/Spin(9), E{sub 6}/F{sub 4} and G{sub 2(2)}/SO(4) that we used to find the concrete realization of the general element of the group. Moreover, as a by-product, in the simplest case of G{sub 2}/SO(4), we have been able to compute an Einstein metric and the vielbein. The relevance of these results in physics is discussed.
OUT Success Stories: Solar Hot Water Technology
Solar hot water technology was made great strides in the past two decades. Every home, commercial building, and industrial facility requires hot water. DOE has helped to develop reliable and durable solar hot water systems. For industrial applications, the growth potential lies in large-scale systems, using flat-plate and trough-type collectors. Flat-plate collectors are commonly used in residential hot water systems and can be integrated into the architectural design of the building.
OUT Success Stories: Sunrayce
This long-distance solar car race provides a unique opportunity to increase America's awareness of a variety of important issues: renewable energy sources and technologies, environmentally clean energy options, improvements in transportation and opportunities in new, fast-growing energy-related businesses.
OUT Success Stories: The Sun's Joules CD-ROM and the School Energy Doctor
The Sun's Joules is a CD-ROM that mixes interactive exercises, videos, photographs, and text to provide a comprehensive encyclopedia on renewable energy.
OUT Success Stories: Twenty Years of Success
DOE's Office of Utility Technologies celebrates 20 years of success in renewable energy research, development, and deployment.
OUT Success Stories: Renewable Energy at the Olympics
Many energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies were featured at the 1996 Atlanta Olympics. Most of the projects that contributed to the Olympics continue to provide a meaningful demonstration and learning experience for the people of Atlanta.
OUT Success Stories: Solar Roofing Shingles
Thin-film photovoltaic (PV) cells are now doubling as rooftop shingles. PV shingles offer many advantages. The energy generated from a building's PV rooftop shingles can provide power both to the building and the utility's power grid.
OUT Success Stories: Biomass Gasifiers
The world's first demonstration of an efficient, low-pressure biomass gasifier capable of producing a high-quality fuel is now operating in Vermont. The gasifier converts 200 tons of solid biomass per day into a clean-burning gas with a high energy content for electricity generation.
OUT Success Stories: Power Towers
Power towers convert the thermal energy of the sun to electricity. They are large-scale power plants producing clean energy and suited for operation in sunny, semi-arid regions of the world.
OUT Success Stories: Advanced Airfoils for Wind Turbines
New airfoils have substantially increased the aerodynamic efficiency of wind turbines. It is clear that these new airfoils substantially increased energy output from wind turbines. Virtually all new blades built in this country today use these advanced airfoil designs.
OUT Success Stories: Cost of Wind Energy Substantially Reduced
Twenty years of government and industry collaboration have decreased wind energy costs more than sevenfold. Productivity and reliability of the turbines have increased dramatically. Millions of hours of operating experience have been recorded. The cost of energy from wind has been reduced to the point where it can begin to compete with conventional sources of electricity.
OUT Success Stories: National Wind Technology Center
The National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) is the U.S. Department of Energy's national center for wind turbine research and development. The unique wind characteristics at the NWTC provide an ideal environment for testing wind turbines in power-producing modes as well as in extreme, high-wind conditions.
OUT Success Stories: Wind Turbine Development
Cost-shared projects with the U.S. Department of Energy and the wind industry have produced new, commercially available turbines that generate power at low costs. Advanced wind turbine technologies will be instrumental for the United States and other countries in meeting their commitments to reduce greenhouse gases.
USE OF AN EQUILIBRIUM MODEL TO FORECAST DISSOLUTION EFFECTIVENESS, SAFETY IMPACTS, AND DOWNSTREAM PROCESSABILITY FROM OXALIC ACID AIDED SLUDGE REMOVAL IN SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS 1-15
This thesis details a graduate research effort written to fulfill the Magister of Technologiae in Chemical Engineering requirements at the University of South Africa. The research evaluates the ability of equilibrium based software to forecast dissolution, evaluate safety impacts, and determine downstream processability changes associated with using oxalic acid solutions to dissolve sludge heels in Savannah River Site High Level Waste (HLW) Tanks 1-15. First, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Coupled with a model, a material balance determines the fate of hypothetical worst-case sludge in the treatment and neutralization tanks during each chemical adjustment. Although sludge is dissolved, after neutralization more is created within HLW. An energy balance determines overpressurization and overheating to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen may overwhelm the purge ventilation. Limiting the heel volume treated/acid added and processing the solids through vitrification is preferred and should not significantly increase the number of glass canisters.
OUT success series - Geothermal heat pumps are scoring high marks
Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) are one of the most cost-effective heating, cooling, and water heating systems available for both residential and commercial buildings. GHPs extract heat from the ground during the heating season and discharge waste heat to the ground during the cooling season.
Small Wind Electric Systems: A U.S. Consumer's Guide
The U.S. Consumer's Guide for Small Wind Electric systems provides consumers with enough information to help them determine if a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and their economics. Topics discussed in the guide include: how to make your home more energy efficient, how to choose the right size turbine, the parts of a wind electric system, determining if there is enough wind resource on your site, choosing the best site for your turbine, connecting your system to the utility grid, and if it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy.
RESPONSE FUNCTION OF THE BGO AND NAI(T1) DETECTORS USING MONTE CARLO SIMULATIONS.
The high efficiency of the BGO detectors makes them very attractive candidates to replace NaI(T1) detectors, which are widely used in studies of body composition. In this work, the response functions of the BGO and NaI(T1) detectors were determined at 0.662,4.4, and 10.0 MeV using three different Monte Carlo codes: EGS4, MCNP, and PHOTON. These codes differ in their input files and transport calculations, and were used to verify the internal consistency of the setup and of the input data. The energy range of 0.662 to 10 MeV was chosen to cover energies of interest in body composition-studies. The superior efficiency of the BGO-detectors has to be weighed-against their inferior resolution, and their higher price than that of the NaI detectors. Because the price of the BGO detectors strongly depends on the size of the crystal, its optimization is an important component in the design of the entire system.
OUT Success Stories: Photovoltaics in the National Parks
As part of its energy management program, the National Park Service (NPS) has been actively promoting energy conservation and the greater use of renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaics (PV). PV is proving to be a very effective way to produce electricity in our parks.
OUT Success Stories: Thin-Film PV: Leadership in Materials R and D
Photovoltaics (PV) is a modern energy technology that makes use of semiconductor materials to convert sunlight directly to electricity. The idea of thin film technology is to produce truly low-cost PV devices by using pennies worth of active semiconductor materials.
OUT Success Stories: Battery Electricity Storage for Quality Power
A 3.5-megawatt valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery system installed at a lead recycling plant in California provides one hour of energy storage for both peak-shaving and uninterruptible power. It incorporates improvements in battery materials, manufacturing processes, and quality control.
National Renewable Energy Laboratory Information Resources Catalogue--1998: A Collection of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Information Resources
Our fifth annual Information Resources Catalogue describes recent NREL publications and services that will keep you up to date regarding the latest advances in renewable energy and energy efficiency.
OUT Success Stories: Photovoltaic Deployment in West Bengal, India
Bringing electric power to thousands of people in India allows them to pump water electrically and to light their homes at night. For these applications, photovoltaic (PV) electricity is often the least expensive and most reliable power alternative. This market represents one of the largest and fastest growing sectors for renewable energy technology.
OUT Success Stories: Rural Electrification in Brazil
The United States and Brazil are collaborating to bring electricity to some 5 million households in rural Brazil. Over the next decade, there is a potential to install approximately 500 megawatts (MW) of solar home systems and 1000 MW of community systems, bringing light to households, schools, and health clinics throughout rural Brazil.
Committee and Subcommittee Assignments for the 108th Congress
The Senate of United States Committee and Subcommittee Assignments for the 108th Congress.
Base Visit Book - Naval Station Pascagoula
Commissioner's Base Briefing Book - Naval Station Pascagoula - Pascagoula Mississippi Closure Recommendation June 2005
Joint Base Visit Report - Pope Air Force Base/Fort Bragg North Carolina
Base Visit Report - Summary Report of Base Visit to Pope Air Force Base and Fort Bragg North Carolina - Lead by Commissioner Gehman
2005 Report to the Base Closure and Realignment Commission: Air Force Justification Book
Great Falls International Airport Air Guard Station, MT: Environmental Impacts USAF(Disregard Restriction Header and Footer)
2005 Report to the Base Closure and Realignment Commission: Air Force Justification Book
Great Falls International Airport Air Guard Station, MT: Economic Impact (EIT Run) USAF(Disregard Restriction Header and Footer)
2005 Report to the Base Closure and Realignment Commission: Air Force Justification Book
Great Falls International Airport Air Guard Station, MT: Community Infrastructure Assessment USAF(Disregard Restriction Header and Footer)
2005 Report to the Base Closure and Realignment Commission: Air Force Justification Book
Grand Forks Air Force Base, ND: Economic Impact (EIT Run) USAF(Disregard Restriction Header and Footer)
2005 Report to the Base Closure and Realignment Commission: Air Force Justification Book
Great Falls International Airport Air Guard Station, MT: One Pager USAF(Disregard Restriction Header and Footer)
2005 Report to the Base Closure and Realignment Commission: Air Force Justification Book
Great Falls International Airport Air Guard Station, MT: Mil Value and Capacity Supporting Information USAF(Disregard Restriction Header and Footer)
2005 Report to the Base Closure and Realignment Commission: Air Force Justification Book
Great Falls International Airport Air Guard Station, MT: COBRA Run USAF(Disregard Restriction Header and Footer)
2005 Report to the Base Closure and Realignment Commission: Air Force Justification Book
Grand Forks Air Force Base, ND: Environmental Impact USAF(Disregard Restriction Header and Footer)
2005 Report to the Base Closure and Realignment Commission: Air Force Justification Book
Grand Forks Air Force Base, ND: Community Infrastructure Assessment USAF(Disregard Restriction Header and Footer)
BRAC 2005 DoD Report Intel JCSG Justification Book
Defense of Intelligence Agency - COBRA CBR Files
BRAC 2005 DoD Report Intel JCSG Justification Book
Defense Intelligence Agency - DC - VA - WV - MD Economic Impact Data
BRAC 2005 DoD Report Intel JCSG Justification Book
Defense Intelligence Agency - COBRA Realignment Summary Report
BRAC 2005 DoD Report Intel JCSG Justification Book
DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY - SUMMARY OF SCENARIO ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS (DISREGARD RESTRICTION HEADER AND FOOTER)
BRAC 2005 DoD Report Intel JCSG Justification Book
Defense Intelligence Agency - Boiling AFB Demographics
BRAC 2005 DoD Report Intel JCSG Justification Book
National Geospatial Intelligence Agency - COBRA Sustainment/Recap/BOS/Housing Change Report
BRAC 2005 DoD Report Intel JCSG Justification Book
National Geospatial Intelligence Agency - National Geospatial-Intelligence Activities, Criteria, Recommendations, Results - Fort Belvoir, VA
BRAC 2005 DoD Report Intel JCSG Justification Book
National Geospatial Intelligence Agency - Economic Impact Report
BRAC 2005 DoD Report Intel JCSG Justification Book
Defense of Intelligence Agency - Criteria 1-4: Force Structure Capabilities, Military Value Analysis Results, and Capacity Analysis Results