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Aerodynamic characteristics of four NACA airfoil sections designed for helicopter rotor blades

Description: From Introduction: "The purpose of the present work is to extend the previous investigation and to derive additional airfoil sections designed to minimize the undesirable characteristics of the previously tested airfoils. The tests of these additional airfoils were made in the Langley two-dimensional low-turbulence tunnel (LTT)."
Date: February 1946
Creator: Rice, Fred J , Jr

Aerodynamic characteristics of several modifications of a 0.45-scale model of the vertical tail of the Curtiss XP-62 airplane

Description: From Introduction: "In the course of an investigation to find a satisfactory vertical tail for the XP-62 airplane, a 0.45-scale vertical tail model on a stub fuselage was tested in the Langley 7- by 10-foot tunnel. This model was fitted with a flat plate to represent the horizontal tail surface. The data are presented herein for their general interest value rather than their application to this particular airplane."
Date: July 1946
Creator: Liddell, Robert B.

Aerodynamics of the carburetor air scoop and the engine cowling of a single-engine torpedo-bomber-type airplane

Description: From Introduction: "An investigation of the power-plant installation of a single-engine torpedo-bomber-type airplane has been conducted in the NACA Cleveland altitude wind tunnel at the request of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department. A similar investigation was previously conducted on a three-tenths scale mock-up of the forward portion of the fuselage of this airplane in the Langley 20-foot tunnel. (See reference 1)."
Date: June 1946
Creator: Palter, Herman

Airscrew Gyroscopic Moments

Description: When flying in a turn or pulling out of a dive, the airscrew exerts a gyroscopic moment on the aircraft, In the case of airscrews with three or more blades, arranged symmetrically, the value of the gyroscopic moment is J(sub x) omega(sub x) omega(sub y), where J(sub x) denotes the axial moment of inertia about the axis of rotation of the airscrew, omega(sub x) the angular upeed of the airscrew about its axis, and omega (sub Y) the rotary speed of the whole aircraft about an axis parallel to the plane of the airscrew (e.g., when pulling up, the transverse axis of the aircraft). The gyroscopic moment then tends to rotate the aircraft about an axis perpendicular to those of the two angular speeds and, in the came of airscrews with three or more blades, is constant during a revolution of the airscrew. With two-bladed airscrews, on the contrary, although the calculate gyroscopic moment represents the mean value in time, it fluctuates about this value with a frequency equal to twice the revolutions per minute. In addition, pulsating moments likewise occur about the other two axes. This fact is known from the theory of the asymmetrical gyro; the calculations that have been carried out for the determination of the various gyroscopic moments, however, mostly require an exact knowledge of the gyro theory. The problem will therefore be approached in another manner based on quite elementary considerations. The considerations are of importance, not only in connection with the gyroscopic moments exerted by the two-bladed airscrew on the aircraft, but also with the stressing of the blades of airscrews with an arbitrary number of blades.
Date: September 1946
Creator: Bock, G.

Altitude cooling investigation of the R-2800-21 engine in the P-47G airplane II : investigation of the engine & airplane variables affecting the cylinder temperature distribution

Description: The data obtained from cooling tests of an R-2800-21 engine installed in a p-47G airplane were studied to determine which engine and airplane operation variables were mainly responsible for the extremely uneven temperature distribution among the 18 engine cylinders obtained at the medium and high engine-power conditions. The tests consisted of flights at altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet for the normal range of engine and airplane operation. The results of the study showed that a flow condition in the induction system associated with the wide-open throttle position, which affected either the fuel air or charge distribution, was primarily responsible for the uneven temperature distribution. For the range of fuel-air ratios tested (0.080 to 0.102), the temperature distribution remained essentially unchanged. The individual effects of thrust-axis inclination, cowl-flap opening, and quantity of auxiliary air were found to be secondary in importance. At low angles of throttle opening, engine speed was found to have little effect on the temperature pattern.
Date: October 9, 1946
Creator: Pesman, Gerard J & Kaufman, Samuel J

Altitude cooling investigation of the R-2800-21 engine in the P-47g airplane III : individual-cylinder temperature reduction by means of intake-pipe throttle and by coolant injection

Description: Flight tests were conducted on a R-2800-21 engine in the P-47G airplane to determine the effect on the wall temperatures of cylinder 10 of throttling the charge in the intake pipe and of injecting a water-ethanol coolant into the intake pipe. Cylinder 10 was chosen for this investigation because it runs abnormally hot (head temperatures of the order of 45 F higher than those of the next hottest cylinder) at the medium and high-power conditions. Tests with interchanged cylinders showed that the excessive temperatures of cylinder 10 were inherent in the cylinder location and were not due to the mechanical condition of the cylinder assembly. Throttling the charge in the intake pipe is a simpler method than coolant injection into the intake pipe particularly when only one cylinder is considerably hotter than any other. Coolant injection into the individual cylinders is a more efficient method than throttling in the intake pipe and is warranted when several cylinders are to be cooled or when parts of the complex equipment required are already available.
Date: October 9, 1946
Creator: Bell, E Barton; Valerino, Michael F & Manganiello, Eugene J

Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Oil-System Performance of XR-4360-8 Engine in XTB2D-1 Airplane

Description: An investigation was conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics and the oil delivery critical altitude of the oil-cooler installation of an XTB2D-1 airplane. The investigation was made with the propeller removed end with the engine operating at 1800 brake horsepower, an altitude of 15,000 feet (except for tests of oil-delivery critical altitude), oil-cooler flap deflections from -20 degrees to 20 degrees and inclinations of the thrust axis of 0 degrees, 1.5 degrees, and 6 degrees. At an inclination of the thrust axis of 0 degrees and with the propeller operating, the total-pressure recovery coefficient at the face of the oil cooler varied from 0.84 to 1.10 depending on the flap deflection. With the propeller removed, the best pressure recovery at the face of the oil cooler was obtained at an inclination of the thrust axis of 1.5 degrees. Air-flow separation occurred on the inner surface of the upper lip of the oil-cooler duct inlet at an inclination of the thrust axis of 0 degrees and on the inner surface of the lower lip at 6 degrees. Static pressure coefficients over the duct lips were sufficiently low that no trouble from compressibility would be encountered in level flight. The oil-delivery critical altitude at cruising power (2230 rpm, 1675 bhp) was approximately 18,500 feet for the oil system tested.
Date: September 4, 1946
Creator: Conrad, E. William

Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Performance of Several Propellers on YP-47M Airplane at High Blade Loading, 1, Aeroproducts H20C-162-X11M2 Four-Blade Propeller

Description: An investigation was made in the Cleveland Altitude wind tunnel to determine the performance of an Aeroproducts H20C-162-X11M2 four-blade propeller on a YP-47M airplane at high blade loadings and high engine powers. The propeller characteristics were obtained for a range of power coefficients from 0.30 to 1.00 at free-stream Mach numbers of 0.40 and 0.50. The results of the force measurements are indicative only of trends in propeller efficiency with changes in power coefficient and advance-diameter ratio because unknown interference effects existed during the investigation. At a free-stream Mach number of 0.40, the envelopes of the efficiency curves decreased about 11% between advance-diameter ratios of 2.40 and 4.40. An increase in power coefficient from 0.30 to 0.80 at an advance-diameter ratio of 2.40 had little effect on the propeller efficiency. A change in power coefficient from 0.40 to 1.00 at an advance-diameter ratio of 4.40 increased the propeller efficiency by about 40%. For conditions below the stall the thrust loading on the outboard blade sections increased more rapidly than on the inboard sections as the power coefficient was increased or as the advance-diameter ratio was decreased. For conditions beyond the stall, the thrust loading decreased on the outboard sections and increased on the inboard sections.
Date: October 11, 1946
Creator: Saari, Martin J. & Wallner, Lewis E.

Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Performance of Several Propellers on YP-47M Airplane at High Blade Loading, 2, Curtiss 838-1C2-18R1 Four-Blade Propeller

Description: An investigation was conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel to determine the performance of a Curtiss propeller with four 838-lC2-lSRl blades on a YP-47M airplane at high blade loadings and engine powers. The study was made for a range of power coefficients between 0.30 and 1.00 at free-stream Mach numbers of 0.40 and 0.50. The results of the force measurements indicate primarily the trend of propeller efficiency for changes in power coefficient or advance-diameter ratio, inasmuch as corrections for the effects of tunnel-wall constriction on the installation have not been applied. Slip-stream pressure surveys across the propeller disk are presented to illustrate blade thrust load distribution for several operating conditions. At a free-stream Mach number of 0.40, nearly constant peak efficiencies were obtained at power coefficients from 0.30 to 0.70. A change in power coefficient from 0.70 to 0.90 reduced the peak efficiency about 5 percent. Blade stall at the tip sections became evident for a power coefficient of 0.91 when the advance-diameter ratio was reduced to 1.87. At a free-stream Mach number of 0.50, the highest propeller efficiencies were obtained for power coefficients from 0.80 to 1.00 at advance-diameter ratios above 2.90. At advance-diameter ratios below 2.90, the highest efficiencies were obtained for power coefficients of 0.60 and 0.70. The envelope of the efficiency curves decreased about 12 percent between advance-diameter ratios of 2.60 and 4.20. Local compressibility effects became evident for a power coefficient of 0.40 when the advance-diameter ratio was decreased to 1.75.
Date: November 26, 1946
Creator: Wallner, Lewis E. & Sorin, Solomon M.

Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Performance of Several Propellers on YP-47M Airplane at High Blade Loadings, 4, Curtiss 732-1C2-0 Four-Blade Propeller

Description: An altitude-wind-tunnel investigation has been made to determine the performance of a Curtiss 732-1C2-0 four-blade propeller on a YP-47M airplane at high blade loadings and engine power. Propeller characteristics were obtained for a range of power coefficients from 0.30 to 1.00 at free-stream Mach numbers of 0.40 and .50.
Date: November 26, 1946
Creator: Saari, Martin J. & Sorin, Solomon M.

Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Performance of Several Propellers on YP-47M Airplane at High Blade Loadings, 6, Hamilton Standard 6507A-2 Four- and Three-Blade Propellers

Description: An altitude-wind-tunnel investigation has been made to determine the performance of Hamilton Standard 6507A-2 four-blade and three-blade propellers on a YP-47M airplane at high blade loadings and high engine powers. Characteristics of the four-blase propeller were obtained for a range of power coefficients from 0.10 to 1.00 at free-stream Mach numbers of 0.20, 0.30, 0.40. Characteristics of the three-blade propeller were obtained for a range of power coefficients from 0.30 to 1.00 at a free-stream Mach number of 0.40. Results of the force measurements indicate primarily the trend of propeller efficiency for changes in power coefficient or advance-diameter ratio because no corrections for the effects of tunnel-wall constriction on the installation were applied. Slipstream surveys are presented to illustrate blade thrust load distribution for certain operating conditions. Within the range of advance-diameter ratios investigated at each free-stream Mach number, the efficiency of the four-blade propeller decreased as the power coefficient was increased from 0.10 to 1.00. For the three-blade propeller, nearly constant maximum efficiencies were obtained for power coefficients from 0.32 to 0.63 at advance-diameter ratios between 1.90 and 3.00. In general, for conditions below the stall and critical tip Mach number, the maximum thrust load shifted from the inboard sections toward the tip sections as the power coefficient was increased or as the advance-diameter ratio was decreased. For conditions beyond the stall or critical tip Mach number, losses in thrust occurred on the outboard blade sections owing to flow break-down; the thrust load increased slightly on the inboard sections.
Date: December 19, 1946
Creator: Saari, Martin J. & Sorin, Solomon M.

Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Performance of Several Propellers on YP-47M Airplane at High Blade Loadings V - Curtiss 836-14C2-18R1 Four-Blade Propeller

Description: An investigation of the performance of several propellers on the YP-47M airplane at high blade loadings has been conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel at the request of the Air Materiel Command, Army Air Forces. As part of the program, a study was made of a Curtiss 836-14C2-18R1 four-blade propeller. The investigation was made for a range of power coefficients from 0.10 to 1.00 at free-stream Mach numbers of 0.30, 0.40, and 0.50 for density altitudes from 10,000 to 45,000 feet, engine powers from 150 to 2500 brake horsepower, and for engine speeds from 1000 to 2900 rpm. The propeller efficiencies were obtained from force measurements and the blade thrust load distribution was obtained by two diametrically opposed slipstream survey rakes shown in this paper.
Date: December 2, 1946
Creator: Saari, Martin J. & Wallner, Lewis E.

Altitude-wind-tunnel tests of power-plant installation in jet-propelled fighter

Description: From Introduction: "The research program included clean-up tests (unpublished data) and stability and control tests (reference 1) made in the NACA Langley full-scale tunnel. An investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of the power-plant installation in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel is discussed in this report."
Date: February 1946
Creator: Jagger, James M.

Analyses of Alaska Coals

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines discussing the coal fields of Alaska. Analyses of the Alaskan coal fields are presented in detail. This report includes tables, and a map.
Date: 1946
Creator: Gates, George O. & Fieldner, Arno Carl

Analysis of available data on the effects of tabs on control-surface hinge moments

Description: From Introduction: "A collection balanced-aileron test data is given in reference 1. Reference 2 presents a collection of data applicable to the design of tail surfaces. The results of analyses of data for control surfaces with internal balances, plain-overhang and Frise balances, beveled trailing edges, and unshielded horn balances have already been published in references 3 to 6."
Date: May 1946
Creator: Crandall, Stewart M & Murray, Harry E

Analysis of cooling limitations and effect of engine-cooling improvements on level-flight cruising performance of four-engine heavy bomber

Description: From Introduction: "The difficulties experienced in cooling the exhaust-valve seats of the rear-row cylinders have been overcome to a considerable extent by improving the mixture distribution through application of the injection impeller (reference 1) and by augmenting the flow of cooling air to the critical baffles (reference 2). Flight tests of this airplane (reference 3) indicated that the temperatures of exhaust-valve seats on rear-row cylinders were markedly lowered by these modifications and that airplane range, altitude, and gross weight previously limited by these temperatures could be greatly increased."
Date: March 14, 1946
Creator: Marble, Frank E; Miller, Marlon A & Bell, E Barton

Analysis of deep rectangular shear web above buckling load

Description: From Introduction: "An analysis of a square web above the buckling load was presented in reference 1. The analysis of reference 1 therefore was repeated for a shear web with depth/width = 2.5. Comparison of the results with those for the square web then would indicate the effect in the depth-width ratio."
Date: March 1946
Creator: Levy, Samuel; Woolley, Ruth M & Corrick, Josephine N

Analysis of Effect of Rolling Pull-Outs on Wing and Aileron Loads of a Fighter Airplane

Description: An analysis was made to determine the effect of rolling pull-out maneuvers on the wing and aileron loads of a typical fighter airplane, the P-47B. The results obtained indicate that higher loads are imposed upon wings and ailerons because of the rolling pull-out maneuver, than would be obtained by application of the loading requirements to which the airplane was designed. An increase of 102 lb or 15 percent of wing weight would be required if the wing were designed for rolling pull-out maneuver. It was also determined that the requirements by which the aileron was originally designed were inadequate.
Date: March 1946
Creator: Pearson, Henry A. & Aiken, William S.