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AIDS: International Problems and Issues

Description: This issue brief discusses the AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) virus and its effects on the world, especially with regard to the welfare of developing nations and various facets of general international relations. Also discussed are the related issues for Congress and U.S. contributions to international AIDS relief efforts led by the World Health Organization (WHO).
Date: January 6, 1988
Creator: McHugh, Lois B.

Alternating gradient synchrotron

Description: With the start of a research and development effort directed towards the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), it is essential that US industry become involved as soon as possible. For that reason, I describe what a conventional accelerator complex is like and therefore what the first stages of the SSC would entail.
Date: December 6, 1984
Creator: Lowenstein, D.I.

Analysis of NSWC quasi-static compaction data for porous beds of ball powder, melamine, and Teflon, using structural compaction model

Description: A structural compaction model is used to correlate NSWC quasi-static compaction data on porous beds of six (6) different materials, i.e., four (4) ball powders, melamine, and Teflon. Initial densities of the porous beds ranged from 44 percent solid theoretical maximum density (TMD) to 70 percent TMD. Maximum compacted densities were about 90 percent TMD except for Teflon which was compacted to approximately 98 percent TMD. Pressures calculated by the model, plotted as a function of percent TMD, agree well with the NSWC data.
Date: April 6, 1983
Creator: Weston, A.M. & Lee, E.L.

Analytical cytology applied to detection of induced cytogenetic abnormalities

Description: Radiation-induced biological damage results in formation of a broad spectrum of cytogenetic changes such as translocations, dicentrics, ring chromosomes, and acentric fragments. A battery of analytical cytologic techniques are now emerging that promise to significantly improve the precision and ease with which these radiation induced cytogenetic changes can be quantified. This report summarizes techniques to facilitate analysis of the frequency of occurrence of structural and numerical aberrations in control and irradiated human cells. 14 refs., 2 figs.
Date: August 6, 1987
Creator: Gray, J.W.; Lucas, J.; Straume, T. & Pinkel, D.

The Application of Some Hartree-Fock Model Calculation to the Analysis of Atomic and Free-Ion Optical Spectra

Description: Techniques for applying ab-initio calculations to the is of atomic spectra are investigated, along with the relationship between the semi-empirical and ab-initio forms of Slater-Condon theory. Slater-Condon theory is reviewed with a focus on the essential features that lead to the effective Hamiltonians associated with the semi-empirical form of the theory. Ab-initio spectroscopic parameters are calculated from wavefunctions obtained via self-consistent field methods, while multi-configuration Hamiltonian matrices are constructed and diagonalized with computer codes written by Robert Cowan of Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Group theoretical analysis demonstrates that wavefunctions more general than Slater determinants (i.e. wavefunctions with radial correlations between electrons) lead to essentially the same parameterization of effective Hamiltonians. In the spirit of this analysis, a strategy is developed for adjusting ab-initio values of the spectroscopic parameters, reproducing parameters obtained by fitting the corresponding effective Hamiltonian. Secondary parameters are used to "screen" the calculated (primary) spectroscopic parameters, their values determined by least squares. Extrapolations of the secondary parameters determined from analyzed spectra are attempted to correct calculations of atoms and ions without experimental levels. The adjustment strategy and extrapolations are tested on the K I sequence from K{sup 0+} through Fe{sup 7+}, fitting to experimental levels for V{sup 4+}, and Cr{sup 5+}; unobserved levels and spectra are predicted for several members of the sequence. A related problem is also discussed: Energy levels of the Uranium hexahalide complexes, (UX{sub 6}){sup 2-} for X= F, Cl, Br, and I, are fit to an effective Hamiltonian (the f{sup 2} configuration in O{sub h} symmetry) with corrections proposed by Brian Judd.
Date: August 6, 1980
Creator: Hayhurst, Thomas Laine

Beryllium usage in fusion blankets and beryllium data needs. [None]

Description: Increasing numbers of designers are choosing beryllium for fusion reactor blankets because it, among all nonfissile materials, produces the highest number (2.5 neutron in an infinite media) of neutrons per 14-MeV incident neutron. In amounts of about 20 cm of equivalent solid density, it can be used to produce fissile material, to breed all the tritium consumed in ITER from outboard blankets only, and in designs to produce Co-60. The problem is that predictions of neutron multiplication in beryllium are off by some 10 to 20% and appear to be on the high side, which means that better multiplication measurements and numerical methods are needed. The n,2n reactions result in two helium atoms, which cause radiation damage in the form of hardening at low temperatures (<300/degree/C) and swelling at high temperatures (>300/degree/C). The usual way beryllium parts are made is by hot pressing the powder. A lower cost method is to cold press and then sinter. There is no radiation damage data on this form of beryllium. The issues of corrosion, safety relative to the release of the tritium built-up inside beryllium, and recycle of used beryllium are also discussed. 10 figs.
Date: April 6, 1988
Creator: Moir, R.W.

Beta decay of neutron-rich transuranic nuclei

Description: Allowance is made for beta-delayed fission in the calculation of the mass yield of underground thermonuclear explosions. This allowance is made by calculating a correction factor by four different methods. These correction factors are applied to a simple model of product yield and the accuracy and potential usefulness of the results are discussed. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab. (DWL)
Date: June 6, 1986
Creator: Hoff, R.W.

Betatron motion and optical deflection in free electron lasers

Description: Transverse displacement of the electron beam at input to the wiggler induces betatron oscillation, imparting a sinusoidal transverse displacement to the gain medium seen by the optical beam. As the light propagates down this ''rippled'' medium it is guided by the dispersion, thereby acquiring some transverse sinusoidal displacement. At output from the wiggler the optical beam in general has acquired some transverse component of velocity, that is, it propagates off-axis. As the e-beam displacement fluctuates statistically with every pulse, the optical output direction jitters around the nominal axis. The jitters is estimated with a model that includes off-axis optical propagation through a ''rippled'' gain medium but neglects feedback of the off-axis light on the e-beam. The model is solved in perturbation theory. The jitter is calculated at the final aperture of the optical system beyond the wiggler. 8 refs., 13 figs.
Date: October 6, 1985
Creator: Karr, T.J.

BWR containment failure analysis during degraded-core accidents

Description: This paper presents a containment failure mode analysis during a spectrum of postulated degraded core accident sequences in a typical 1000-MW(e) boiling water reactor (BWR) with a Mark-I wetwell containment. Overtemperature failure of containment electric penetration assemblies (CEPAs) has been found to be the major failure mode during such accidents.
Date: June 6, 1982
Creator: Yue, D.D.

Closed Loop Test Facility for hot dirty gas valves

Description: A design study of a closed loop test facility for eight-inch hot dirty gas valves is presented. The objective of the facility is to quality valves for use in coal gasifiers, combined cycle plants, and pressurized fluid bed combustors. Outline sketches and estimated costs are presented for the selected design.
Date: February 6, 1980

Comparisons of hydrodynamic beam models with kinetic treatments

Description: Hydrodynamic models have been derived by Mark and Yu and by others to describe energetic self-pinched beams, such as those used in ion-beam fusion. The closure of the Mark-Yu model is obtained with adiabatic assumptions mathematically analogous to those of Chew, Goldberger, and Low for MHD. The other models treated here use an ideal gas closure and a closure by Newcomb based on an expansion in V/sub th//V/sub z/. Features of these hydrodynamic beam models are compared with a kinetic treatment.
Date: October 6, 1983
Creator: Boyd, J.K.; Mark, J.W.; Sharp, W.M. & Yu, S.S.

Coolant monitoring apparatus for nuclear reactors. [PWR; BWR]

Description: A system for monitoring coolant conditions within a pressurized vessel is described. A length of tubing extends outward from the vessel from an open end containing a first line restriction at the location to be monitored. The flowing fluid is cooled and condensed before passing through a second line restriction. Measurement of pressure drop at the second line restriction gives an indication of fluid condition at the first line restriction. Multiple lengths of tubing with open ends at incremental elevations can measure coolant level within the vessel.
Date: August 6, 1981
Creator: Tokarz, R.D.

D0 Carriage Roller Bearing Measurements

Description: All of the ordered Tychoway rollers, to be used under the cryostat carriages on the center beam, have to be modified to accommodate a keyed way used to guide the cryostat along these same ways. A 0.320 x 0.406 inch notch is machined along one of the longer lower edges in order to create a 0.640 x 0.406 inch keyway when two of these notched rollers are bolted together (side by side) for installation. This keyway will fit over a .635 x .375 inch key, which is inserted into the ways. Due to the close fit, the rollers were sent to the Fermi Inspection Dept. to double check the machined notch dimensions and tolerances. Included is the drawing sent to the Tychoway manufacturer, who machined the notch, and the results of the measurements taken by the Inspection Dept. The tolerance on the 0.320 inch dimension is {+-} 0.002 inches. Only three of the initial ten rollers fall within the tolerance; No.3, 9 and 10 (they were numbered by the Inspection Dept.). The other seven, plus one of the 'good' rollers, can be matched up to meet the required dimensions of a 0.640 {+-} 0.004 inch keyway. Since only four rollers will be used on the keyed way per cryostat, the worst matches can be installed on the non-keyed side of the cryostat. A table listing the best possible matches and their subsequent dimensions and tolerances is given.
Date: February 6, 1989
Creator: Jaques, Al

Database tools for enhanced analysis of TMX-U data

Description: A commercial database software package has been used to create several databases and tools that assist and enhance the ability of experimental physicists to analyze data from the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) experiment. This software runs on a DEC-20 computer in M-Division's User Service Center at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), where data can be analyzed offline from the main TMX-U acquisition computers. When combined with interactive data analysis programs, these tools provide the capability to do batch-style processing or interactive data analysis on the computers in the USC or the supercomputers of the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center (NMFECC) in addition to the normal processing done by the TMX-U acquisition system. One database tool provides highly reduced data for searching and correlation analysis of several diagnostic signals within a single shot or over many shots. A second database tool provides retrieval and storage of unreduced data for use in detailed analysis of one or more diagnostic signals. We will show how these database tools form the core of an evolving offline data analysis environment on the USC computers.
Date: March 6, 1986
Creator: Stewart, M.E.; Carter, M.R.; Casper, T.A.; Meyer, W.H.; Perkins, D.E. & Whitney, D.M.

Database tools for enhanced analysis of TMX-U data. Revision 1

Description: A commercial database software package has been used to create several databases and tools that assist and enhance the ability of experimental physicists to analyze data from the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) experiment. This software runs on a DEC-20 computer in M-Division's User Service Center at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), where data can be analyzed offline from the main TMX-U acquisition computers. When combined with interactive data analysis programs, these tools provide the capability to do batch-style processing or interactive data analysis on the computers in the USC or the supercomputers of the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center (NMFECC) in addition to the normal processing done by the TMX-U acquisition system. One database tool provides highly reduced data for searching and correlation analysis of several diagnostic signals within a single shot or over many shots. A second database tool provides retrieval and storage of unreduced data for use in detailed analysis of one or more diagnostic signals. We will show how these database tools form the core of an evolving offline data analysis environment on the USC computers.
Date: March 6, 1986
Creator: Stewart, M.E.; Carter, M.R.; Casper, T.A.; Meyer, W.H.; Perkins, D.E. & Whitney, D.M.

Design note of an air-cooled 2 ft x 2 ft x 10. 5 ft long muon spoiler

Description: This note describes the construction of a muon spoiler (magnetized steel assembly) with a cross section of 2 ft by 2 ft and a length of 10.5 ft. Two such spoilers are operated in series at an average field of about 15 kGauss, from one 100 ADC, 40 V power supply. The purpose of the spoilers is to prevent muons from easily escaping beyond the muon laboratory experimental area by bending them down so that they have to pass through more earth. The spoilers reduce the muon dose rate beyond the experimental area by about a factor of 15 to 20. These types of spoilers are not precision devices. They were inexpensive to build from scrap materials using rough flame cutting methods. It took about 14 days to fabricate them.
Date: January 6, 1988
Creator: Visser, A. & Pathiyil, J.

Determination of trace impurities in uranium hexafluoride by an inductively coupled argon plasma spectrometer

Description: A procedure has been developed to determine 21 trace impurity elements in uranium hexafluoride, using inductively coupled argon plasma emission spectrometry (ICAP). The method consists of a liquid-liquid extraction to separate uranium from the trace impurities with a mixture of tri-(2-ethyl-hexyl)-phosphate (TEHP) and heptane. The raffinate containing the elements is subsequently analyzed by ICAP. The impurity elements which can be analyzed by this method are: Al, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Ti, V and Zn.
Date: January 6, 1983
Creator: Short, B.W.; Spring, H.S. & Grant, R.L.

DRCELL: A software package for drift chamber cell design

Description: Designing a drift chamber cell geometry which optimizes resolution and two track separation is not a straightforward task. This paper describes a software package which helps visualize the behavior of drifting electrons within the cell under the influence of electric and magnetic fields. Histograms of chamber pulse shapes and arrival times may be generated. In addition, a calculation of the gas gain is performed. The package presently uses drift velocity, drift angle, gain, and dE/dx parameterizations for 50:50 argon/endash/ethane but modifications may be easily made for other gas mixtures. The model is straightforward and relies on an analytical form for the electric potential of an infinite series of wires. The electric field is calculated numerically in a small region surrounding any point of interest. In the absence of a magnetic field, the drift direction of an ionization electron is the unit vector along the E field direction. When a perpendicular magnetic field is present, the drift direction is rotated by the Lorentz angle, a. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
Date: March 6, 1989
Creator: Baller, B.R.

Dust-feed mechanism

Description: The invention is a dust feed device for delivery of a uniform supply of dust for long periods of time to an aerosolizing means for production of a dust suspension. The device utilizes at least two tandem containers having spiral brushes within the containers which transport the dust from a supply to the aerosolizer means.
Date: April 6, 1981
Creator: Milliman, E.M.