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The 300 H.P. Benz Aircraft Engine

Description: This report provides a description of the Benz 300 H.P. aircraft engine containing 12 cylinders placed at a 60° angle. It includes a detailed description of the development of the constructional points, particularly the cylinders, pistons, and connecting rods, as well as the engine fitting, lubrication, oil pumps, bearings, oil tank, fuel pump, carburetors, and cooling system. There are seven pages of illustrative figures at the end of the report.
Date: January 1921
Creator: Heller, A.

N.A.C.A. Langley field wind tunnel apparatusthe tilting manometer

Description: A description is given of a tilting manometer designed to meet the requirements of a manometer for use in the wind tunnel at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory. This gauge was designed to meet the requirements of a manometer in use in connection with a static pressure plate to indicate the wind speed in the tunnel. The requirements are noted. The sensitivity of the gauge must be made inversely proportional to the pressure to be measured. The gauge must be accurately and quickly set for any desired pressure. When set at the desired pressure, the extent of variation between the existing and the desired pressures may be readily estimated. In fact, this manometer is quick to adjust, is easy to read, always has the meniscus in the same position, and accurately indicates a large range of air speeds on what is a comparatively compact instrument.
Date: January 1921
Creator: Norton, F. H. & Bacon, D. L.

N.A.C.A. recording air speed meter

Description: A new type of air speed meter is described which was designed by the technical staff of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The instrument consists essentially of a tight metal diaphragm of high natural period which is acted upon by the pressure difference of a pitot-static head. The resulting deflection of this diaphragm is recorded optically on a moving film.
Date: October 1921
Creator: Norton, F. H.

Abacus giving the variation of the mean pressure of an aviation engine as a function of its speed of rotation

Description: Comparing the results of the calculations for computing the mean pressure of an aviation engine for any number of revolutions, with those of experiment, the writer, by numerous examples, shows the perfect agreement between them. This report will show that, by means of a special abacus, an engineer can instantly plot the characteristics of an engine.
Date: March 1921
Creator: Margoulis, W

Absolute coefficients and the graphical representation of airfoil characteristics

Description: It is argued that there should be an agreement as to what conventions to use in determining absolute coefficients used in aeronautics and in how to plot those coefficients. Of particular importance are the absolute coefficients of lift and drag. The author argues for the use of the German method over the kind in common use in the United States and England, and for the Continental over the usual American and British method of graphically representing the characteristics of an airfoil. The author notes that, on the whole, it appears that the use of natural absolute coefficients in a polar diagram is the logical method for presentation of airfoil characteristics, and that serious consideration should be given to the advisability of adopting this method in all countries, in order to advance uniformity and accuracy in the science of aeronautics.
Date: June 1921
Creator: Munk, Max

Accelerations in flight

Description: This report deals with the accelerations obtained in flight on various airplanes at Langley Field for the purpose of obtaining the magnitude of the load factors in flight and to procure information on the behavior of an airplane in various maneuvers. The instrument used in these tests was a recording accelerometer of a new type designed by the technical staff of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The instrument consists of a flat steel spring supported rigidly at one end so that the free end may be deflected by its own weight from its neutral position by any acceleration acting at right angles to the plane of the spring. This deflection is measured by a very light tilting mirror caused to rotate by the deflection of the spring, which reflected the beam of light onto a moving film. The motion of the spring is damped by a thin aluminum vane which rotates with the spring between the poles of an electric magnet. Records were taken on landings and takeoffs, in loops, spins, spirals, and rolls.
Date: 1921
Creator: Norton, F. H. & Allen, E. T.

Accelerometer design

Description: In connection with the development of an accelerometer for measuring the loads on airplanes in free flight a study of the theory of such instruments has been made, and the results of this study are summarized in this report. A portion of the analysis deals particularly with the sources of error and with the limitations placed on the location of the instrument in the airplane. The discussion of the dynamics of the accelerometer includes a study of its theoretical motions and of the way in which they are affected by the natural period of vibration and by the damping, together with a report of some experiments on the effect of forced vibrations on the record.
Date: 1921?~
Creator: Norton, F. H. & Warner, Edward P.

Aerodynamic characteristics of aerofoils I

Description: The object of this report is to bring together the investigations of the various aerodynamic laboratories in this country and Europe upon the subject of aerofoils suitable for use as lifting or control surfaces on aircraft. The data have been so arranged as to be of most use to designing engineers and for the purposes of general reference. The absolute system of coefficients has been used, since it is thought by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics that this system is the one most suited for international use, and yet is one for which a desired transformation can be easily made. For this purpose a set of transformation constants is included in this report.
Date: 1921~

Airplane balance

Description: The authors argue that the center of gravity has a preponderating influence on the longitudinal stability of an airplane in flight, but that manufacturers, although aware of this influence, are still content to apply empirical rules to the balancing of their airplanes instead of conducting wind tunnel tests. The author examines the following points: 1) longitudinal stability, in flight, of a glider with coinciding centers; 2) the influence exercised on the stability of flight by the position of the axis of thrust with respect to the center of gravity and the whole of the glider; 3) the stability on the ground before taking off, and the influence of the position of the landing gear. 4) the influence of the elements of the glider on the balance, the possibility of sometimes correcting defective balance, and the valuable information given on this point by wind tunnel tests; 5) and a brief examination of the equilibrium of power in horizontal flight, where the conditions of stability peculiar to this kind of flight are added to previously existing conditions of the stability of the glider, and interfere in fixing the safety limits of certain evolutions.
Date: June 1921
Creator: Huguet, L

Airplane crashes: engine troubles : a possible explanation

Description: The aim was to bring attention to what might be the cause of some aircraft accidents for which there was no satisfactory explanation. The author notes that in testing aircraft accidents at the Bureau of Standards, it happened frequently that the engine performance became erratic when the temperature of the air entering the carburetor was between 0 C and 20 C. Investigation revealed the trouble to have been caused by the formation and collection of snow somewhere between the entrance to the carburetor and the manifold, probably at the throttle. Proof scarcely less convincing was obtained during engine tests. The results of such engine tests are described. Granting that the loss of power and the sudden increases in power were caused by the condensation of moisture from the air and the subsequent formation of snow, two solutions proved effective. The removal of the moisture or an increase in temperature cured the problem.
Date: March 1, 1921
Creator: Sparrow, Stanwood W

Airplane superchargers

Description: Discussed here are the principles and operation of aircraft engine superchargers used to maintain and increase engine power as aircraft encounter decreases in the density of air as altitude rises. Details are given on the design and operation of the centrifugal compressors. A method is given for calculating the amount of power needed to drive a compressor. The effects of the use of a compressor on fuel system operation and design are discussed. Several specific superchargers that were in operation are described.
Date: May 1, 1921
Creator: Noack, W G


Description: A guide to growing and using alfalfa on the farm. Includes recommendations for different regions of the United States.
Date: 1921
Creator: United States. Department of Agriculture.

Analysis of wing truss stresses including the effect of redundancies

Description: Airplane wing trusses are generally designed to contain redundant members (stagger wires and external drag wires) which, according to common practice, are not taken into account in calculations, so as to simplify the stress analysis by rendering the structure statically determinate. A more accurate method, in which the redundancies are included, involves a solution by means of Castigliano's method of least work. For the purpose of demonstrating the practical application of the method of least work this report presents examples for stresses of several cases of loading worked out for a structure similar to that of the Curtiss JN-4h. Case 1 was taken as the condition of velocity of 100 miles per hour combined with the angle of attack of maximum lift. Case 1a assumed the same loading but neglected the distortion of wooden members in the least-work analysis. So little error was involved in case 1a that this simplified method was employed for each succeeding case. Case 2 assumed a diving speed of 120 miles per hour and an angle of attack of no lift. Case 3 was worked out for the conditions imposed by the sand load recommended in NACA technical note no. 6.
Date: 1921?~
Creator: Warner, E P & Miller, R G

Analytical methods for computing the polar curves of airplanes

Description: This report presents a method of calculating polar curves which is at least as precise as graphical methods, but it more rapid. Knowing the wind tunnel test of a wing and the performances of an airplane of the same profile, it is easy to verify the characteristic coefficients and, at the same time, the methods determining induced resistances.
Date: March 1, 1921
Creator: Le Sueur

Angles of attack and air speeds during maneuvers

Description: In seeking further information as to the nature of maneuvers and as to the maneuverability characteristics of airplanes, continuous measurements of the angles of attack and air speeds at several points along the wings have been made during spins and loops. Very striking results have been obtained with reference to the rolling velocity and the distribution of load in spins and the variation of the angle of attack in loops, a surprisingly large range of angle being experienced during slow loops. The flight tests and results are fully described in this report.
Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Warner, E. P. & Norton, F. H.

Annual report of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (6th).administrative report including Technical Reports nos. 83 to 110

Description: Report includes the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics letter of submittal to the President, Congressional report, summaries of the committee's activities and research accomplished, expenditures, House of Representatives bill 14061, a copy of the bill introduced to the House of Representatives to regulate air navigation, and a compilation of technical reports produced.
Date: 1921

The art of writing scientific reports

Description: As the purpose of the report is to transmit as smoothly and as easily as possible, certain facts and ideas, to the average person likely to read it, it should be written in a full and simple enough manner to be comprehended by the least tutored, and still not be boring to the more learned readers.
Date: March 1, 1921
Creator: Norton, F. H.

Beautifying the Farmstead

Description: Revised edition. Report giving practical ways for families to beautify farmsteads. Contains sections on design, locations of buildings, walkways, driveways, lawns, trees and other plants.
Date: 1921
Creator: Mulford, Furman Lloyd, b. 1869