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UPDATE: nuclear power program information and data, July-September 1981

Description: UPDATE is published by the Office of Coordination and Special Projects, Office of Nuclear Reactor Programs, to provide a quick reference source on the current status of nuclear powerplant construction and operation in the United States and for information on the fuel cycle, economics, and performance of nuclear generating units. Similar information on other means of electric generation as related to nuclear power is included when appropriate. The subject matter of the reports and analyses presented in UPDATE will vary from issue to issue, reflecting changes in foci of interest and new developments in the field of commercial nuclear power generation. UPDATA is intended to provide a timely source of current statistics, results of analyses, and programmatic information proceeding from the activities of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Programs and other components of the Department of Energy, as well as condensations of topical articles from other sources of interest to the nuclear community. It also facilitates quick responses to requests for data and information of the type often solicited from this office.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: /NBM--6011986, DOE
open access

Some Comments on the La Primavera Geothermal Field, Mexico

Description: The La Primavera geothermal field is located about 20 km west of the city of Guadalajara, Jalisco, in the western part of the Mexican Neovolcanic Axis. Initial results of five deep exploration wells (down to 2000 m depth) were very promising; measured downhole temperatures exceed 300/sup 0/C. During production, however, downhole temperatures dropped, and the chemistry of the fluids changed. The analysis of geologic, mineralogic, geochemical, and well completion data indicate that colder fluids flow down the wellbore from shallower aquifers cooling the upper zones of the geothermal reservoir. This problem is attributed to inadequate well completions. Doubts have arisen about continuing the exploration of the field because of the somewhat disappointing drilling results. However, a more thorough analysis of all available data indicates that a good geothermal prospect might exist below 3000 m, and that it could be successfully developed with appropriately located and completed wells.
Date: December 1, 1983
Creator: A., B. Dominguez & Lippmann, M. J.
open access

Mexican-American Cooperative Program at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field: Recent Results of the Well-Drilling Program at Cerro Prieto

Description: The results of the 1980 and 1981 well drilling activities at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field are summarized. Details are given on the new series of deeper wells completed in the western (older) part of the field (Cerro Prieto I), and on the development and step-out wells drilled in the eastern part of the field (Cerro Prieto II and III). Production characteristics of on-line and standby wells are discussed. Recent changes in well completion procedures are also described.
Date: December 1, 1981
Creator: A., B. Dominguez; Lippmann, M. J. & M., Francisco Bermejo
open access

Some Comments on the La Primavera Geothermal Field, Mexico

Description: The La Primavera geothermal field is located about 20 km west of the city of Guadalajara, Jalisco, in the western part of the Mexican Neovolcanic Axis. Initial results of five deep exploration wells (down to 2000 m depth) were very promising; measured downhole temperatures exceed 300{degrees}C. During production, however, downhole temperatures dropped, and the chemistry of the fluids changed. The analysis of geologic, mineralogic, geochemical, and well completion data indicate that colder fluids flow down the wellbore from shallower aqifers cooling the upper zones of the gothermal reservoir. This problem is attributed to inadequate well completions. Doubts have arisen about continuing the exploration of the field because of the somewhat disappointing drilling results. However, a more thorough analysis of all available data indicates that a good geothermal prospect might exist below 3000 m, and that it could be successfully developed with appropriately located and completed wells.
Date: December 15, 1983
Creator: A., Bernardo Dominguez & Lippmann, Marcelo J.
open access

Development and evaluation of systems for controlling parallel high di/dt thyratrons

Description: Increasing numbers of high power, high repetition rate applications dictate the use or thyratrons in multiple of hard parallel configurations to achieve the required rate of current rise, di/dt. This in turn demands the development of systems to control parallel thyratron commutation with nanosecond accuracy. Such systems must be capable of real-time, fully-automated control in multi-kilohertz applications while still remaining cost effective. This paper describes the evolution of such a control methodology and system.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: A., Litton. & McDuff, G.
open access

Confinement of airborne radioactivity. Final progress report, January-December 1978

Description: A new test method has been developed at the Savannah River Laboratory for evaluating the iodine retention capabilities of carbon used in the airborne-activity confinement system. Methyl iodide tagged with I-131 is injected into a test gas stream continuously for 5 hours with test conditions of 80/sup 0/C temperature, 95% relative humidity, and 55 feet per minute linear flow velocity. Results show that the CH/sub 3/I retention efficiency is independent of the inlet CH/sub 3/I concentration over the range of at least 0.9 to 200 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ in the test gas stream. The method was also used to evaluate the effects of paint fumes on in-service carbons and showed that solvent exposure reduced carbon service life by 5 to 7 months. Experimental carbons both before and after service exposure in the SRP carbon test facility were also evaluated.
Date: February 1, 1980
Creator: A.G., Evans
open access

Conceptual Design of a Rapid-Cycling Synchrotron for the KFA-Juelich Spallation Neutron Source

Description: An accelerator group was established at ANL by the request of KFA-Juelich to carry out a conceptual design study and cost estimate for a rapid-cycling synchrotron as a possible first stage program on spallation neutron sources at KFA-Juelich. This set of notes is the individual notes which form the basis of the final report under this proposal prepared in January 1983. This document contains 37 papers/notes for Advanced Accelerator Development - Neutron Source Series Notes...numbered AAD-N-1 through AAD-N-37. Each note or paper is written by various authors.
Date: January 1983
Creator: ANL-KFA Study Group
open access

Impacts of uranium-utilization improvements on light water reactor radionuclide releases

Description: This report discusses potential changes to radionuclide releases as a result of uranium-saving plant modifications and altered operating practices. Only releases to the environment from routine operation are considered; releases resulting from abnormal conditions outside the technical specifications covering plant operation are not considered.
Date: August 1981
Creator: Aaberg, R. L.
open access

Hanford Dose Overview Program. Comparison of AIRDOS-EPA and Hanford Site Dose Codes

Description: Radiation dose commitments for persons in the Hanford environs calculated using AIRDOS-EPA were compared with those calculated using a suite of Hanford codes: FOOD, PABLM, DACRIN, and KRONIC. Dose commitments to the population and to the maximally exposed individual (MI) based on annual releases of eight radionuclides from the N-Reactor, were calculated by these codes. Dose commitments from each pathway to the total body, lung, thyroid, and lower large intestine (LLI) are given for the population and MI, respectively. 11 refs., 25 tabs.
Date: November 1, 1985
Creator: Aaberg, R. L. & Napier, B. A.
open access

Management of intermediate-level radioactive wastes in the United States

Description: While used extensively, the term intermediate-level waste is not a clearly defined waste category. Assuming the ILW includes all radioactive wastes requiring shielding but not ordinarily included in a high-level waste canister, its major sources include power plant operations, spent fuel storage, and spent fuel reprocessing. While the volume is approx. 10/sup 2/ greater than that of high-level waste, ILW contains only approx. 1% of the radioactivity. Power plant waste, constituting approx. 87% of the waste volume, is generally nontransuranic waste. The other approximately 13% from fuel reprocessing is generally transuranic. Intermediate-level wastes fall into the general categories of highly radioactive hardware, failed equipment, HEPA filters, wet wastes, and noncombustible solids. Within each category, however, the waste characteristics can vary widely, necessitating different treatments. The wet wastes, primarily power plant resins and sludges, contribute the largest volume; fuel hulls and core hardware represent the greatest activity. Numerous treatments for intermediate-level wastes are available and have been used successfully. Packaging and transportation systems are also available. Intermediate-level wastes from power plants are disposed of by shallow-land burial. However, the alpha-bearing wastes are being stored pending eventual disposal to a geologic repository or by other means, e.g., intermediate-depth burial, sea disposal. Problem areas associated with intermediate-level wastes include: disposal criteria need to be established; fixation of organic ion exchange resins from power plant operation needs improvement; and reprocessing of LWR fuels will produce ILW considerably different from power plant ILW and requiring different treatment.
Date: July 1, 1980
Creator: Aaberg, R.L.; Lakey, L.T. & Greenborg, J.
open access

Aquatic pathways model to predict the fate of phenolic compounds

Description: Organic materials released from energy-related activities could affect human health and the environment. To better assess possible impacts, we developed a model to predict the fate of spills or discharges of pollutants into flowing or static bodies of fresh water. A computer code, Aquatic Pathways Model (APM), was written to implement the model. The computer programs use compartmental analysis to simulate aquatic ecosystems. The APM estimates the concentrations of chemicals in fish tissue, water and sediment, and is therefore useful for assessing exposure to humans through aquatic pathways. The APM will consider any aquatic pathway for which the user has transport data. Additionally, APM will estimate transport rates from physical and chemical properties of chemicals between several key compartments. The major pathways considered are biodegradation, fish and sediment uptake, photolysis, and evaporation. The model has been implemented with parameters for distribution of phenols, an important class of compounds found in the water-soluble fractions of coal liquids. Current modeling efforts show that, in comparison with many pesticides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), the lighter phenolics (the cresols) are not persistent in the environment. The properties of heavier molecular weight phenolics (indanols, naphthols) are not well enough understood at this time to make similar judgements. For the twelve phenolics studied, biodegradation appears to be the major pathway for elimination from aquatic environments. A pond system simulation (using APM) of a spill of solvent refined coal (SRC-II) materials indicates that phenol, cresols, and other single cyclic phenolics are degraded to 16 to 25 percent of their original concentrations within 30 hours. Adsorption of these compounds into sediments and accumulation by fish was minor.
Date: April 1, 1983
Creator: Aaberg, R.L.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L. & Mellinger, P.J.
open access

Aquatic Pathways Model to predict the fate of phenolic compounds. Appendixes A through D

Description: Organic materials released from energy-related activities could affect human health and the environment. We have developed a model to predict the fate of spills or discharges of pollutants into flowing or static bodies of fresh water. A computer code, Aquatic Pathways Model (APM), was written to implement the model. The APM estimates the concentrations of chemicals in fish tissue, water and sediment, and is therefore useful for assessing exposure to humans through aquatic pathways. The major pathways considered are biodegradation, fish and sediment uptake, photolysis, and evaporation. The model has been implemented with parameters for the distribution of phenols, an important class of compounds found in the water-soluble fractions of coal liquids. The model was developed to estimate the fate of liquids derived from coal. Current modeling efforts show that, in comparison with many pesticides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), the lighter phenolics (the cresols) are not persistent in the environment. For the twelve phenolics studied, biodegradation appears to be the major pathway for elimination from aquatic environments. A pond system simulation of a spill of solvent-refined coal (SRC-II) materials indicates that phenol, cresols, and other single cyclic phenolics are degraded to 16 to 25 percent of their original concentrations within 30 hours. Adsorption of these compounds into sediments and accumulation by fish was minor. Results of a simulated spill of a coal liquid (SRC-II) into a pond show that APM predicted the allocation of 12 phenolic components among six compartments at 30 hours after a small spill. The simulation indicated that most of the introduced phenolic compounds were biodegraded. The phenolics remaining in the aquatic system partitioned according to their molecular weight and structure. A substantial amount was predicted to remain in the water, with less than 0.01% distributed in sediment or fish.
Date: April 1, 1983
Creator: Aaberg, R.L.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L. & Mellinger, P.L.
open access

Measurement of instantaneous shut-in pressure in crystalline rock

Description: A method is defined which was found useful, not only for determining the instantaneous shut-in pressure (ISIP) during fracture creation, but also for determining the pressure inside the fracture, near the exit and entrance wellbores, when a circulation of fluid through a fracture is taking place. The basic assumption of the Muskat method is that, after a short transient period, the shut-in pressure approaches an asymptotic value, Pa, in an exponential fashion, i.e., if Pa is subtracted from P at each time, t, and the result is plotted, ln (P-Pa) vs t will be a straight line. Various values of Pa are tried until the best straight line fit is found. Two Muskat analyses are shown. (MHR)
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Aamodt, L. & Kuriyagawa, M.
open access

Hot dry rock geothermal reservoir engineering

Description: Two wells, GT-2 and EE-1, were originally drilled to a depth of 9600 ft (2.93 km) and 10,000 ft (3.05 km), respectively, and, after some difficulties, including redrilling of the bottom portion of GT-2, a good fracture connection was made between EE-1 and GT-2B, as the modified GT-2 was called. The circulation system was studied extensively for the purpose of establishing a number of fracture properties. Techniques were developed to determine orientation, geometry, heat exchange area, volume, flow impedance and impedance distribution. A much larger fracture system was then created from a depth of 9620 ft (2.93 km) in EE-1. The techniques used and results obtained in the study of the new and old fracture systems are discussed. (MHR)
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Aamodt, R. L.
open access

Basic research needed for the development of geothermal energy

Description: Basic research needed to facilitate development of geothermal energy is identified. An attempt has been made to make the report representative of the ideas of productive workers in the field. The present state of knowledge of geothermal energy is presented and then specific recommendations for further research, with status and priorities, are listed. Discussion is limited to a small number of applicable concepts, namely: origin of geothermal flux; transport of geothermal energy; geothermal reservoirs; rock-water interactions, and geophysical and geochemical exploration.
Date: October 1, 1980
Creator: Aamodt, R. L. & Riecker, R. E.
open access

Cermets and method for making same

Description: The present invention is directed to a method for making a wide variety of general-purpose cermets and for radioactive waste disposal from ceramic powders prepared from urea-dispersed solutions containing various metal values. The powders are formed into a compact and subjected to a rapid temperature increase in a reducing atmosphere. During this reduction, one or more of the more readily reducible oxides in the compact is reduced to a selected substoichiometric state at a temperature below the eutectic phase for that particular oxide or oxides and then raised to a temperature greater than the eutectic temperature to provide a liquid phase in the compact prior to the reduction of the liquid phase forming oxide to solid metal. This liquid phase forms at a temperature below the melting temperature of the metal and bonds together the remaining particulates in the cermet to form a solid polycrystalline cermet.
Date: April 1, 1981
Creator: Aaron, W. S.; Kinser, D. L. & Quinby, T. C.
open access

Development of thin foils for use in generating neutral particle beams

Description: The Isotope Research Materials Laboratory (IRML) was requested to prepare large-area, ultrathin aluminum and carbon foils for use in beam neutralization experiments. There were two major parts to this request. The first was to immediately provide a number of 5-cm-dia foils 5 to 20 ..mu..g/cm/sup 2/ thick for use in experiments at the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility and at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The second, longer-term request was to develop methods to prepare 25-cm x 25-cm, 10-..mu..g/cm/sup 2/ aluminum neutralizer foils. Both parts of the request have been successfully met.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Aaron, W. S.; Zevenbergen, L. A.; Adair, H. L.; Culpepper, C. A.; McCulla, W. H.; Nolan, T. A. et al.
open access

Preparation of thin films for use in generating neutral particle beams

Description: Large-area, thin aluminum foils were prepared for use in beam neutralization experiments. The foils were made using either electron beams of resistance heating. Foil thickness and uniformity were determined using alpha particles. The foils perform very well when bombarded by energetic H/sup -/ ions. (DLC)
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Aaron, W.S.; Zevenbergen, L.A. & Adair, H.L.
open access

New Concepts in Fish Ladder Design, Volume II of IV, Results of Laboratory and Field Research on New Concepts in Weir and Pool Fishways, 1982-1984 Final Project Report.

Description: A comprehensive review of fishway design practice led to new design concepts that had previously been untested. This concept was based on the observation that fish can be stimulated to leap when presented with certain hydraulic conditions. A laboratory test program was conducted to develop this concept into a new fishway configuration. Field testing revealed that components of the new design improved fish passage. Verification of the initial premise that fish can be stimulated to leap needs further study.
Date: August 1, 1985
Creator: Aaserude, Robert G. & Orsborn, John F.
open access

Limit on tau neutrino mass

Description: Using the complete data sample of 300 pb/sup -1/ collected by the HRS spectrometer in e/sup +/e/sup -/ collisions at 29 GeV, mass limit for the tau neutrino is set. The end point of the hadronic mass spectrum is determined in the decays tau ..-->.. 5..pi../sup + -/nu/sub tau/ and tau ..-->.. 5..pi../sup + -/..pi../sup 0/nu/sub tau/. At 95% confidence level, an upper limit of M/sub nu/sub tau// < 76 MeV/c/sup 2/, is found. 8 refs., 4 figs.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Abachi, S.; Akerlof, C.; Baringer, P.; Beltrami, I.; Blockus, D.; Bonvicini, G. et al.
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Charm D production in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation at 29 GeV

Description: Results are presented on the analysis of charm D Production from 300 pb/sup -1/ of data taken with the HRS Detector at PEP. The electroweak asymmetry is -8.4 +- 3.6% and R (D + D*) = 1.57 +- 0.17. Fragmentation functions for D/sup 0/, D/sup +/, D*/sup +/ production and the results of a search for the D** are given. 10 refs., 9 figs.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Abachi, S.; Akerlof, C.; Baringer, P.; Blockus, D.; Brabson, B.; Brom, J. M. et al.
open access

Inclusive. eta. production in. tau. decays

Description: We have searched for inclusive eta production in tau decays using a sample of 2553 events of e{sup +}e{sup minus} {yields} {tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup minus} in the one-three topology. The data were taken with the High Resolution Spectrometer at {radical}s = 29 GeV. Our results are based on an analysis of the {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup minus} invariant mass spectrum to find the narrow peak resulting from the decay sequence {tau} {yields} {eta}x and {eta} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup minus}{pi}{degree}. No clear peak is observed and a 90% confidence upper limit on the process {tau} {yields} {eta}x of 2.1% is found. For decays {tau} {yields} {eta}{eta}x the 90% confidence upper limit is 1.3%. Our best limit on {tau} {yields} {eta}{eta}x is obtained from tau decay to five charged particles with a 90% confidence level upper limit of 0.5%.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Abachi, S.; Akerlof, C.; Baringer, P.; Blockus, D.; Brabson, B.; Brom, J. M. et al.
open access

Limit on tau decay to 7-charged tracks

Description: Using the complete data sample of 300 pb/sup -1/ from e/sup +/e/sup -/ collisions at 29 GeV, the HRS collaboration has searched for tau decay to 7 charged particles and any number of neutrals. No events were found. The corresponding upper limit to the branching ratio is B(tau ..-->.. 7..pi../sup + -/ + n..gamma.. + nu/sub tau/) < 3.8 x 10/sup -4/ at 90% confidence level. Using the final HRS data sample we also report updated branching ratios for tau ..-->.. 5..pi../sup + -/ + nu/sub tau/ and tau ..-->.. 5..pi../sup + -/ + ..pi../sup 0/ + nu/sub tau/.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Abachi, S.; Akerlof, C.; Baringer, P.; Blockus, D.; Brabson, B.; Brom, J. M. et al.
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