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8(a) Program: The Importance of Effective Fraud Prevention Controls

Description: Testimony issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "This testimony discusses the results of our prior investigation of the Small Business Administration's (SBA) 8(a) Business Development Program. SBA's 8(a) program, named for a section of the Small Business Act, is a development program created to help small, disadvantaged businesses compete in the American economy and access the federal procurement market. To participate in the program, a firm must be certified as meeting several criteria, including: be a small business as defined by SBA; be unconditionally owned and controlled by one or more socially and economically disadvantaged individuals who are of good character and citizens of the United States; and show potential for success. Upon certification, firms can obtain federal contracts without competing fully and openly for the work. For example, agencies are permitted to enter into sole-source contracts after soliciting and negotiating with only one 8(a) company. They also can participate in restricted competitions for federal contracts, known as set-asides, open to only 8(a) companies. In March 2010, GAO issued two companion reports on the 8(a) program, one focused on internal control procedures and processes that SBA has implemented to ensure that only eligible firms participate in the program and one focused on fraud prevention. This testimony is based on the latter report, and addresses three issues: (1) whether ineligible firms were participating in the 8(a) program, (2) the results of our proactive testing of the application process, and (3) strengths and weaknesses in SBA's fraud prevention system."
Date: March 3, 2011
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.

401(k) Plans: Issues Involving Securities Lending in Plan Investments

Description: Testimony issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Securities lending can be a relatively straightforward way for plan sponsors and participants to increase their return on 401(k) investments. However, securities lending can also present a number of challenges to plan participants and plan sponsors. GAO was asked to explain how securities lending with cash collateral reinvestment works in relation to 401(k) plan investments, who bears the risks, and what are some of the challenges plan participants and plan sponsors face in understanding securities lending with cash collateral reinvestment. In this testimony, GAO discusses its recent work regarding securities lending with cash collateral reinvestment. GAO is making no new recommendations in this statement but continues to believe that the Department of Labor (Labor) can take action to help plan sponsors of 401(k) plans and plan participants to understand the role, risk, and benefits of securities lending with cash collateral reinvestment in relation to 401(k) plan investments. Specifically, GAO recommended that Labor provide more guidance to plan sponsors about fees and returns when plan assets are utilized in securities lending with cash collateral reinvestment, amend its participant disclosure regulation to include provisions specific to securities lending with cash collateral reinvestment information, and make cash collateral reinvestment a prohibited transaction unless the gains and losses for participants are more symmetrical."
Date: March 16, 2011
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.

1981-2010 U. S. Hourly Normals

Description: This is the hourly normals meteorological data.
Date: 2012
Creator: Applequest, Scott; Arguez, Anthoney; Durre, Imke; Squares, Michael F. & Yin, Xungang

2010-2012 Hestec Bowl

Description: This is the Financial Status Report for this project for the period from May 1, 2012 to September 30, 2012.
Date: October 29, 2012
Creator: De La Rosa Ortiz, Stacey

2010 Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Science Team Meeting Summary

Description: This document contains the summaries of papers presented in poster format at the March 2010 Atmospheric System Research Science Team Meeting held in Bethesda, Maryland. More than 260 posters were presented during the Science Team Meeting. Posters were sorted into the following subject areas: aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions, aerosol properties, atmospheric state and surface, cloud properties, field campaigns, infrastructure and outreach, instruments, modeling, and radiation. To put these posters in context, the status of ASR at the time of the meeting is provided here.
Date: May 4, 2011
Creator: Dupont, D. L.

2010 Census: Cooperation with Enumerators Is Critical to a Successful Headcount

Description: Testimony issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "On May 1, 2010, the U.S. Census Bureau (Bureau) will launch its massive follow-up effort with the roughly 48 million households that did not mail back their census forms (130 million forms were delivered). As part of this nonresponse follow-up effort, over 600,000 enumerators will fan out across the country, personally contacting nonresponding housing units as many as six times in an effort to ensure everyone is counted. As requested, GAO's testimony in Los Angeles (L.A.) focuses on the importance of census participation, paying particular attention to (1) the Bureau's preparedness for nonresponse follow-up in terms of workload and staffing levels, (2) why it will be critical for Angelenos and others across the country to cooperate with enumerators during nonresponse follow-up, and (3) key steps the Bureau needs to take moving forward to ensure nonresponse follow-up is timely and accurate. The testimony is based on previously issued and ongoing GAO work."
Date: April 30, 2010
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.

2010 Census: Data Collection Is Under Way, but Reliability of Key Information Technology Systems Remains a Risk

Description: Testimony issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "In March 2008, GAO designated the 2010 Census a high-risk area in part because of information technology (IT) shortcomings and uncertainty over the ultimate cost of the census, now estimated at around $15 billion. The U.S. Census Bureau (Bureau) has since made improvements to various IT systems and taken other steps to mitigate the risks to a successful census. However, last year, GAO noted that a number of challenges and uncertainties remained, and much work remained to be completed under very tight time frames. As requested, this testimony provides an update on the Bureau's readiness for an effective headcount, covering (1) the reliability of key IT systems; (2) a broad range of activities critical to an effective headcount, some of which were problematic in either earlier 2010 operations or in the 2000 Census, and (3) the quality of the Bureau's cost estimates. The testimony is based on previously issued and ongoing GAO work."
Date: March 25, 2010
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.

2010 Census: Key Enumeration Activities Are Moving Forward, but Information Technology Systems Remain a Concern

Description: Testimony issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "In March 2008, GAO designated the 2010 Census a high-risk area in part because of information technology (IT) shortcomings and uncertainty over the ultimate cost of the census, now estimated at around $15 billion. The U.S. Census Bureau (Bureau) has since made improvements to various IT systems and taken other steps to mitigate the risks of a successful census. However, last year, GAO noted that a number of challenges and uncertainties remained, and much work remained to be completed under very tight time frames. As requested, this testimony provides an update on the Bureau's readiness for an effective headcount, covering (1) the status of key IT systems; (2) steps the Bureau has taken to revise its cost estimates; and (3) the extent to which critical enumeration activities, particularly those aimed at hard-to-count populations, are on track. The testimony is based on previously issued and ongoing GAO work."
Date: February 23, 2010
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.

2010 Census: Operational Changes Made for 2010 Position the U.S. Census Bureau to More Accurately Classify and Identify Group Quarters

Description: Testimony issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The U.S. Census Bureau (Bureau) is tasked with conducting an accurate count of people living in dwellings known as group quarters as part of the 2010 Census. Group quarters consist of college dormitories, prisons, nursing homes, and other facilities typically owned or managed by an entity providing housing, services, or both for the residents. During the 2000 Census, for a variety of reasons, group quarters were sometimes counted more than once, missed, or included in the wrong location. As requested, this testimony will focus on (1) the extent to which the Bureau has strengthened its procedures for counting group quarters compared to the 2000 Census, and (2) particular challenges and opportunities for an accurate group quarters count in Brooklyn. The testimony is based on previously issued and ongoing GAO work in New York and elsewhere."
Date: February 22, 2010
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.

2010 Census: Preliminary Lessons Learned Highlight the Need for Fundamental Reforms

Description: Testimony issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "GAO added the 2010 Census to its list of high-risk programs in 2008 in part because of (1) long-standing weaknesses in the Census Bureau's (Bureau) information technology (IT) acquisition and contract management function, (2) difficulties in developing reliable life-cycle cost estimates, and (3) key operations that were not tested under operational conditions. These issues jeopardized the Bureau's readiness for the count. Moreover, societal trends, such as concerns over privacy, have made a cost-effective census an increasingly difficult challenge. At about $13 billion, 2010 was the costliest U.S. Census in history. As requested, this testimony focuses on lessons learned from the 2010 Census, and initiatives that show promise for producing a more cost-effective population count in 2020. This testimony is based on completed and ongoing work, including an analysis of Bureau documents, interviews with Bureau officials, and field observations of census operations in urban and rural locations across the country."
Date: April 6, 2011
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.

2010 Resubmission of the U.S.-Russia Nuclear Cooperation Agreement: Further Actions Needed by State and Other Agencies to Improve the Review of the Classified Nuclear Proliferation Assessment

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "On May 10, 2010, the President resubmitted to Congress a proposed Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Russian Federation for Cooperation in the Field of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy (henceforth referred to as the U.S.-Russia nuclear cooperation agreement or the agreement) in accordance with the review requirements established under section 123 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), as amended. The proposed agreement with Russia would, among other things, establish the legal basis for the Department of Energy (DOE) to work with Russia on large-scale development of nuclear energy. The United States has 25 agreements in force for peaceful nuclear cooperation with foreign countries, the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and Taiwan. Such agreements provide the framework and authorization for civilian nuclear cooperation but do not guarantee that cooperation will take place or that nuclear material or technology transfers will occur. On May 13, 2008, President Bush originally submitted the agreement to Congress with the statutorily required presidential determination that this agreement would promote, and would not constitute an unreasonable risk to, the common defense and security. President Bush determined on September 8, 2008 that his May 13, 2008 determination was no longer effective--essentially ending further congressional consideration of the agreement at that time--in response to Russian military actions against Georgia. In 2010, President Obama concluded that the situation in Georgia no longer prevented proceeding with the agreement and that the level and scope of U.S.-Russia cooperation on Iran justified resubmitting the agreement. Section 123 of the AEA identifies the key U.S. government agencies and procedures involved in negotiating, proposing, and entering into nuclear cooperation agreements. The Department of State (State) ...
Date: September 21, 2010
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.

2011 Government Auditing Standards Listing of Technical Changes

Description: Other written product issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "This document is a listing of technical changes related to the 2011 Government Auditing Standards."
Date: December 23, 2011
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.

2011 Government Auditing Standards Summary of Major Changes

Description: Other written product issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "This document summarizes major changes in the 2011 Government Auditing Standards."
Date: December 23, 2011
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.

2012 Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan

Description: This is the 2012 strategic sustainability performance plan in order to reduce the reliance on nonrenewable energy, promote water conservation, waste management strategies, and other issues as well.
Date: 2012
Creator: United States. Department of Agriculture.

2015 CASTNET Annual Network Plan

Description: This is the 2015 Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET) measurements. These sites managed measure acidic pollutants and ambient ozone concentrations in rural settings.
Date: June 30, 2015
Creator: United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Atmospheric Programs. Clean Air Markets Division.

2016 USAID Staffing Report to Congress

Description: The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is pleased to provide the following report pursuant to House Report 114-154 accompanying H.R. 2772, which details “the number of people employed by USAID, the category of employment (direct hire, personal service contractor, Participating Agency Service Agreement, and similar categories), the veteran status of direct hires employed by USAID, the office or overseas post to which they are assigned or detailed, the appropriation account used to fund the employees, specific legislative authority needed to hire the employees, and, if hired by another Federal agency, the additional administrative expenses charged by that agency,” and, “staffing levels and position titles for all Washington-based and overseas employees by bureau, office or other unit.” USAID utilizes multiple hiring mechanisms to accomplish its work and deliver on its mission to end extreme poverty. Congress has provided authorities to USAID that allow for multiple employment arrangements. This allows the Agency to provide effective project design, implementation, and oversight of USAID-managed and co-managed programs. The nature of the work is usually the primary driver in determining the most appropriate type of employment mechanism. In response to the reporting requirement, USAID provides the following information in five sections: Detail of Washington-based positions, including a table for Institutional Contractors, by operating unit Detail of Overseas Post positions by operating unit Direct hire employee veteran status information Legislative authority needed to hire employees information Administrative Expenses Charged by Participating Agency Service Agreements and other comparable mechanisms
Date: June 2016
Creator: United States, Agency for International Development.

2020 Census: Progress Report on the Census Bureau's Efforts to Contain Enumeration Costs

Description: Testimony issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "In preparing for the 2020 Census, the U.S. Census Bureau (Bureau) has launched several initiatives aimed at organizational transformation, some of which show particular promise. For example, the Bureau is attempting to develop Bureau-wide, or "enterprise," standards, guidance, or tools in areas such as risk management and information technology (IT) investment management to reduce duplicative efforts across the Bureau. Although the Bureau has made progress in these and other areas, if the Bureau is to transform itself to better control costs and deliver an accurate national headcount in 2020, several areas will require continued oversight: cost estimation, integrated long-term planning, and stakeholder involvement. For example, while the Bureau has made progress with long-term planning by implementing some elements of GAO's recommendation that it develop a road map for 2020 planning, it still needs to pull together remaining planning elements, such as milestones for decisions and estimates of cost, into its roadmap."
Date: September 11, 2013
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.

2020 Census: Sustaining Current Reform Efforts Will Be Key to a More Cost-Effective Enumeration

Description: Testimony issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Overall, the U.S. Census Bureau’s (Bureau) planning efforts for 2020 are off to a good start, as the Bureau made noteworthy progress within each of the four lessons learned from the 2010 Census. Still, additional steps will be needed within each of the lessons learned in order to sustain those reforms."
Date: July 18, 2012
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.

36th Annual International Conference on Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves

Description: The Major Topic List of the 2011 conference featured a category entitled “IR, millimeter-wave, and THz spectroscopy,” another entitled “Gyro- Oscillators and Amplifiers, Plasma Diagnostics,” and a third called “Free Electron Lasers and Synchrotron Radiation.” Topical areas of interest to meeting participants include millimeter-wave electronics, high-power sources, high-frequency communications systems, and terahertz sensing and imaging, all of which are prominent in the research portfolios of the DOE. The development and study of new materials, components, and systems for use in the IR, THz, and MMW regions of the spectrum are of significant interest as well. a series of technical sessions were organized on the following topics:  terahertz metamaterials and plasmonics;  imaging techniques and applications;  graphene spectroscopy;  waveguide concepts;  gyrotron science and technology;  ultrafast terahertz measurements; and  quantum cascade lasers.
Date: January 1, 2011
Creator: Mittleman, Daniel M.

L.A. Courthouse: Initial Project Justification Is Outdated and Flawed

Description: Testimony issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Because of delays and cost increases, the General Services Administration (GSA) canceled the authorized 41-courtroom Los Angeles (L.A.), California, courthouse project in 2006. Since then, GSA and the judiciary have been slow to agree upon how to proceed with the project, for which about $366 million in appropriated funds remains available. In 2012, with the judiciary’s support, GSA issued a request for proposal for contractors to design and build a 24-courtoom, 32-chamber courthouse, which would be used in conjunction with 25 existing courtrooms in the Roybal Courthouse. However, this new plan will not address one of the principal justifications for the original project—that the L.A. Court be centralized at one site. Instead, it would increase the distance between the Roybal Courthouse and the planned second court location and the distance to the federal detention center from which prisoners must be transported."
Date: August 17, 2012
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.

Abandoned Mines: Information on the Number of Hardrock Mines, Cost of Cleanup, and Value of Financial Assurances

Description: Testimony issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The General Mining Act of 1872 helped foster the development of the West by giving individuals exclusive rights to mine gold, silver, copper, and other hardrock minerals on federal land. However, miners often abandoned mines, leaving behind structures, safety hazards, and contaminated land and water. Four federal agencies--the Department of the Interior's Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), the Department of Agriculture's Forest Service, and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)--fund the cleanup of some of these hardrock mine sites. From 2005 through 2009, GAO issued a number of reports and testimonies on various issues related to abandoned and current hardrock mining operations. This testimony summarizes some of the key findings of these reports and testimonies focusing on the (1) number of abandoned hardrock mines, (2) availability of information collected by federal agencies on general mining activities, (3) amount of funding spent by federal agencies on cleanup of abandoned mines, and (4) value of financial assurances for mining operations on federal land managed by BLM. In 2005, GAO recommended that BLM strengthen the management of its financial assurances, which BLM generally implemented. BLM also agreed to take steps to address additional concerns raised by GAO in 2008."
Date: July 14, 2011
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.