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0.5 μm E/D AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure field effect transistor technology with DFET threshold adjust implant

Description: A doped-channel heterostructure field effect transistor (H-FET) technology has been developed with self-aligned refractory gate processing and using both enhancement- and depletion-mode transistors. D-HFET devices are obtained with a threshold voltage adjust implant into material designed for E-HFET operation. Both E- and D-HFETs utilize W/WSi bilayer gates, sidewall spacers, and rapid thermal annealing for controlling short channel effects. The 0.5 {mu}m E- HFETs (D-HFETs) have been demonstrated with transconductance of 425 mS/mm (265-310 mS/mm) and f{sub t} of 45-50 GHz. Ring oscillator gate delays of 19 ps with a power of 0.6 mW have been demonstrated using direct coupled FET logic. These results are comparable to previous doped-channel HFET devices and circuits fabricated by selective reactive ion etching rather than ion implantation for threshold voltage adjustment.
Date: April 1997
Creator: Baca, A. G.; Sherwin, M. E.; Zolper, J. C.; Shul, R. J.; Briggs, R. D.; Heise, J. A. et al.

1.8.2.1.2 Site system engineering implementation Fiscal Year 1998 multi-year work plan

Description: Manage the Site Systems Engineering process to provide a traceable, integrated, requirements-driven, and technically defensible baseline., Through the Site Integration Group, Systems Engineering ensures integration of technical activities across all site projects. Systems Engineering`s primary interfaces are with the Project Direction Office and with the projects, as well as with the Planning organization.
Date: October 3, 1997
Creator: Ferguson, J. E.

A 1-kW power demonstration from the advanced free electron laser

Description: This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The main objective of this project was to engineer and procure an electron beamline compatible with the operation of a 1-kW free-electron laser (FEL). Another major task is the physics design of the electron beam line from the end of the wiggler to the electron beam dump. This task is especially difficult because electron beam is expected to have 20 kW of average power and to simultaneously have a 25% energy spread. The project goals were accomplished. The high-power electron design was completed. All of the hardware necessary for high-power operation was designed and procured.
Date: August 1997
Creator: Sheffield, R. L.; Conner, C. A. & Fortgang, C. M.

A-01 metals in stormwater runoff evaluation

Description: As a part of the A-01 investigation required by the NPDES permit, an investigation was performed to ascertain the concentrations of metals specifically copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in stormwater being discharged through the outfall. This information would indicate whether all water being discharged would have to be treated or if only a portion of the discharged stormwater would have to be treated. A study was designed to accomplish this. The first goal was to determine if the metal concentrations increased, decreased, or remained the same as flow increased during a rain event. The second goal was to determine if the concentrations in the storm water were due to dissolved. The third goal was to obtain background data to ascertain if effluent credits could be gained due to naturally occurring metals.Samples from this study were analyzed and indicate that the copper and lead values increase as the flow increases while the zinc values remain essentially the same regardless of the flow rate. Analyses of samples for total metals, dissolved metals, TSS, and metals in solids was complicated because in all cases metals contamination was found in the filters themselves. Some conclusions can be derived if this problem is taken into account when analyzing the data. Copper concentrations in the total and dissolved fractions as well as the TSS concentrations followed the hydrograph at this outfall but the copper in solids concentration appeared to peak in the first flush and decline to nondetectable rapidly over the course of the storm event. Lead was present in the total analysis but not present in the dissolved fraction or the solids fraction of the samples. The data for zinc was interesting in that the dissolved fractions were higher than the total fraction in three out of four samples. This is probably due ...
Date: November 6, 1997
Creator: Eldridge, L. L.

1 MeV electron irradiation of solid Xe nanoclusters in Al : an in-situ HRTEM study.

Description: Thin film samples of a simple embedded nanocluster system consisting of solid Xe precipitates in Al have been subjected to 1 MeV electron irradiation in a high-voltage electron microscope. High-resolution images have been recorded on videotape in order to monitor the changes to the system resulting from the passage of electrons through the film. Inspection of the video recordings (in some cases frame-by-frame) reveals that complex, rapid processes occur under the electron beam. These include, movement of small clusters, coalescence of neighboring clusters, shape changes, the apparent melting and resolidification of the Xe, and the creation and annealing of extended defects within the Xe lattice. A tentative interpretation of some of the observations is presented in terms of the electron-induced displacement processes at the surface of the clusters.
Date: December 5, 1997
Creator: Donnelly, S. E.; Furuya, K.; Song, M.; Birtcher, R. C. & Allen, C. W.

1 nA beam position monitoring system

Description: A system has been developed at Jefferson Lab for measuring transverse position of very low current beams delivered to the Experimental Hall B of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). At the heart of the system is a position sensitive cavity operating at 1497 MHz. The cavity utilizes a unique design which achieves a high sensitivity to beam position at a relatively low cavity Q. The cavity output RF signal is processed using a down-converter and a commercial lock-in amplifier operating at 100 kHz. The system interfaces with a VME based EPICS control system using the IEEE, 488 bus. The main features of the system are simple and robust design, and wide dynamic range capable of handling beam currents from 1 nA to 1000 nA with an expected resolution better than 100 {mu}m. This paper outlines the design of the system.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Ursic, R.; Flood, R. & Piller, C.

A 1- to 5-MW, RCS-based, short-pulse spallation neutron source

Description: Two accelerator configurations, the linac/compressor ring scheme and the linac/RCS scheme, are commonly used to provide the proton beam power for a short-pulse spallation neutron source. In one configuration, a full-power linac provides the beam power and a compressor ring shortens the pulse length from 1-ms down to 1 {micro}s. In the other, rapid cycling synchrotrons (RCSs) provide the beam power and also shorten the pulse length. A feasibility study of a staged approach to a 5-MW proton source utilizing RCS technology, allowing intermediate operation at 1 MW, was performed at ANL and is presented in this paper. This study is complementary to a study in progress at ORNL based on a linac and an accumulator ring. The 1-MW facility consists of a 400-MeV injector linac that delivers 0.5-mA time-averaged current, a synchrotron that accelerates the beam to 2 GeV at a 30-Hz rate, and two neutron-generating target stations. In the second phase, the 2-GeV beam is accelerated to 10 GeV by a larger RCS, increasing the facility beam power to 5 MW.
Date: June 1997
Creator: Cho, Y.; Chae, Y.-C. & Crosbie, E.

1-watt composite-slab Er:YAG laser. Revision 1

Description: A diode-side-pumped discrete-optic Er{sup 3+} :YAG laser employs pump-light coupling through a sapphire plate diffusion-bonded to the laser slab, removing heat directly at the pump face of the slab instead of requiring conduction through to its far side. This lowers the temperature in the gain region and gives reduced thermal lensing, which produces exceptional beam quality (M{sup 2} {approx} 1.3) at output powers {approx} 0.3 Watt. Powers above 1 Watt have been demonstrated with peak slope efficiencies {approx}20%. The novel architecture is also applicable to other side-pumped lasers.
Date: February 13, 1997
Creator: Page, R. H.; Bartels, R. A.; Beach, R. J.; Sutton, S. B.; Furu, L. H. & LaSala, J. E.

A 2.14 ms candidate optical pulsar in SN1987A: Ten years after

Description: We have monitored Supernova 1987A in optical/near-infrared bands from a few weeks following its birth until the present time in order to search for a pulsar remnant. We have found an apparent pattern of emission near the frequency of 467.5 Hz - a 2.14 ms pulsar candidate, first detected in data taken on the remnant at the Las Campanas Observatory (LCO) 2.5-m Dupont telescope during 14-16 Feb. 1992 UT. We detected further signals near the 2.14 ms period on numerous occasions over the next four years in data taken with a variety of telescopes, data systems and detectors, at a number of ground- and space-based observatories. The sequence of detections of this signal from Feb. `92 through August `93, prior to its apparent subsequent fading, is highly improbable (< 10{sup -10} for any noise source). We also find evidence for modulation of the 2.14 ms period with a {approx}1,000 s period which, when taken with the high spindown of the source (2-3 x 10{sup -10} Hz/s), is consistent with precession and spindown via gravitational radiation of a neutron star with a non- axisymmetric oblateness of {approx}10{sup -6}, and an implied gravitational luminosity exceeding that of the Crab Nebula pulsar by an order of magnitude.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Middleditch, J.; Kristian, J.A.; Kunkel, W.E.; Hill, K.M. & Watson, R.D.

A 3-axis force balanced accelerometer using a single proof-mass

Description: This paper presents a new method for wideband force balancing a proof-mass in multiple axes simultaneously. Capacitive position sense and force feedback are accomplished using the same air-gap capacitors through time multiplexing. Proof of concept is experimentally demonstrated with a single-mass monolithic surface micromachined 3-axis accelerometer.
Date: April 1997
Creator: Lemkin, M.A.; Boser, B.E.; Auslander, D. & Smith, J.

3-d finite element model development for biomechanics: a software demonstration

Description: Finite element analysis is becoming an increasingly important part of biomechanics and orthopedic research, as computational resources become more powerful, and data handling algorithms become more sophisticated. Until recently, tools with sufficient power did not exist or were not accessible to adequately model complicated, three-dimensional, nonlinear biomechanical systems. In the past, finite element analyses in biomechanics have often been limited to two-dimensional approaches, linear analyses, or simulations of single tissue types. Today, we have the resources to model fully three-dimensional, nonlinear, multi-tissue, and even multi-joint systems. The authors will present the process of developing these kinds of finite element models, using human hand and knee examples, and will demonstrate their software tools.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Hollerbach, K.; Hollister, A.M. & Ashby, E.

A 3-d modular gripper design tool

Description: Modular fixturing kits are precisely machined sets of components used for flexible, short-turnaround construction of fixtures for a variety of manufacturing purposes. A modular vise is a parallel-jaw vise, where each jaw is a modular fixture plate with a regular grid of precisely positioned holes. A modular vise can be used to locate and hold parts for machining, assembly, and inspection tasks. To fixture a part, one places pins in some of the holes so that when the vise is closed, the part is reliably located and completely constrained. The modular vise concept can be adapted easily to the design of modular parallel-jaw grippers for robots. By attaching a grid plate to each jaw of a parallel-jaw gripper, the authors gain the ability to easily construct high-quality grasps for a wide variety of parts from a standard set of hardware. Wallack and Canny developed a previous algorithm for planning planar grasp configurations for the modular vise. In this paper, the authors expand this work to produce a 3-d fixture/gripper design tool. They describe several analyses added to the planar algorithm to improve its utility, including a three-dimensional grasp quality metric based on geometric and force information, three-dimensional geometric loading analysis, and inter-gripper interference analysis to determine the compatibility of multiple grasps for handing the part from one gripper to another. Finally, the authors describe two applications which combine the utility of modular vise-style grasping with inter-gripper interference: The first is the design of a flexible part-handling subsystem for a part cleaning workcell under development at Sandia National Laboratories; the second is the automatic design of grippers that support the assembly of multiple products on a single assembly line.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Brown, R.G. & Brost, R.C.

A 3-d modular gripper design tool

Description: Modular fixturing kits are sets of components used for flexible, rapid construction of fixtures. A modular vise is a parallel-jaw vise, each jaw of which is a modular fixture plate with a regular grid of precisely positioned holes. To fixture a part, one places pins in some of the holes so that when the vise is closed, the part is reliably located and completely constrained. The modular vise concept can be adapted easily to the design of modular parallel-jaw grippers for robots. By attaching a grid-plate to each jaw of a parallel-jaw gripper, one gains the ability to easily construct high-quality grasps for a wide variety of parts from a standard set of hardware. Wallack and Canny developed an algorithm for planning planar grasp configurations for the modular vise. In this paper, the authors expand this work to produce a 3-d fixture/gripper design tool. They describe several analyses they have added to the planar algorithm, including a 3-d grasp quality metric based on force information, 3-d geometric loading analysis, and inter-gripper interference analysis. Finally, the authors describe two applications of their code. One of these is an internal application at Sandia, while the other shows a potential use of the code for designing part of an agile assembly line.
Date: February 1, 1997
Creator: Brown, R.G. & Brost, R.C.

3-D Spectral Induced Polarization (IP) Imaging: Non-Invasive Characterization Of Contaminant Plumes

Description: The overall objective of this project is to develop the scientific basis for characterizing contaminant plumes in the earth's subsurface using field measurements of induced polarization (IP) effects. Three specific objectives towards this end are 1. 2. 3. Understanding IP at the laboratory level through measurements of complex resistivity as a function of frequency in rock and soil samples with varying pore geometries, pore fluid conductivities and saturations, and contaminant chemistries and concentrations. Developing effective data acquisition techniques for measuring the critical IP responses (time domain or frequency domain) in the field. Developing modeling and inversion algorithms that permit the interpretation of field IP data in terms of subsurface geology and contaminant plume properties.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Morgan, Dale F.; Lesmes, David P.; Rodi, William; Shi, Weiqun; Frye, Kevin, M. & Sturrock, John

3-D spectral IP imaging: Non-invasive characterization of contaminant plumes. Annual progress report, September 15, 1996--September 14, 1997

Description: 'The objective of this project is to develop the scientific basis for characterizing contaminant plumes in the earth''s subsurface using field measurements of induced polarization (IP) effects. The first-year accomplishments are (1) laboratory experiments on fluid-saturated sandstones quantifying the dependence of spectral IP responses on solution chemistry and rock micro-geometry; (2) library research on the current understanding of electromagnetic coupling effects on IP data acquired in the field: and (3) development of prototype forward modeling and inversion algorithms for interpreting IP data in terms of 3-D models of complex resistivity.'
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Frye, K.M.; Lesmes, D.P.; Morgan, F.D.; Rodi, W.; Shi, W. & Sturrock, J.

3-D vertical seismic profiling at LLNL Site 300

Description: The initial goal of the 3-D Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) work at LLNL was to characterize seismic wave velocities and frequencies below the vadose zone to design the acquisition geometry for a 3-D shallow surface seismic reflection survey. VSPs are also used routinely to provide a link between surface seismic data and well logs. However, a test 2-D seismic line recorded at LLNL in the Spring of 1994 indicated that obtaining high quality reflection images below the vadose zone, yet shallower that 50 m, would require an expensive, very finely sampled survey ({lt} 1 m receiver spacing). Extensive image processing of the LLNL 2-D test line indicated that the only reliable reflection was from the top of the water table. Surprisingly, these results were very different than recent 3-D seismic work recorded at other sites, where high quality, high frequency surface (up to 300 Hz) reflection images were obtained as shallow as 20m. We believe that the differences are primarily due to the comparatively deep vadose zone at LLNL (15 to 30m) as compared to 0-5m at other sites. The thick vadose zone attenuates the reflection signals, particularly at the high frequencies (above 100 @). In addition, the vadose zone at LLNL creates a seismogram in which surface-propagating noise overlaps with the reflection signals for reflections above 50 m. By contrast, when the vadose zone is not thick, high frequencies can propagate and noise will not overlap with reflections as severely. Based on the results from the 2-D seismic line and the encouraging results from a VSP run concurrent with the 2-D seismic experiment, we modified the objectives of the research and expanded the scope of the VSP imaging at LLNL. We conducted two 3-D multi-offset VSP experiments at LLNL in the Summer and Fall of 1994. These VSP experiments ...
Date: January 29, 1997
Creator: Bainer, R.; Rector, J. & Milligan, P.

A 3-dimensional ray-trace model for predicting the performance of flashlamp-pumped laser amplifiers

Description: We have developed a fully three-dimensional model for the performance of flashlamp pumped laser amplifiers. The model uses a reverse ray-trace technique to calculate the pumping of the laser glass by the flashlamp radiation. We have discovered several different methods by which we can speed up the calculation of the gain profile in a amplifier. The model predicts the energy-storage performance of the Beamlet amplifiers to better than 5%. This model will be used in the optimization of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) amplifier design.
Date: February 13, 1997
Creator: Jancaitis, K.S.; Haney, S.W.; Munro, D.H.; Le Touze, G. & Cabourdin, O.

4.5 Meter high level waste canister study

Description: The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Storage and Disposal Project has established the Immobilized High-Level Waste (IBLW) Storage Sub-Project to provide the capability to store Phase I and II BLW products generated by private vendors. A design/construction project, Project W-464, was established under the Sub-Project to provide the Phase I capability. Project W-464 will retrofit the Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB) to accommodate the Phase I I-ILW products. Project W-464 conceptual design is currently being performed to interim store 3.0 m-long BLW stainless steel canisters with a 0.61 in diameter, DOE is considering using a 4.5 in canister of the same diameter to reduce permanent disposal costs. This study was performed to assess the impact of replacing the 3.0 in canister with the 4.5 in canister. The summary cost and schedule impacts are described.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Calmus, R.B., Westinghouse Hanford, Richland, WA

4. International reservoir characterization technical conference

Description: This volume contains the Proceedings of the Fourth International Reservoir Characterization Technical Conference held March 2-4, 1997 in Houston, Texas. The theme for the conference was Advances in Reservoir Characterization for Effective Reservoir Management. On March 2, 1997, the DOE Class Workshop kicked off with tutorials by Dr. Steve Begg (BP Exploration) and Dr. Ganesh Thakur (Chevron). Tutorial presentations are not included in these Proceedings but may be available from the authors. The conference consisted of the following topics: data acquisition; reservoir modeling; scaling reservoir properties; and managing uncertainty. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.
Date: April 1997

5. annual clean coal technology conference: powering the next millennium. Volume 2

Description: The Fifth Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference focuses on presenting strategies and approaches that will enable clean coal technologies to resolve the competing, interrelated demands for power, economic viability, and environmental constraints associated with the use of coal in the post-2000 era. The program addresses the dynamic changes that will result from utility competition and industry restructuring, and to the evolution of markets abroad. Current projections for electricity highlight the preferential role that electric power will have in accomplishing the long-range goals of most nations. Increase demands can be met by utilizing coal in technologies that achieve environmental goals while keeping the cost- per-unit of energy competitive. Results from projects in the DOE Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program confirm that technology is the pathway to achieving these goals. The industry/government partnership, cemented over the past 10 years, is focused on moving the clean coal technologies into the domestic and international marketplaces. The Fifth Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference provides a forum to discuss these benchmark issues and the essential role and need for these technologies in the post-2000 era. This volume contains technical papers on: advanced coal process systems; advanced industrial systems; advanced cleanup systems; and advanced power generation systems. In addition, there are poster session abstracts. Selected papers from this proceedings have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.
Date: June 1, 1997

5 MeV Mott Polarimeter Development at Jefferson Lab

Description: Low energy (E{sub k}=100 keV) Mott scattering polarimeters are ill- suited to support operations foreseen for the polarized electron injector at Jefferson Lab. One solution is to measure the polarization at 5 MeV where multiple and plural scattering are unimportant and precision beam monitoring is straightforward. The higher injector beam current offsets the lower cross-sections. Recent improvements in the CEBAF injector polarimeter scattering chamber have improved signal to noise.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Price, J. S.; Sinclair, C. K.; Cardman, L. S.; Haanskneccht, J.; Mack, D. J.; Piot, P. et al.

5 MeV Mott polarimeter for rapid precise electron beam polarization measurements

Description: Low energy (E{sub k} = 100 keV) Mott scattering polarimeters are ill-suited to support operations foreseen for the polarized electron injector at Jefferson Lab. One solution is to measure the polarization at 5 MeV where multiple and plural scattering are unimportant and precision beam monitoring is straightforward. The higher injector beam current offsets the lower cross-sections; measured rates scale to 1 kHz/{mu}A with a 1 {mu}m thick gold target foil.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Price, J.S.; Poelker, B.M. & Sinclair, C.K.

A 6.7 MeV cw RFQ linac

Description: A 6.7-MeV 350 MHz, cw Radio Frequency Quadrupole proton linac has been designed and is being fabricated for the Accelerator Production of Tritium Project at Los Alamos. This eight-meter long structure consists of four resonantly-coupled segments and is being fabricated using hydrogen furnace brazing as a joining technology. Details of the design and status of fabrication are reported.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Schrage, D.; Young, L.; Clark, W.; Davis, T.; Martinez, F.; Naranjo, A. et al.