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2009 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313

Description: For reporting year 2009, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) submitted a Form R report for lead as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (EPCRA) Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2009 above the reportable thresholds. This document was prepared to provide a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical use and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2009, as well as to provide background information about data included on the Form R reports.
Date: November 1, 2010
Creator: (ENV-ES), Environmental Stewardship Group

Studying the Underlying Event in Drell-Yan and High Transverse Momentum Jet Production at the Tevatron

Description: We study the underlying event in proton-antiproton collisions by examining the behavior of charged particles (transverse momentum p{sub T} > 0.5 GeV/c, pseudorapidity |{eta}| < 1) produced in association with large transverse momentum jets ({approx}2.2 fb{sup -1}) or with Drell-Yan lepton-pairs ({approx}2.7 fb{sup -1}) in the Z-boson mass region (70 < M(pair) < 110 GeV/c{sup 2}) as measured by CDF at 1.96 TeV center-of-mass energy. We use the direction of the lepton-pair (in Drell-Yan production) or the leading jet (in high-p{sub T} jet production) in each event to define three regions of {eta}-{phi} space; toward, away, and transverse, where {phi} is the azimuthal scattering angle. For Drell-Yan production (excluding the leptons) both the toward and transverse regions are very sensitive to the underlying event. In high-p{sub T} jet production the transverse region is very sensitive to the underlying event and is separated into a MAX and MIN transverse region, which helps separate the hard component (initial and final-state radiation) from the beam-beam remnant and multiple parton interaction components of the scattering. The data are corrected to the particle level to remove detector effects and are then compared with several QCD Monte-Carlo models. The goal of this analysis is to provide data that can be used to test and improve the QCD Monte-Carlo models of the underlying event that are used to simulate hadron-hadron collisions.
Date: March 1, 2010
Creator: ,; Aaltonen, T.; Adelman, J.; Gonzalez, B.Alvarez; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D. et al.

Experiments and Simulations of ITER-like Plasmas in Alcator C-Mod

Description: Alcator C-Mod is performing ITER-like experiments to benchmark and verify projections to 15 MA ELMy H-mode Inductive ITER discharges. The main focus has been on the transient ramp phases. The plasma current in C-Mod is 1.3 MA and toroidal field is 5.4 T. Both Ohmic and ion cyclotron (ICRF) heated discharges are examined. Plasma current rampup experiments have demonstrated that (ICRF and LH) heating in the rise phase can save voltseconds (V-s), as was predicted for ITER by simulations, but showed that the ICRF had no effect on the current profile versus Ohmic discharges. Rampdown experiments show an overcurrent in the Ohmic coil (OH) at the H to L transition, which can be mitigated by remaining in H-mode into the rampdown. Experiments have shown that when the EDA H-mode is preserved well into the rampdown phase, the density and temperature pedestal heights decrease during the plasma current rampdown. Simulations of the full C-Mod discharges have been done with the Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC) and the Coppi-Tang energy transport model is used with modified settings to provide the best fit to the experimental electron temperature profile. Other transport models have been examined also. __________________________________________________
Date: September 24, 2010
Creator: .R. Wilson, C.E. Kessel, S. Wolfe, I.H. Hutchinson, P. Bonoli, C. Fiore, A.E. Hubbard, J. Hughes, Y. Lin, Y. Ma, D. Mikkelsen, M. Reinke, S. Scott, A.C.C. Sips, S. Wukitch and the C-Mod Team

Electron Charged Graphite-based Hydrogen Storage Material

Description: The electron-charge effects have been demonstrated to enhance hydrogen storage capacity using materials which have inherent hydrogen storage capacities. A charge control agent (CCA) or a charge transfer agent (CTA) was applied to the hydrogen storage material to reduce internal discharge between particles in a Sievert volumetric test device. GTI has tested the device under (1) electrostatic charge mode; (2) ultra-capacitor mode; and (3) metal-hydride mode. GTI has also analyzed the charge distribution on storage materials. The charge control agent and charge transfer agent are needed to prevent internal charge leaks so that the hydrogen atoms can stay on the storage material. GTI has analyzed the hydrogen fueling tank structure, which contains an air or liquid heat exchange framework. The cooling structure is needed for hydrogen fueling/releasing. We found that the cooling structure could be used as electron-charged electrodes, which will exhibit a very uniform charge distribution (because the cooling system needs to remove heat uniformly). Therefore, the electron-charge concept does not have any burden of cost and weight for the hydrogen storage tank system. The energy consumption for the electron-charge enhancement method is quite low or omitted for electrostatic mode and ultra-capacitor mode in comparison of other hydrogen storage methods; however, it could be high for the battery mode.
Date: March 14, 2012
Creator: 0812, Dr. Chinbay Q. Fan R&D Manager Office of Technology and Innovations Phone: 847 768

Cost-Effective Silicon Wafers for Solar Cells

Description: Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy project sheet summarizing general information about a new program for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (project title "Direct Wafer Enabling Terawatt Photovoltaics") including critical needs, innovation and advantages, impacts, and contact information. This sheet is the first open solicitation, announcing funding opportunities for involvement in the project.
Date: May 11, 2012
Creator: 1366 Technologies, Inc.

Optimization of the Configuration of Pixilated Detectors Based on the Sgabbib-Nyquist Theory for the X-ray Spectroscopy of Hot Tokamak Plasmas

Description: This paper describes an optimization of the detector configuration, based on the Shannon-Nyquist theory, for two major x-ray diagnostic systems on tokamaks and stellarators: x-ray imaging crystal spectrometers and x-ray pinhole cameras. Typically, the spectral data recorded with pixilated detectors are oversampled, meaning that the same spectral information could be obtained using fewer pixels. Using experimental data from Alcator C-Mod, we quantify the degree of oversampling and propose alternate uses for the redundant pixels for additional diagnostic applications.
Date: August 9, 2012
Creator: : E. Wang, P. Beiersdorfer, M. Bitter, L.F. Delgado-Apricio, K.W. Hill and N. Pablant

Local Effects of Biased Electrodes in the Divertor of NSTX

Description: The goal of this paper is to characterize the effects of small non-axisymmetric divertor plate electrodes on the local scrape-off layer plasma. Four small rectangular electrodes were installed into the outer divertor plates of NSTX. When the electrodes were located near the outer divertor strike point and biased positively, there was an increase in the nearby probe currents and probe potentials and an increase in the LiI light emission at the large major radius end of these electrodes. When an electrode located farther outward from the outer divertor strike point was biased positively, there was sometimes a significant decrease in the LiI light emission at the small major radius end of this electrode, but there were no clear effects on the nearby probes. No non-local effects were observed with the biasing of these electrodes.
Date: May 7, 2012
Creator: : S. Zweben, M.D. Campanell, B.C. Lyons, R.J. Maqueda, Y. Raitses, A.L. Roquemore and F. Scotti

Nuclear physics with a medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider

Description: A polarized ep/eA collider (Electron-Ion Collider, or EIC) with variable center-of-mass energy {radical}s {approx} 20-70 GeV and a luminosity {approx}10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} would be uniquely suited to address several outstanding questions of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and the microscopic structure of hadrons and nuclei: (i) the three-dimensional structure of the nucleon in QCD (sea quark and gluon spatial distributions, orbital motion, polarization, correlations); (ii) the fundamental color fields in nuclei (nuclear parton densities, shadowing, coherence effects, color transparency); (iii) the conversion of color charge to hadrons (fragmentation, parton propagation through matter, in-medium jets). We briefly review the conceptual aspects of these questions and the measurements that would address them, emphasizing the qualitatively new information that could be obtained with the collider. Such a medium-energy EIC could be realized at Jefferson Lab after the 12 GeV Upgrade (MEIC), or at Brookhaven National Lab as the low-energy stage of eRHIC.
Date: June 1, 2012
Creator: A. Accardi, V. Guzey, A. Prokudin, C. Weiss

Raising Photoemission Efficiency with Surface Acoustic Waves

Description: We are developing a novel technique that may help increase the efficiency and reduce costs of photoelectron sources used at electron accelerators. The technique is based on the use of Surface Acoustic Waves (SAW) in piezoelectric materials, such as GaAs, that are commonly used as photocathodes. Piezoelectric fields produced by the traveling SAW spatially separate electrons and holes, reducing their probability of recombination, thereby enhancing the photoemission quantum efficiency of the photocathode. Additional advantages could be increased polarization provided by the enhanced mobility of charge carriers that can be controlled by the SAW and the ionization of optically-generated excitons resulting in the creation of additional electron-hole pairs. It is expected that these novel features will reduce the cost of accelerator operation. A theoretical model for photoemission in the presence of SAW has been developed, and experimental tests of the technique are underway.
Date: July 1, 2012
Creator: A. Afanasev, F. Hassani, C.E. Korman, V.G. Dudnikov, R.P. Johnson, M. Poelker, K.E.L. Surles-Law

Epicyclic Twin-helix Magnetic Structure for Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling

Description: Para­met­ric-res­o­nance Ion­iza­tion Cool­ing (PIC) is en­vi­sioned as the final 6D cool­ing stage of a high-lu­mi­nos­i­ty muon col­lid­er. Im­ple­ment­ing PIC im­pos­es strin­gent con­straints on the cool­ing chan­nel's mag­net­ic op­tics de­sign. This paper pre­sents a lin­ear op­tics so­lu­tion com­pat­i­ble with PIC. Our so­lu­tion con­sists of a su­per­po­si­tion of two op­po­site-he­lic­i­ty equal-pe­ri­od and equal-strength he­li­cal dipole har­mon­ics and a straight nor­mal quadrupole. We demon­strate that such a sys­tem can be ad­just­ed to meet all of the PIC lin­ear op­tics re­quire­ments while re­tain­ing large ac­cep­tance.
Date: May 1, 2010
Creator: A. Afanasev, R.P. Johnson, Y.S. Derbenev, V.S. Morozov

Quadratic electroweak corrections for polarized Moller scattering

Description: The paper discusses the two-loop (NNLO) electroweak radiative corrections to the parity violating electron-electron scattering asymmetry induced by squaring one-loop diagrams. The calculations are relevant for the ultra-precise 11 GeV MOLLER experiment planned at Jefferson Laboratory and experiments at high-energy future electron colliders. The imaginary parts of the amplitudes are taken into consideration consistently in both the infrared-finite and divergent terms. The size of the obtained partial correction is significant, which indicates a need for a complete study of the two-loop electroweak radiative corrections in order to meet the precision goals of future experiments.
Date: January 1, 2012
Creator: A. Aleksejevs, S. Barkanova, Y. Kolomensky, E. Kuraev, V. Zykunov

Production and Testing Experience with the SRF Cavities for the CEBAF 12 GeV Upgrade

Description: The CEBAF recirculating CW electron linear accelerator at Jefferson Lab is presently undergoing a major upgrade to 12 GeV. This project includes the fabrication, preparation, and testing of 80 new 7-cell SRF cavities, followed by their incorporation into ten new cryomodules for subsequent testing and installation. In order to maximize the cavity Q over the full operable dynamic range in CEBAF (as high as 25 MV/m), the decision was taken to apply a streamlined preparation process that includes a final light temperature-controlled electropolish of the rf surface over the vendor-provided bulk BCP etch. Cavity processing work began at JLab in September 2010 and will continue through December 2011. The excellent performance results are exceeding project requirements and indicate a fabrication and preparation process that is stable and well controlled. The cavity production and performance experience to date will be summarized and lessons learned reported to the community.
Date: September 1, 2011
Creator: A. Burrill, G.K. Davis, F. Marhauser, C.E. Reece, A.V. Reilly, M. Stirbet

Edge Turbulence Velocity Changes with Lithium Coating on NSTX

Description: Lithium coating improves energy confinement and eliminates edge localized modes in NSTX, but the mechanism of this improvement is not yet well understood. We used the gas-puff-imaging (GPI) diagnostic on NSTX to measure the changes in edge turbulence which occurred during a scan with variable lithium wall coating, in order to help understand the reason for the confinement improvement with lithium. There was a small increase in the edge turbulence poloidal velocity and a decrease in the poloidal velocity fluctuation level with increased lithium. The possible effect of varying edge neutral density on turbulence damping was evaluated for these cases in NSTX. __________________________________________________
Date: August 10, 2012
Creator: A. Cao, S.J. Zweben, D.P. Stotler, M. Bell, A. Diallo, S.M. Kaye and B. LeBlanc

The Muon LINAC for the International Design Study of the Neutrino Factory

Description: The first stage of muon acceleration in the Neutrino Factory utilises a superconducting linac to accelerate muons from 244 MeV to 900 MeV. The linac was split into three types of cryomodules with decreasing magnetic fields and increasing amounts of RF voltage but with the design of the superconducting solenoid and RF cavities being the same for all cryomodules. The current status of the muon linac for the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory will be presented including a final lattice design of the linac and tracking simulations.
Date: September 1, 2011
Creator: A. Kurup, C. Bontoiu, Morteza Aslaninejad, J. Pozimski, A. Bogacz, V.S. Morozov, Y.R. Roblin, K.B. Beard

Analysis of NSTX Upgrade OH Magnet and Center Stack

Description: The new ohmic heating (OH) coil and center stack for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) upgrade are required to meet cooling and structural requirements for operation at the enhanced 1 Tesla toroidal field and 2 MA plasma current. The OH coil is designed to be cooled in the time between discharges by water flowing in the center of the coil conductor. We performed resistive heating and thermal hydraulic analyses to optimize coolant channel size to keep the coil temperature below 100 C and meet the required 20 minute cooling time. Coupled electromagnetic, thermal and structural FEA analyses were performed to determine if the OH coil meets the requirements of the structural design criteria. Structural response of the OH coil to its self-field and the field from other coils was analyzed. A model was developed to analyze the thermal and electromagnetic interaction of centerstack components such as the OH coil, TF inner legs and the Bellville washer preload mechanism. Torsional loads from the TF interaction with the OH and poloidal fields are transferred through the TF flag extensions via a torque transfer coupling to the rest of the tokamak structure. A 3D FEA analysis was performed to qualify this design. The results of these analyses, which will be presented in this paper, have led to the design of OH coil and centerstack components that meet the requirements of the NSTX-upgrade structural design criteria.
Date: November 30, 2010
Creator: A. Zolfaghari, P. Titus, J. Chrzanowski, A. Salehzadeh, F. Dahlgren

In-situ spectro-microscopy on organic films: Mn-Phthalocyanine on Ag(100)

Description: Metal phthalocyanines are attracting significant attention, owing to their potential for applications in chemical sensors, solar cells and organic magnets. As the electronic properties of molecular films are determined by their crystallinity and molecular packing, the optimization of film quality is important for improving the performance of organic devices. Here, we present the results of in situ low-energy electron microscopy / photoemission electron microscopy (LEEM/PEEM) studies of incorporation-limited growth [1] of manganese-phthalocyanine (MnPc) on Ag(100) surfaces. MnPc thin films were grown on both, bulk Ag(100) surface and thin Ag(100)/Fe(100) films, where substrate spin-polarized electronic states can be modified through tuning the thickness of the Ag film [2]. We also discuss the electronic structure and magnetic ordering in MnPc thin films, investigated by angle- and spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy.
Date: August 18, 2013
Creator: A., Al-Mahboob; Vescovo, E. & Sadowski, J.T.

PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION WORKING GROUP: METHODOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS

Description: We summarize the technical progress and accomplishments on the evaluation methodology for proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR and PP) of Generation IV nuclear energy systems. We intend the results of the evaluations performed with the methodology for three types of users: system designers, program policy makers, and external stakeholders. The PR and PP Working Group developed the methodology through a series of demonstration and case studies. Over the past few years various national and international groups have applied the methodology to nuclear energy system designs as well as to developing approaches to advanced safeguards.
Date: November 14, 2012
Creator: A., Bari R.; Whitlock, J.; Therios, I.U. & Peterson, P.F.