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N.A.C.A. Stall-Warning Device

Description: With some airplanes the approach to the stall is accompanied by changes in the behavior, such as tail buffeting or changes in the control characteristics of the airplane so that the pilot obtains a warning of the impending stall. Vith other airplanes it is possible to approach the stall without any perceptible warning other than the reading of the air-speed meter, in which case the danger of inadvertent stalling is considerably greater. Although it is not within the scope of this paper to discuss stalling characteristics, it is desired to point out that in general the danger of inadvertent stalling is greatest with those airplanes that behave worse when the stalling occurs; that is, with airplanes in which the stall starts at the wing tips. A warning of the impending stall is desirable in any case, but is particularly desirable with airplanes of the latter type.
Date: February 1938
Creator: Thompson, F. L.

Aerodynamic characteristics of a large number of airfoils tested in the variable-density wind tunnel

Description: The aerodynamic characteristics of a large number of miscellaneous airfoils tested in the variable-density tunnel have been reduced to a comparable form and are published in this report for convenient reference. Plots of the standard characteristics are given in tabular form. Included is a tabulation of important characteristics for the related airfoils reported in NACA report 460. This report, in conjunction with NACA report 610, makes available in comparable and convenient form the aerodynamic data for airfoils tested in the variable-density tunnel since January 1, 1931.
Date: 1938
Creator: Pinkerton, Robert M & Greenberg, Harry

The aerodynamic characteristics of four full-scale propellers having different plan forms

Description: Tests were made of four propellers, with diameters of 10 feet, having different blade plan forms. One propeller (Navy design no. 5868-r6) was of the usual present-day type and was used as a basis of comparison for the other three, which had unusual plan forms distinguished by the inward (toward the hub) location of the sections having the greatest blade width. It was found that propellers with points of maximum blade width occurring closer to the hub than on the present-day type of blade had higher peak efficiencies but lower take-off efficiencies. This results was found true for a "clean" liquid-cooled engine installation. It appears that some modification could be made to present plan forms which would produce propellers having more satisfactory aerodynamic qualities. The propellers with the inward location of the points of maximum blade width had lower thrust and power coefficients and stalled earlier than the present-day type.
Date: 1938~
Creator: Hartman, Edwin P & Biermann, David

The aerodynamic characteristics of full-scale propellers having 2, 3, and 4 blades of Clark y and R.A.F. 6 airfoil sections

Description: Aerodynamic tests were made of seven full-scale 10-foot-diameter propellers of recent design comprising three groups. The first group was composed of three propellers having Clark y airfoil sections and the second group was composed of three propellers having R.A.F. 6 airfoil sections, the propellers of each group having 2, 3, and 4 blades. The third group was composed of two propellers, the 2-blade propeller taken from the second group and another propeller having the same airfoil section and number of blades but with the width and thickness 50 percent greater. The tests of these propellers reveal the effect of changes in solidity resulting either from increasing the number of blades or from increasing the blade width propeller design charts and methods of computing propeller thrust are included.
Date: 1938
Creator: Hartman, Edwin P & Biermann, David

The aerodynamic drag of five models of side floats N.A.C.A. Models 51-E, 51-F, 51-G, 51-H, 51-J

Description: The drag of five models of side floats was measured in the N.A.C.A. 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel. The most promising method of reducing the drag of floats indicated by these tests is lowering the angle at which the floats are rigged. The addition of a step to a float does not always increase the drag in the flying range, floats with steps sometimes having lower drag than similar floats without steps. Making the bow chine no higher than necessary might result in a reduction in air drag because of the lower angle of pitch of the chines. Since side floats are used formally to obtain lateral stability when the seaplane is operating on the water at slow speeds or at rest, greater consideration can be given to factors affecting aerodynamic drag than is possible for other types of floats and hulls.
Date: December 1938
Creator: House, R O

Air flow in the boundary layer of an elliptic cylinder

Description: The boundary layer of an elliptic cylinder of major and minor axis 11.78 and 3.98 inches, respectively, was investigated in air stream in which the turbulence could be varied. Conditions were arranged so that the flow was two-dimensional with the major axis of the ellipse parallel to the undisturbed stream. Speed distributions across the boundary layer were determined with a hot-wire anemometer at a number of positions about the surface for the lowest and highest intensities of turbulence, with the air speed in both cases sufficiently high to produce a turbulent boundary layer over the downstream part of the surface. The magnitude and the frequency of the speed fluctuations in the boundary layer were also measured by the use of the conventional type of hot-wire turbulence apparatus. Stream turbulence was found to affect both the nature of transition from laminar to turbulent flow in the layer and the position on the surface at which transition occurred. Transition was then investigated in detail with stream turbulence of several different scales and intensities.
Date: August 6, 1938
Creator: Schubauer, G B

Airfoil section characteristics as applied to the prediction of air forces and their distribution on wings

Description: The results of previous reports dealing with airfoil section characteristics and span load distribution data are coordinated into a method for determining the air forces and their distribution on airplane wings. Formulas are given from which the resultant force distribution may be combined to find the wing aerodynamic center and pitching moment. The force distribution may also be resolved to determine the distribution of chord and beam components. The forces are resolved in such a manner that it is unnecessary to take the induced drag into account. An illustration of the method is given for a monoplane and a biplane for the conditions of steady flight and a sharp-edge gust. The force determination is completed by outlining a procedure for finding the distribution of load along the chord of airfoil sections.
Date: 1938
Creator: Jacobs, Eastman N. & Rhode, R. V.

Application and testing of transparent plastics used in airplane construction

Description: This report concerns the efforts being made to remove the source of danger to passengers arising from the fracturing of silicate glass. Some of the alternatives presented include: single-layer safety glass, multi-layer safety glass, transparent plastic resins. Some of the resins considered are celluloid, cellulose acetates, and mixtures of polymers.
Date: November 1, 1938
Creator: Riechers, K & Olms, J

Approximate stress analysis of multistringer beams with shear deformation of the flanges

Description: The problem of the skin-stringer combinations used as axially loaded panels or as covers for box beams is considered from the point of view of the practical stress analyst. By a simple substitution the problem is reduced to the problem of the single-stringer structure, which has been treated in NACA Report no. 608. The method of making this substitution is essentially empirical; in order to justify it, comparisons are shown between calculations and strain-gage tests of three beams tested by the author and of one compression panel and three beams tested and reported elsewhere.
Date: January 1, 1938
Creator: Kuhn, Paul

Behavior of a plate strip under shear and compressive stresses beyond the buckling limit

Description: The present report is an extension of previous theoretical investigations on the elastic behavior of a plate under compression and shear in the region above the critical. The main object is the clarification of the behavior immediately above the buckling limit since no theoretical expressions for this range have thus far been found and since experimentally, too, any degree of regularity in the behavior of the plate in the range between the critical load and about three to four times the critical, is discernible only with difficulty.
Date: July 1, 1938
Creator: Kromm, A & Marguerre, K

Behavior of static pressure heads at high speeds

Description: These tests proved the practicability of static pressure heads at speeds up to 400 km/h (248.5 mph). It weighs 6.5 kg or 2.5 times as much as the old head. The position of the pressure head below the airplane was determined by bearing method at different speeds and for different lengths of suspension. It was established that for the measured speed range a 20 to 24 meter suspension length was sufficient to assure a minimum distance of 6 meters from the airplane without introducing any appreciable errors in the results due to wrong static pressure.
Date: June 1, 1938
Creator: Danielzig, Helmut

Breeds of dogs.

Description: Provides information to assist the reader in selecting dogs for breeding for various purposes. Includes only the "best known" breeds.
Date: 1938
Creator: Speelman, S. R. (Sanford Reed), 1894- & Williams, J. O. (John Oscar), 1885-

The buckling of curved tension-field girders

Description: The present paper reports on experiments made to determine the buckling load under shear of circular curved tension-field webs. The buckling load of the webs may be expressed with reference to the buckling load of the stiffeners. It is found that within the explored range the buckling load is approximately twice as great as that of the identically stiffened flat wall of equal web depth.
Date: January 1, 1938
Creator: Limpert, G

Calculation of load distribution in stiffened cylindrical shells

Description: Thin-walled shells with strong longitudinal and transverse stiffening (for example, stressed-skin fuselages and wings) may, under certain simplifying assumptions, be treated as static systems with finite redundancies. In this report the underlying basis for this method of treatment of the problem is presented and a computation procedure for stiffened cylindrical shells with curved sheet panels indicated. A detailed discussion of the force distribution due to applied concentrated forces is given, and the discussion illustrated by numerical examples which refer to an experimentally determined circular cylindrical shell.
Date: June 1, 1938
Creator: Ebner, H & Koller, H

Calculation of the chordwise load distribution over airfoil sections with plain, split, or serially hinged trailing-edge flaps

Description: A method is presented for the rapid calculation of the incremental chordwise normal-force distribution over an airfoil section due to the deflection of a plain flap or tab, a split flap, or a serially hinged flap. This report is intended as a supplement to NACA Report no. 631, wherein a method is presented for the calculation of the chordwise normal-force distribution over an airfoil without a flap or, as it may be considered, an airfoil with flap (or flaps) neutral. The method enables the determination of the form and magnitude of the incremental normal-force distribution to be made for an airfoil-flap combination for which the section characteristics have been determined. A method is included for the calculation of the flap normal-force and hinge-moment coefficients without necessitating a determination of the normal-force distribution.
Date: January 1, 1938
Creator: Allen, H Julian

Carbonizing Properties of West Virginia Coals and Blends of Coals From the Alma, Cedar Grove, Dorothy Powellton A, Eagle, Pocahontas and Beckley Beds

Description: From Introduction: "The composition and carbonizing properties of 33 coals previously tested have been given in technical papers of the Bureau of Mines and in short reports published for the most part in the Proceedings of the American Gas Association. A complete list of publications on the work previous to 1937 is appended to this report. The present report gives the composition and carbonizing properties of seven additional coals from West Virginia. The data include results of blending test in which Beckley bed low-volatile coal was used with all the high-volatile coals except the Alma coal, with which Pocahontas No. 4 coal was used."
Date: 1938
Creator: Fieldner, A. C.; Davis J. D.; Selvig, W. A.; Thiessen, R.; Reynolds, D. A.; Holmes, C. R. et al.

The City Home Garden

Description: Revised edition. "Fresh vegetables for an average family may be grown upon a large back yard or city lot.... Thousands of acres of idle land that may be used for gardens are still available within the boundaries of our large cities. Some of the problems that confront the city gardener are more difficult than those connected with the farm garden, and it is the object of this bulletin to discuss these problems from a practical standpoint." -- p. 2. Soil preparation, tools, seeding, watering, diseases and pests, and space issues are all discussed and brief descriptions of several vegetables are given.
Date: 1938
Creator: Beattie, W. R. (William Renwick), b. 1870

Coal-Mine Accidents in the United States, 1935

Description: Report compiled by the U.S. Bureau of Mines including statistics on fatal and non-fatal accidents in coal mines located in the United States as well as data regarding the various operations (e.g., number of miners employed and average production). The information is organized into tables for comparison and the text draws some overall conclusions in the summary.
Date: 1938
Creator: Adams, W. W.; Geyer, L. E. & Parry, M. G.