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2013 Proceedings of the Eight Annual Cyber Security and Information Intelligence Research Workshop

Description: Today's cyberspace is a powerful, virtual environment enabled by our global digital infrastructure that provides a bright landscape for commerce, science, education, communication, and government. The future of America's prosperity hinges on rebalancing cyberspace to mitigate threats and maximize benefits, ensuring security and privacy in a constantly changing adversarial environment. Recognizing this great need, we requested original paper submissions in four general areas derived from the Federal Cybersecurity R&D program thrusts: Designed-In-Security (DIS) Builds the capability to design, develop, and evolve high-assurance, software-intensive systems predictably and reliably while effectively managing risk, cost, schedule, quality, and complexity. Tailored Trustworthy Spaces (TTS) Provides flexible, adaptive, distributed trust environments that can support functional and policy requirements arising from a wide spectrum of activities in the face of an evolving range of threats--recognizing the user's context and evolves as the context evolves. Moving Target (MT) Enables us to create, analyze, evaluate, and deploy mechanisms and strategies that are diverse and that continually shift and change over time to increase complexity and cost for attackers, limit the exposure of vulnerabilities and opportunities for attack, and increase system resiliency. Cyber Economic Incentives (CEI) Develops effective incentives to make cybersecurity ubiquitous, including incentives affecting individuals and organizations.
Date: January 2013
Creator: Sheldon, Frederick T.; Giani, Annarita N.; Krings, Axel & Abercrombie, Robert K.

Analysis and Classification of Mammography Reports Using Maximum Variation Sampling

Description: Currently, no automated means of detecting abnormal mammograms exist. While knowledge discovery capabilities through data mining and data analytics tools are widespread in many industries, the healthcare industry as a whole lags far behind. Providers are only just beginning to recognize the value of data mining as a tool to analyze patient care and clinical outcomes. The research conducted by the authors investigates the use of genetic algorithms for classification of unstructured mammography reports, which can be later correlated to the images for extraction and testing. In mammography, much effort has been expended to characterize findings in the radiology reports. Various computer-assisted technologies have been developed to assist radiologists in detecting cancer; however, the algorithms still lack high degrees of sensitivity and specificity, and must undergo machine learning against a training set with known pathologies in order to further refine the algorithms with higher validity of truth. In a large database of reports and corresponding images, automated tools are needed just to determine which data to include in the training set. Validation of these data is another issue. Radiologists disagree with each other over the characteristics and features of what constitutes a normal mammogram and the terminology to use in the associated radiology report. Abnormal reports follow the lexicon established by the American College of radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (Bi-RADS), but even within these reports, there is a high degree of text variability and interpretation of semantics. The focus has been on classifying abnormal or suspicious reports, but even this process needs further layers of clustering and gradation, so that individual lesions can be more effectively classified. The tools that are needed will not only help further identify problem areas but also support risk assessment and other knowledge discovery applications. The knowledge to be gained by extracting ...
Date: January 1, 2011
Creator: Patton, Robert M.; Beckerman, Barbara G. & Potok, Thomas E.

Analysis of Inter-Vehicle Communication Using Network Simulator

Description: Inter-Vehicle Communication (IVC) could be an important component of next-generation Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). It provides wireless connectivity among traveling vehicles to exchange real-time road condition and traffic information to support safe driving and traffic management. IVC system can be considered as a special form of mobile ad-hoc network (MANET). The MANET and IVC are both hot issues for researches. However, there are few domestic literatures combining the two topics. Most of them are discussed separately. Thus, the studies on architecture and protocols of mobile ad-hoc network have great value for establishing vehicular networks. The simulating method is an available way to assess the performance of networks. This paper has a specific description about the network simulator NS-2 . Under the basic of simulating practices, the design method and procedure for MANET simulation are summarized in detail. In this report, two simple IVC scenarios are implemented on NS-2. The quantitative metrics like network throughput, delay and packet-loss are used to assess the performance of MANET for IVC under different vehicular speeds, transport layer protocols and routing protocols. The results indicate that MANET can be used for IVC well. The different speeds and protocols should be chosen based on specific IVC scenarios.
Date: January 1, 2013
Creator: Lu, Wei

Atomic-Resolution STEM at Low Primary Energies

Description: Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopes (STEMs) can now produce electron probes as small as 1 {angstrom} at 60 keV. This level of performance allows individual light atoms to be imaged in various novel materials including graphene, monolayer boron nitride, and carbon nanotubes. Operation at 60 keV avoids direct knock-on damage in such materials, but some radiation damage often remains, and limits the maximum usable electron dose. Elemental identification by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) is then usefully supplemented by annular dark-field (ADF) imaging, for which the signal is much larger and the spatial resolution significantly better. Because of its strong dependence on the atomic number Z, ADF can be used to identify the chemical type of individual atoms, both heavy and light. We review the instrumental requirements for atomic resolution imaging at 60 keV and lower energies, and we illustrate the kinds of studies that have now become possible by ADF images of graphene, monolayer BN, and single-wall carbon nanotubes, and by ADF images and EEL spectra of carbon nanotubes containing nanopods filled with single atoms of Er. We then discuss likely future developments.
Date: January 1, 2011
Creator: Krivanek, Ondrej L.; Chisholm, Matthew F; Dellby, N. & Murfitt, M. F.

Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

Description: The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and electric vehicles (EVs); a market ...
Date: July 12, 2010
Creator: Doeff, Marca M

Bioananalytics of Human Microdosing

Description: Abstract not provided
Date: May 2, 2011
Creator: Buchholz, B. A.; Sarachine Falso, M. J.; Stewart, B. J.; Haack, K. W.; Ognibene, T. J.; Salazar Quintero, G. A. et al.

Biofuel Economics

Description: As concerns regarding increasing energy prices, global warming and renewable resources continue to grow, so has scientific discovery into agricultural biomass conversion. Plant Biomass Conversion addresses both the development of plant biomass and conversion technology, in addition to issues surrounding biomass conversion, such as the affect on water resources and soil sustainability. This book also offers a brief overview of the current status of the industry and examples of production plants being used in current biomass conversion efforts.
Date: July 15, 2011
Creator: Klein-Marcuschamer, Daniel; Holmes, Brad; Simmons, Blake & Blanch, Harvey

Cases Adjudged in The Supreme Court at October Term, 2006

Description: Volume of the United States Reports containing the final decisions and opinions of the Supreme Court justices regarding cases between June 4 and September 28, 2007. Also includes notes regarding the members of the Supreme Court, orders, and other relevant materials. Index starts on page 1277.
Date: 2011
Creator: Wagner, Frank D.

Cases Adjudged in The Supreme Court at October Term, 2006

Description: Volume of the United States Reports containing the final decisions and opinions of the Supreme Court justices regarding cases between April 17 and May 29, 2007. Also includes notes regarding the members of the Supreme Court, orders, and other relevant materials. Index starts on page 1303.
Date: 2010
Creator: Wagner, Frank D.

Cases Adjudged in The Supreme Court at October Term, 2007

Description: Volume of the United States Reports containing the final decisions and opinions of the Supreme Court justices regarding cases between October 1, 2007, and April 14, 2008. Also includes notes regarding the members of the Supreme Court, orders, and other relevant materials. Index starts on page 1335.
Date: 2011
Creator: Wagner, Frank D.

Ch. 37, Inertial Fusion Energy Technology

Description: Nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, and renewable energy (including biofuels) are the only energy sources capable of satisfying the Earth's need for power for the next century and beyond without the negative environmental impacts of fossil fuels. Substantially increasing the use of nuclear fission and renewable energy now could help reduce dependency on fossil fuels, but nuclear fusion has the potential of becoming the ultimate base-load energy source. Fusion is an attractive fuel source because it is virtually inexhaustible, widely available, and lacks proliferation concerns. It also has a greatly reduced waste impact, and no danger of runaway reactions or meltdowns. The substantial environmental, commercial, and security benefits of fusion continue to motivate the research needed to make fusion power a reality. Replicating the fusion reactions that power the sun and stars to meet Earth's energy needs has been a long-sought scientific and engineering challenge. In fact, this technological challenge is arguably the most difficult ever undertaken. Even after roughly 60 years of worldwide research, much more remains to be learned. the magnitude of the task has caused some to declare that fusion is 20 years away, and always will be. This glib criticism ignores the enormous progress that has occurred during those decades, progress inboth scientific understanding and essential technologies that has enabled experiments producing significant amounts of fusion energy. For example, more than 15 megawatts of fusion power was produced in a pulse of about half a second. Practical fusion power plants will need to produce higher powers averaged over much longer periods of time. In addition, the most efficient experiments to date have required using about 50% more energy than the resulting fusion reaction generated. That is, there was no net energy gain, which is essential if fusion energy is to be a viable source of electricity. The ...
Date: June 9, 2010
Creator: Moses, E.

Challenges in Data Intensive Analysis at Scientific Experimental User Facilities

Description: Today's scientific challenges such as routes to a sustainable energy future, materials by design or biological and chemical environmental remediation methods, are complex problems that require the integration of a wide range of complementary expertise to be addressed successfully. Experimental and computational science research methods can hereby offer fundamental insights for their solution. Experimental facilities in particular can contribute through a large variety of investigative methods, which can span length scales from millions of kilometers (radar) to the sub-nucleus (LHC). These methods are used to probe structure, properties, and function of objects from single elements to whole communities. Hereby direct imaging techniques are a powerful means to develop an atomistic understanding of scientific issues. For example, the identification ofmechanisms associated with chemical, material, and biological transformations requires the direct observation of the reactions to build up an understanding of the atom-by-atom structural and chemical changes. Computational science can aid the planning of such experiments, correlate results, explain or predict the phenomena as they would be observed and thus aid their interpretation. Furthermore computational science can be essential for the investigation of phenomena that are difficult to observe due to their scale, reaction time or extreme conditions. Combining experimental and computational techniques provides scientists with the ability to research structures and processes at various levels of theory, e.g. providing molecular 'movies' of complex reactions that show bond breaking and reforming in natural time scales, along with the intermediate states to understand the mechanisms that govern the chemical transformations. This chapter will discuss the critical data intensive analysis challenges faced by the experimental science community at large scale and laboratory based facilities. The chapter will highlight current solutions and lay out perspectives for the future, such as methods to achieve real time analysis capabilities and the challenges and opportunities of data integration ...
Date: January 1, 2011
Creator: Kleese Van Dam, Kerstin; Li, Dongsheng; Cobb, John W; Green, Mark L; Burley, Catherine L & Miller, Stephen D

CHAPTER 5-RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT

Description: The ore pitchblende was discovered in the 1750's near Joachimstal in what is now the Czech Republic. Used as a colorant in glazes, uranium was identified in 1789 as the active ingredient by chemist Martin Klaproth. In 1896, French physicist Henri Becquerel studied uranium minerals as part of his investigations into the phenomenon of fluorescence. He discovered a strange energy emanating from the material which he dubbed 'rayons uranique.' Unable to explain the origins of this energy, he set the problem aside. About two years later, a young Polish graduate student was looking for a project for her dissertation. Marie Sklodowska Curie, working with her husband Pierre, picked up on Becquerel's work and, in the course of seeking out more information on uranium, discovered two new elements (polonium and radium) which exhibited the same phenomenon, but were even more powerful. The Curies recognized the energy, which they now called 'radioactivity,' as something very new, requiring a new interpretation, new science. This discovery led to what some view as the 'golden age of nuclear science' (1895-1945) when countries throughout Europe devoted large resources to understand the properties and potential of this material. By World War II, the potential to harness this energy for a destructive device had been recognized and by 1939, Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman showed that fission not only released a lot of energy but that it also released additional neutrons which could cause fission in other uranium nuclei leading to a self-sustaining chain reaction and an enormous release of energy. This suggestion was soon confirmed experimentally by other scientists and the race to develop an atomic bomb was on. The rest of the development history which lead to the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 is well chronicled. After World War II, development of more powerful ...
Date: May 5, 2010
Creator: Marra, J.

Commission on Long-Term Care: Report to the Congress

Description: The federal Commission on Long-Term Care. Established as part of the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 and signed into law January 2, 2013, the commission's goal was to advise Congress on how comprehensive, high-quality long-term care can be better provided and financed for the nation's older adults and people with disabilities. The Commission is composed of 15 members of the Senate and House of Representatives and released this final report on September 18, 2013. In this document, the commission charted a vision of a fiscally sustainable and effective service delivery system built around concepts of person-and-family-centered care, with integration of long-term services and supports (LTSS) and medicare for both older and younger people with significant cognitive or physical functional limitations. The report provides a solid foundation from which Congress and federal agencies can initiate a more extensive effort to confront the identified LTSS challenges and to move forward on the development and implementation of a better, more comprehensive LTSS system.
Date: September 30, 2013
Creator: United States Senate Commission on Long-Term Care

Comparative assessment of status and opportunities for carbon Dioxide Capture and storage and Radioactive Waste Disposal In North America

Description: Aside from the target storage regions being underground, geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) and radioactive waste disposal (RWD) share little in common in North America. The large volume of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) needed to be sequestered along with its relatively benign health effects present a sharp contrast to the limited volumes and hazardous nature of high-level radioactive waste (RW). There is well-documented capacity in North America for 100 years or more of sequestration of CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plants. Aside from economics, the challenges of GCS include lack of fully established legal and regulatory framework for ownership of injected CO{sub 2}, the need for an expanded pipeline infrastructure, and public acceptance of the technology. As for RW, the USA had proposed the unsaturated tuffs of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the region's first high-level RWD site before removing it from consideration in early 2009. The Canadian RW program is currently evolving with options that range from geologic disposal to both decentralized and centralized permanent storage in surface facilities. Both the USA and Canada have established legal and regulatory frameworks for RWD. The most challenging technical issue for RWD is the need to predict repository performance on extremely long time scales (10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} years). While attitudes toward nuclear power are rapidly changing as fossil-fuel costs soar and changes in climate occur, public perception remains the most serious challenge to opening RW repositories. Because of the many significant differences between RWD and GCS, there is little that can be shared between them from regulatory, legal, transportation, or economic perspectives. As for public perception, there is currently an opportunity to engage the public on the benefits and risks of both GCS and RWD as they learn more about the urgent energy-climate crisis created by greenhouse gas emissions from current fossil-fuel combustion practices.
Date: July 22, 2011
Creator: Oldenburg, C. & Birkholzer, J.T.

A Compendium of Math and Science Research Funded by NCER and NCSER: 2002-2013

Description: A compendium of math and science educational programs that are further subdivided by content area, grade level, outcomes, and emerging college- and career-readiness standards. The development of all programs is based upon research conducted by the National Center for Education Research (NCER) and the National Center for Speical Education Research (NCSER).
Date: 2016
Creator: Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Hall, Adam; Larson, Meredith; Stapleton, Katina; Chhin, Christina & Ochsendorf, Rob

A Compendium of Social-Behavioral Research Funded by NCER and NCSER: 2002-2013

Description: A compendium of more than 245 projects based on the social-behavioral competencies of preschool, K-12, post-secondary and adult students determined through extensive and varied educational research. The projects include instructional interventions, professional development programs, educational technologies and assessments.
Date: 2016
Creator: Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Hall, Adam; Larson, Meredith; Stapleton, Katina; Doolittle, Emily & Buckley, Jacquelyn

Composite Materials under Extreme Radiation and Temperature Environments of the Next Generation Nuclear Reactors

Description: In the nuclear energy renaissance, driven by fission reactor concepts utilizing very high temperatures and fast neutron spectra, materials with enhanced performance that exceeds are expected to play a central role. With the operating temperatures of the Generation III reactors bringing the classical reactor materials close to their performance limits there is an urgent need to develop and qualify new alloys and composites. Efforts have been focused on the intricate relations and the high demands placed on materials at the anticipated extreme states within the next generation fusion and fission reactors which combine high radiation fluxes, elevated temperatures and aggressive environments. While nuclear reactors have been in operation for several decades, the structural materials associated with the next generation options need to endure much higher temperatures (1200 C), higher neutron doses (tens of displacements per atom, dpa), and extremely corrosive environments, which are beyond the experience on materials accumulated to-date. The most important consideration is the performance and reliability of structural materials for both in-core and out-of-core functions. While there exists a great body of nuclear materials research and operating experience/performance from fission reactors where epithermal and thermal neutrons interact with materials and alter their physio-mechanical properties, a process that is well understood by now, there are no operating or even experimental facilities that will facilitate the extreme conditions of flux and temperature anticipated and thus provide insights into the behaviour of these well understood materials. Materials, however, still need to be developed and their interaction and damage potential or lifetime to be quantified for the next generation nuclear energy. Based on material development advances, composites, and in particular ceramic composites, seem to inherently possess properties suitable for key functions within the operating envelope of both fission and fusion reactors. In advanced fission reactors composite materials are being designed in ...
Date: May 1, 2011
Creator: Simos, N.

Correcting transport errors during advection of aerosol and cloud moment sequences in eulerian models

Description: Moment methods are finding increasing usage for simulations of particle population balance in box models and in more complex flows including two-phase flows. These highly efficient methods have nevertheless had little impact to date for multi-moment representation of aerosols and clouds in atmospheric models. There are evidently two reasons for this: First, atmospheric models, especially if the goal is to simulate climate, tend to be extremely complex and take many man-years to develop. Thus there is considerable inertia to the implementation of novel approaches. Second, and more fundamental, the nonlinear transport algorithms designed to reduce numerical diffusion during advection of various species (tracers) from cell to cell, in the typically coarse grid arrays of these models, can and occasionally do fail to preserve correlations between the moments. Other correlated tracers such as isotopic abundances, composition of aerosol mixtures, hydrometeor phase, etc., are subject to this same fate. In the case of moments, this loss of correlation can and occasionally does give rise to unphysical moment sets. When this happens the simulation can come to a halt. Following a brief description and review of moment methods, the goal of this paper is to present two new approaches that both test moment sequences for validity and correct them when they fail. The new approaches work on individual grid cells without requiring stored information from previous time-steps or neighboring cells.
Date: March 1, 2012
Creator: R., McGraw

Crop Physiology

Description: In this chapter, we review the physiology of switchgrass from seed dormancy till the effects of water and nutrients stress on grown plants. These characteristics are presented and discussed mainly at the canopy and whole-plant level with emphasis on the agro-physiology of the species in view of the possible contribution of crop physiology to agricultural development. Switchgrass is noted for the variable degrees of seed dormancy regulated by endogenous and exogenous factors that determine the successful seedling establishment. Plant growth rates are determined by temperature while the reproductive phase is controlled mainly by photoperiod. There is also evidence that some physiological attributes, such as photosynthesis, transpiration, and water use efficiency differ between tetraploid, hexaploid and octaploid ecotypes. But despite these differences, in general switchgrass combines important attributes of efficient use of nutrients and water with high yields thanks to its ability to acquire resources from extended soil volumes, especially at deep layers. Moreover at canopy level, resources capture and conservation are determined by morpho-physiological characteristics (C{sub 4} photosynthetic pathway, stomatal control of transpiration, high leaf area index, low light extinction coefficient) that enhance radiation use efficiency and reduce carbon losses. However, specific information on switchgrass physiology is still missing, in particular deeper understanding of physiological principles controlling the water and nutrients acquisition mechanisms and allocation under suboptimal growing conditions. The physiology of tillering and root respiration are also factors that need further investigation.
Date: January 1, 2013
Creator: Zegada-Lizarazu, Walter; Wullschleger, Stan D; Nair, S. Surendran & Monti, Andrea