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AMAP Assessment 2013: Arctic Ocean Acidification

Description: Report documenting the findings and recommendations of the first comprehensive assessment of Arctic Ocean acidification (AOA) conducted by the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP). It is organized into five major sections: Introduction (background information), Acidification in the Arctic Ocean, Biological responses to ocean acidification, Portential economic and social impacts of ocean acidification on Arctic fisheries, and Conclusions and further work. It also includes references and a glossary.
Date: 2013
Creator: Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme

Navy Frigate (FFG[X]) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides background information and discusses potential issues for Congress regarding the Navy's FFG(X) program, a program to procure a new class of 20 guided-missile frigates (FFGs). The Navy wants to procure the first FFG(X) in FY2020. The Navy's proposed FY2019 budget requests $134.8 million in research and development funding for the program.
Date: July 31, 2018
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald

Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Aegis ballistic missile defense (BMD) program, which is carried out by the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) and the Navy, and gives Navy Aegis cruisers and destroyers a capability for conducting BMD operations. The issue for Congress is whether to approve, reject, or modify Department of Defense (DOD) acquisition strategies and proposed funding levels for the Aegis BMD program. Congress's decisions on the Aegis BMD program could significantly affect U.S. BMD capabilities and funding requirements, and the BMD-related industrial base.
Date: August 1, 2018
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald

Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Navy's Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) program. A total of 32 LCSs have been procured through FY2018. For FY2019, the Navy is requesting the procurement of the 33rd LCS. The LCS program presents several oversight issues for Congress. Congress's decisions on the program will affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the shipbuilding industrial base.
Date: August 16, 2018
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald

North Korea's Nuclear and Ballistic Missile Programs

Description: This report discusses the rapid advancements North Korea has made in its nuclear weapons and ballistic missile programs since 2012. Despite the absence of any missile launch activity or nuclear tests in 2018 to date, previous tests and official North Korean statements suggest that North Korea is striving to build a credible regional nuclear warfighting capability that might evade regional ballistic missile defenses. Such an approach likely reinforces their deterrent and coercive diplomacy strategy--lending more credibility as it demonstrates capability--but it also raises serious questions about crisis stability and escalation control. Congress may further examine these advances' possible effects on U.S. policy.
Date: August 2, 2018
Creator: Hildreth, Steven A. & Nikitin, Mary Beth D.

China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities--Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides background information and issues for Congress on China's naval modernization effort and its implications for U.S. Navy capabilities. The question of how the United States should respond to China's military modernization effort, including its naval modernization effort, is a key issue in U.S. defense planning and budgeting. Many U.S. military programs for countering improving Chinese military forces (particularly its naval forces) fall within the U.S. Navy's budget.
Date: August 1, 2018
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald

U.S.-EU Trade and Economic Issues

Description: This report discusses U.S.-EU trade and economic relations, which currently face heightened tension, particularly due to the Trump Administration's trade policy, which is focusing on unilateral tariff measures under U.S. trade law and taking a critical view of the U.S. role in international economic cooperation. Given U.S.-EU historical joint leadership on global trade and economic issues, these developments could have implications for the rules-based international trading system, a foundation of the global economic order that has contributed to global economic growth and stability in the post-World War II era.
Date: August 1, 2018
Creator: Akhtar, Shayerah Ilias

Abortion, Justice Kennedy, and Judge Kavanaugh

Description: This report addresses the questions that have arisen about the future of the Supreme Court's abortion jurisprudence, after the recent retirement of Justice Kennedy, the last remaining justice from the Casey plurality. The report first reviews the undue burden standard set from the Casey decision and discusses Justice Kennedy's views on the standard in the case law that has developed since Casey. Then, in light of President Trump's July 9, 2018 nomination of Judge Brett Kavanaugh to replace Justice Kennedy, it examines Judge Kavanaugh's only substantive abortion opinion: a dissent in the 2017 case from the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit (D.C. Circuit), Garza v. Hargan. Finally, as lower courts continue to apply the undue burden standard to new abortion regulations, the report concludes by noting some of the abortion cases that the Supreme Court could possibly review in the near future.
Date: August 8, 2018
Creator: Shimabukuro, Jon O.

Iran Sanctions

Description: This report discusses U.S. sanctions against Iran and the 2016 Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) nuclear agreement which led to the lifting of sanctions based on nuclear proliferation in Iran. The bulk of the report outlines the various sanctions against Iran and their current implementation status, international efforts to bring about compliance, and their effects. Recent discussions regarding President's Trump announcement that the U.S. was decertifying the nuclear agreement and the possibility of reinstating certain sanctions are also discussed.
Date: August 7, 2018
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth

Congress's Power over Courts: Jurisdiction Stripping and the Rule of Klein

Description: This report highlights a series of Supreme Court rulings that have examined separation-of-powers-based limitations on the Exceptions Clause, congressional jurisdiction stripping, and the ability of Congress to amend laws with the purpose of directly impacting litigation. The Court's jurisprudence largely begins with the Reconstruction-era case, United States v. Klein, and leads to Patchak v. Zinke, from the October 2017 term.
Date: August 9, 2018
Creator: Herman Peck, Sarah