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3 mm Anisotropy Measurement: On the Quadrupole Component in theCosmic Background Radiation

Description: We have mapped the large-scale anisotropy in the cosmic background radiation at 3 mm wavelength using a liquid-helium-cooled balloon-borne radiometer sensitive enough to detect the dipole in one gondola rotation (1 minute). Statistical errors on the dipole and quadrupole components are below 0.1 mK with less than 0.1 m K galactic contribution. We find a dipole consistent with previous measurements but disagree with recent quadrupole reports. The measurement is also useful in searching for spectral distortions.
Date: November 1, 1982
Creator: Lubin, Philip M.; Epstein, Gerald L. & Smoot, George F.

23rd Annual Report

Description: The ACIR Library is composed of publications that study the interactions between different levels of government. This document is an annual report.
Date: January 1982
Creator: United States. Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations.

34th Geothermal Coordinating Group Meeting

Description: Chairman William Ogle said the overall purpose of the meeting was to consider how the US government, and the Division of Geothermal Energy in particular, might apply its geothermal effort more effectively. Given the present situation, how does Uncle Sam make the best possible effort? On this theme, there are 4 main subquestions: (1) what government support is needed? (2) how can we improve cooperation between industry, the national laboratories, universities, and industries, and does it matter? (3) how do we transfer technology to industry? (4) What should the technical aims be for the next year or so?
Date: November 9, 1982

Accident Generated Particulate Materials and Their Characteristics -- A Review of Background Information

Description: Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of the amount of radioactive particulate material initially airborne (source term) during accidents. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has surveyed the literature, gathering information on the amount and size of these particles that has been developed from limited experimental work, measurements made from operational accidents, and known aerosol behavior. Information useful for calculating both liquid and powder source terms is compiled in this report. Potential aerosol generating events discussed are spills, resuspension, aerodynamic entrainment, explosions and pressurized releases, comminution, and airborne chemical reactions. A discussion of liquid behavior in sprays, sparging, evaporation, and condensation as applied to accident situations is also included.
Date: May 1, 1982
Creator: Sutter, S. L.

Acidification of Geothermal Wells Laboratory Experiments - Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program

Description: This report describes the laboratory testing of the reactions of acetic, formic, hydrochloric, ad hydrofluoric acids with calcium carbonate, kaolin, sepiolite, and two formation materials at geothermal temperatures. In general, a workable test procedure was developed which provided information regarding the relative reactivities of selected minerals or formation materials with three of the four acids investigated. Tests with hydrochloric acrid were complicated by reactions of the acid with the test vessel materials and therefore, only very limited work could be done with this acid at the desired temperatures. In spite of these difficulties, information regarding the amount of soluble material in the various acids was obtained. From this under the different reaction conditions could be calculated. Additional information regarding the formation of solid secondary reaction products upon cooling of the reacted acid was also obtained. The implication of the mineral reactivities with the different acids and the formation of secondary solids on geothermal acidizing operations are discussed. In addition, some selected scale inhibitors (for calcium carbonate) were tested for their hydrothermal stability. Their efficiency in inhibiting the formation of calcium carbonate scale before and after aging at 500{degree}F was measured. The implications of the loss of efficiency of these materials and recommendations for their use in the field are discussed. [DJE-2005]
Date: January 1, 1982

Adak Island, Alaska, Microearthquake survey: Preliminary Hypocenter Determinations

Description: Microearthquakes, defined as shocks having magnitudes less than 4, are commonly recorded in the vicinity of geothermal manifestations and volcanism. They have been mapped from producing geothermal fields as well as those not yet developed, in such places as Iceland, El Salvador, Japan, Kenya and the US. Microearthquakes have been recorded at several geothermal sites in the Imperial Valley and Coso Hot Springs, California; Kilbourne Hole, New Mexico; Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming; and The Geysers, California, where there is debate over whether or not the seismicity is induced by steam production. Seismicity occurs around active volcanoes, but appears reduced directly over zones of high temperature or magma, where the depth of the brittle fracture zone is shallow, as over Yellowstone caldera. In areas of active hydrothermalism, regional stress is likely to be relieved by low-level seismicity rather than occasional large ruptures, owing to the high temperatures, presence of fluids, and crustal weakening due to alteration and fracturing. Active faulting maintains the permeability of the system, which in its absence, might otherwise seal. on the microscopic scale, pore-fluid pressures rise as a result of heating, resulting in the decrease of effective pressure at the pore-mineral boundary. When this effective pressure becomes less than the rock's tensile strength, the pore ruptures; and if it intersects a through-going fracture under hydrostatic pressure can result in a shock detectable on seismographs at the surface. Such a mechanism might also account for the swarms of very small events seen in a number of geothermal areas. A microearthquake survey was conducted on Adak Island, Alaska for the purpose of identifying seismicity associated with a possible geothermal reservoir. During 30 days of recording in September and October 1982, 190 seismic events were recorded on two or more stations of a nine-station network. Of the total, 33 were ...
Date: November 5, 1982
Creator: Lange, Arthur L. & Avramenko, Walter

An Adaptive Finite Difference Method for Hyperbolic Systems in OneSpace Dimension

Description: Many problems of physical interest have solutions which are generally quite smooth in a large portion of the region of interest, but have local phenomena such as shocks, discontinuities or large gradients which require much more accurate approximations or finer grids for reasonable accuracy. Examples are atmospheric fronts, ocean currents, and geological discontinuities. In this thesis we develop and partially analyze an adaptive finite difference mesh refinement algorithm for the initial boundary value problem for hyperbolic systems in one space dimension. The method uses clusters of uniform grids which can ''move'' along with pulses or steep gradients appearing in the calculation, and which are superimposed over a uniform coarse grid. Such refinements are created, destroyed, merged, separated, recursively nested or moved based on estimates of the local truncation error. We use a four-way linked tree and sequentially allocated deques (double-ended queues) to perform these operations efficiently. The local truncation error in the interior of the region is estimated using a three-step Richardson extrapolation procedure, which can also be considered a deferred correction method. At the boundaries we employ differences to estimate the error. Our algorithm was implemented using a portable, extensible Fortran preprocessor, to which we added records and pointers. The method is applied to three model problems: the first order wave equation, the second order wave equation, and the inviscid Burgers equation. For the first two model problems our algorithm is shown to be three to five times more efficient (in computing time) than the use of a uniform coarse mesh, for the same accuracy. Furthermore, to our knowledge, our algorithm is the only one which adaptively treats time-dependent boundary conditions for hyperbolic systems.
Date: June 1, 1982
Creator: Bolstad, John H.

Advanced Fuel Cell Development Progress Report: April-June 1981

Description: Quarterly report discussing fuel cell research and development work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This report describes efforts directed toward (1) improving understanding of component behavior in molten carbonate fuel cells and (2) developing alternative concepts for components. The principal focus has been on the development of sintered y-LiAIO2 electrolyte supports, stable NiO cathodes, and hydrogen diffusion barriers. Cell tests were performed to assess diffusion barriers and to study cathode voltage relaxation following current interruption.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Pierce, Robert Dean & Arons, R. M.

Advanced Fuel Cell Development Progress Report: October-December 1980

Description: Quarterly report discussing fuel cell research and development work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This report describes efforts directed toward (1) developing alternative concepts for components of molten carbonate fuel cells and (2) improving understanding of component behavior.
Date: June 1982
Creator: Pierce, R. D.; Arons, R. M.; Dusek, J. T.; Fraioli, A. V.; Kucera, G. H.; Sim, J. W. et al.

Agent Orange: Veterans' Complaints Concerning Exposure to Herbicides in South Vietnam

Description: From 1962 to 1971, the United States Air Force (USAF) sprayed various herbicide mixtures (chemicals that kill plants) in South Vietnam. The purpose of the spraying was to defoliate jungle growth to deprive the Communist forces of ground cover, and to destroy enemy crops to restrict food supplies. The most extensively used of these herbicide mixtures was known as Agent Orange, a 50:50 mix of two common herbicides called 1,4,5-T and 2,4-D (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid). The third chemical present in the mixture in small amounts was TCDD, an inevitable by-product of the manufacture of 2,4,5-T. This chemical, called tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin or simply "dioxin," is highly toxic to laboratory animals when administered in its pure form. CRS has been unable to locate any report of a human death from exposure to pure TCDD. This report discusses the human health effects that have occurred from exposure to TCDD, as well as related Congressional concerns.
Date: June 25, 1982
Creator: Smith, Pamela W.

Airport and Air Traffic Control System

Description: A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that assesses "scenarios of future growth in air transportation; alternative ways to increase airport and terminal area capacity; technological and economic alternatives to the ATC (air traffic control) system modifications proposed by the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration); and alternatives to the present ATC process" (p. 3).
Date: January 1982
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Analysis of large-leak test SWAT-3 Run-6 data by use of sodium-water-reaction analysis code SWAAM-I

Description: The Sodium Water Advanced Analysis Method computer code (SWAAM-I) is used to analyze the large-leak test data SWAT-3 Run-6. The SWAT-3 is the mockup of the secondary system of the Japanese breeder-reactor demonstration plant Monju. The steam-generator design for the Monju reactor was a helical-coil-tube type with a cover-gas space, and the SWAT-3 Run-6 Test vessel simulates this design of the steam generator. The objectives of this work are: (1) to examine the adequacy of the SWAAM-I code for the helical-coil-tube steam-generator system, (2) to understand and confirm the understanding of phenomena that have major design implications, and (3) to define needs for additional development of SWAAM-I code capabilities.
Date: February 1, 1982
Creator: Shin, Y.W. & Lin, H.C.


Description: This report presents an analysis of the technical performance and cost effectiveness of nine small wind energy conversion systems (SWECS) funded during FY 1979 by the U.S. Department of Energy. Chapter 1 gives an analytic framework with which to evaluate the systems. Chapter 2 consists of a review of each of the nine projects, including project technical overviews, estimates of energy savings, and results of economic analysis. Chapter 3 summarizes technical, economic, and institutional barriers that are likely to inhibit widespread dissemination of SWECS technology.
Date: April 1, 1982
Creator: Kay, J.

Analytical Performance Models for Geologic Repositories

Description: This report presents analytical solutions of the dissolution and hydrogeologic transport of radionuclides in geologic repositories. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the equations resulting from these analyses. The subjects treated in the present report are: (a) Solubility-limited transport with transverse dispersion (Chapter 2); (b) Transport of a radionuclide chain with nonequilibrium chemical reactions (Chapter 3); (c) Advective transport in a two-dimensional flow field (Chapter 4); (d) Radionuclide.transport in fractured media (Chapter 5); (e) A mathematical model for EPA's analysis of generic repositories (Chapter 6); and (f) Dissolution of radionuclides from solid waste (Chapter 7).
Date: October 1, 1982
Creator: Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H.; Fujita, A.; Kanki, T.; Kobayashi,A.; Lung, H. et al.

ANL Micrometeorological Measurements of Particle Sulfur Deposition at the 1981 Dry Deposition Intercomparison Experiment.

Description: The Dry Deposition Intercomparison Experiment conducted in September, 1981, was designed by the Illinois State Water Survey as a pilot effort to evaluate various methods of measuring pollutant dry deposition. A more extensive experiment was planned for June, 1982, when additional and improved techniques were to be implemented. The 1981 study focused on sulfate aerosol, while the 1982 experiment will consider a wider range of particulate substances and some gases. At issue is whether traditional monitoring methods using surrogate surfaces to collect dry deposition can routinely provide estimates in agreement with results from applications of intensive micrometeorological techniques. This report summarizes the micrometeorological data gathered in 1981 by Argonne National Laboratory.
Date: June 30, 1982
Creator: Wesely, M. L.; Cook, D. R. & Hart, R. L.


Description: We present in detail the description and the analysis of two independent experiments using Bevalac beams of {sup 16}O and {sup 56}Fe. From their results it is concluded that the reaction mean free paths of relativistic projectile fragments, 3 {<=} Z {<=} 26, are shorter for a few centimeters after emission than at large distances where they are compatible with values predicted from experiments on beam nuclei. The probability that this effect is due to a statistical fluctuation is <10{sup -3}. The effect is enhanced in later generations of fragments, the correlation between successive generations suggesting a kind of "memory" for the anomaly. Various systematic and spurious effects as well as conventional explanations are discussed mainly on the basis of direct experimental observations internal to our data, and found not to explain our results. The data can be interpreted by the relatively rare occurrence of anomalous fragments that interact with an unexpectedly large cross section. The statistical methods used in the analysis of the observations are fully described.
Date: August 1, 1982
Creator: Friedlander, E.M.; Gimpel, R.W.; Heckman, H.H.; Karant, Y.J.; Judek, B. & Ganssauge, E.