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Afghanistan: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

Description: The United States and its allies are helping Afghanistan emerging from more than 22 years of warfare, although substantial risk to Afghan stability remains. Before the U.S. military campaign against the orthodox Islamist Taliban movement began on October 7, 2001, Afghanistan had been mired in conflict since the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979. The defeat of the Taliban has enabled the United States and its coalition partners to send forces throughout Afghanistan to search for Taliban and Al Qaeda fighters and leaders that remain at large, including Osama bin Laden. As the war against remaining Al Qaeda and Taliban elements winds down, the United States is shifting its military focus toward stabilizing the interim government, including training a new Afghan national army, and supporting the international security force (ISAF) that is helping the new government provide security.
Date: May 2, 2003
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth

Afghanistan: Current Issues and U.S. Policy Concerns

Description: The United States and its allies are helping Afghanistan emerging from more than 22 years of warfare, although substantial risk to Afghan stability remains. Before the U.S. military campaign against the orthodox Islamist Taliban movement began on October 7, 2001, Afghanistan had been mired in conflict since the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979. The defeat of the Taliban has enabled the United States and its coalition partners to send forces throughout Afghanistan to search for Taliban and Al Qaeda fighters and leaders that remain at large, including Osama bin Laden. As the war against remaining Al Qaeda and Taliban elements winds down, the United States is shifting its military focus toward stabilizing the interim government, including training a new Afghan national army, and supporting the international security force (ISAF) that is helping the new government provide security.
Date: May 20, 2002
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth

Afghanistan's Path to Reconstruction: Obstacles, Challenges, and Issues for Congress

Description: Once hostilities end in Afghanistan and the Afghan phase of the war on terrorism starts to wind down, reconstruction efforts will begin in earnest. International attention will likely turn to Afghanistan’s short- and medium-term future, raising questions between the United States and its allies about division of labor, burdensharing, and exit strategies. It is anticipated that Congress will examine reconstruction efforts underway, aid priorities, long-term reconstruction proposals, and the implementation role to be played by the United States.
Date: May 17, 2002
Creator: Margesson, Rhoda

Afghanistan: Challenges and Options for Reconstructing a Stable and Moderate State

Description: This report provides information on and analysis of the current situation in Afghanistan, taking into consideration the country’s essential characteristics and political developments since about the time of the overthrow of the last Afghan King, Zahir Shah, in 1973, and sketches out four possible scenarios for Afghanistan’s future. Finally, the report identifies and analyzes factors that will influence Afghanistan’s political future, and discusses three policy areas in particular in which actions by the United States could be crucial to the achievement of the U.S. goal of a peaceful, stable, democratic, and terrorist-free Afghanistan. An appendix contains key documents relating to the December 2001 Bonn Agreement, which is the framework for current efforts to create a stable and democratic Afghanistan.
Date: May 10, 2002
Creator: Cronin, Richard P.

NATO and the European Union

Description: Report which discusses issues related to the North Atlantic Trade Organization (NATO) and the European Union (EU) including the level of involvement of the entities in using political and military actions to defend against terrorism and proliferation, the types of military forces necessary, the role of the EU in crisis management, the appropriateness of decision-making procedures to respond to emerging threats, and the role of other international institutions.
Date: May 12, 2005
Creator: Archick, Kristin & Gallis, Paul E.

Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

Description: The United States and its allies are helping Afghanistan emerging from more than 22 years of warfare, although substantial risk to Afghan stability remains. Before the U.S. military campaign against the orthodox Islamist Taliban movement began on October 7, 2001, Afghanistan had been mired in conflict since the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979. The defeat of the Taliban has enabled the United States and its coalition partners to send forces throughout Afghanistan to search for Taliban and Al Qaeda fighters and leaders that remain at large, including Osama bin Laden. As the war against remaining Al Qaeda and Taliban elements winds down, the United States is shifting its military focus toward stabilizing the interim government, including training a new Afghan national army, and supporting the international security force (ISAF) that is helping the new government provide security.
Date: May 19, 2005
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth

Afghanistan: Narcotics and U.S. Policy

Description: This report describes the structure and development of the narcotics trade in Afghanistan and explores its relevance to Afghan, U.S., and international security interests, including the 9/11 Commission’s recommendation that the United States make a long term commitment to the stability and security of Afghanistan. The report provides current statistical information on the opium trade, profiles its various participants, explores alleged narco-terrorist linkages, and reviews the U.S. and international policy response since late 2001. The report also considers current policy debates regarding the role of the U.S. military in future counternarcotics operations in Afghanistan; planned opium poppy eradication; and funding issues for Congress.
Date: May 26, 2005
Creator: Blanchard, Christopher M.

Afghanistan: Soviet Invasion and U.S. Response

Description: The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan has raised a number of serious issues and choices for the United States. The train of events seem likely to have an important influence on overall American foreign policy in the 1980s. Reassessment of Soviet motives and of U.S. roles in the world are already in progress. Emerging American attitudes, in turn, will shape more specific policy decisions on several issues, which this issue brief discusses.
Date: May 2, 1980
Creator: Library of Congress. Foreign Affairs and National Defense Division.

Afghanistan: Elections, Constitution, and Government

Description: In 2004 and 2005, Afghanistan adopted a permanent constitution and elected a president and a parliament. The parliament is emerging as a significant force in Afghan politics, as shown in debates over a new cabinet and the 2006 budget. See CRS Report RL30588, Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy, by Kenneth Katzman.
Date: May 25, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth

Afghanistan: Elections, Constitution, and Government

Description: In 2004 and 2005, Afghanistan adopted a permanent constitution and elected a president and a parliament. The parliament is emerging as a significant force in Afghan politics, as shown in debate over a new cabinet proposed in March 2006. However, insurgent violence continues to threaten Afghan stability. See CRS Report RL30588, Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy, by Kenneth Katzman.
Date: May 1, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth

Newsmap. Monday, May 18, 1942 : week of May 8 to May 15

Description: Text describes action on various war fronts: Jap advance lines cut -- U.S. bombers in India -- Jap defeat in China -- Tribute to team work -- Tokyo raid confirmed -- Axis attack forecast -- Subs in St. Lawrence -- Plan relief corps -- WAAC bill passes -- State laws 'brake' war -- Deal at Martinique -- Raid Jap settlements -- Peru's president here -- Freight by plane -- Gas rationing starts -- Indies fliers here -- British announce war casualties -- R.A.F. pushes attacks -- Gort to Malta command -- Mission to Africa -- Spring offensive on -- Norway plant wrecked. Large world map is keyed to text and illustrates time zones around the world. Inset map shows German and Russian advances near the Black Sea. Includes photographs: Lt. Gen. Stillwell -- Vice Pres. Wallace -- Lt. Gen. Somervell -- New bombs piled underground awaiting delivery -- Lord Gort -- Russian troop answer the Nazi assault -- British troops practice street fighting tactics. Includes 1 cartoon.
Date: May 18, 1942
Creator: [United States]. Army Orientation Course.

Newsmap. Monday, May 25, 1942 : week of May 15 to May 22

Description: Front : Text describes action on various war fronts: Axis hunts Shangri La -- Shadow on Australia -- New threat to China -- Gandhi still passive -- More Yanks in Ireland -- U.S. gets Panama bases -- Spain would trade -- Island volcano erupts -- Axis people grumble -- Axis battles Chetniks -- Air travel curtailed -- Prinz Eugen torpedoes -- Attack on Kharkov -- Vichy downs RAF planes -- Africa drive hinted -- Malta counts bombings. Large world map is keyed to text and illustrates time zones around the world. Inset maps show the Burma Road and a map of a portion of Europe overlaying a map of the United States. U.S. cities are shown in italics, European cities in capitals. Includes photographs: Doolittle did much -- North American B-25 -- Gandhi opposes [scorched earth policy] -- School of 'tin fish' ready for their deadly work -- Shell casings stacked in Moscow factory -- Rommel might move -- Catalinas from America keep an eye on the Mediterranean -- RAF salvages wrecked planes from desert. Includes 1 cartoon. Back: Know Your Enemies: the Nazi Army. Includes photographs: Supporting Fire, Howitzer in Action, Moving Up, Mountain Troops, Tank Destroyer, Anti-Aircraft Alert, No. 2 Man, Quick Crossing, Battle Practice, Flame Thrower, Mopping Up. Inset has text details for each photograph.
Date: May 25, 1942
Creator: [United States]. Army Orientation Course.

Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

Description: The United States and its allies are helping Afghanistan emerging from more than 22 years of warfare, although substantial risk to Afghan stability remains. Before the U.S. military campaign against the orthodox Islamist Taliban movement began on October 7, 2001, Afghanistan had been mired in conflict since the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979. The defeat of the Taliban has enabled the United States and its coalition partners to send forces throughout Afghanistan to search for Taliban and Al Qaeda fighters and leaders that remain at large, including Osama bin Laden. As the war against remaining Al Qaeda and Taliban elements winds down, the United States is shifting its military focus toward stabilizing the interim government, including training a new Afghan national army, and supporting the international security force (ISAF) that is helping the new government provide security.
Date: May 4, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth

Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

Description: The United States and its allies are helping Afghanistan emerging from more than 22 years of warfare, although substantial risk to Afghan stability remains. Before the U.S. military campaign against the orthodox Islamist Taliban movement began on October 7, 2001, Afghanistan had been mired in conflict since the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979. The defeat of the Taliban has enabled the United States and its coalition partners to send forces throughout Afghanistan to search for Taliban and Al Qaeda fighters and leaders that remain at large, including Osama bin Laden. As the war against remaining Al Qaeda and Taliban elements winds down, the United States is shifting its military focus toward stabilizing the interim government, including training a new Afghan national army, and supporting the international security force (ISAF) that is helping the new government provide security.
Date: May 4, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth

Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

Description: Afghanistan's planned political transition was completed with the convening of a parliament in December 2005, but insurgent threats to Afghanistan's government persist and are even growing in some southern provinces. A new constitution was adopted in January 2004, and successful presidential elections were held on October 9, 2004, followed by parliamentary elections on September 18, 2005. Afghan citizens are enjoying new personal freedoms that were forbidden under the Taliban. Women are participating in economic and political life; however, the insurgency led by remnants of the former Taliban regime has conducted numerous lethal attacks since mid-2005, narcotics trafficking is rampant, and independent militias remain through the country. U.S. stabilization measures focus on strengthening the central government and its security forces while combating insurgents.
Date: May 4, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth

Afghanistan: Government Formation and Performance

Description: Post-Taliban Afghanistan has adopted a constitution and elected a president and a parliament; that body is emerging as a significant force and sometimes challenger to President Hamid Karzai. The central government’s limited writ, which many Afghans believe should remain limited, and its perceived corruption, are helping sustain a Taliban insurgency. See CRS Report RL30588, Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy, by Kenneth Katzman.
Date: May 13, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth

FY2009 Spring Supplemental Appropriations for Overseas Contingency Operations

Description: This report discusses the White House's request for supplemental appropriations that include funding for defense, foreign affairs, and domestic fire fighting. The report details the different programs and areas that the appropriations would fund, including operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, preparedness and emergency management measures relating to the swine flu outbreak, border security between the United States and Mexico, benchmark assessment in Afghanistan and Pakistan, and other general defense operations.
Date: May 5, 2009
Creator: Daggett, Stephen; Epstein, Susan B.; Margesson, Rhoda; Nakamura, Kennon H.; Tarnoff, Curt; Kronstadt, K. Alan et al.

Afghanistan Casualties: Military Forces and Civilians

Description: This report collects statistics from a variety of sources on casualties sustained during Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), which began on October 7, 2001, and is ongoing. OEF actions take place primarily in Afghanistan; however, OEF casualties also includes American casualties in Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Guantanamo Bay (Cuba), Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Jordan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, the Philippines, Seychelles, Sudan, Tajikistan, Turkey, and Yemen.
Date: May 4, 2011
Creator: Chesser, Susan G.

Afghanistan Casualties: Military Forces and Civilians

Description: This report collects statistics from a variety of sources on casualties sustained during Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), which began on October 7, 2001, and is ongoing. OEF actions take place primarily in Afghanistan, but OEF casualties also include American casualties in other countries, listed within this report.
Date: May 18, 2011
Creator: Chesser, Susan G.