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Application of Balancing Tabs to Ailerons

Description: Analysis was made to determine characteristics required of a balancing-tab system for ailerons in order to reduce aileron stick forces to any desired magnitude. Series of calculations based on section data were made to determine balancing-tab systems of various chord tabs and ailerons that will give, for a particular airplane, zero rate of aileron hinge moment with aileron deflection and yet will produce same maximum rate of roll as a plain unbalanced 15-percent chord aileron of same span. Effects of rolling velocity and of forces in tab link on aileron hinge moments have been included.
Date: June 1, 1942
Creator: Sears, Richard I.

Effects of Direction of Propeller Rotation on the Longitudinal Stability of the 1/10-Scale Model of the North American XB-28 Airplane with Flaps Neutral, Special Report

Description: The effects of direction of propeller rotation on factors affecting the longitudinal stability of the XB-28 airplane were measured on a 1/10-scale model in the 7- by 10-foot tunnel of the Ames Aeronautical Laboratory. The main effect observed was that caused by regions of high downwash behind the nacelles (power off as well as power on with flaps neutral). The optimum direction of propeller rotation, both propellers rotating up toward the fuselage, shifted this region off the horizontal tail and thus removed its destabilizing effect. Rotating both propellers downward toward the fuselage moved it inboard on the tail and accentuated the effect, while rotating both propellers right hand had an intermediate result. Comparisons are made of the tail effects as measured by force tests with those predicted from the point-by-point downwash and velocity surveys in the region of the tail. These surveys in turn are compared with the results predicted from available theory.
Date: June 1, 1942
Creator: Delany, Noel K.

Effects of range of stress and of special notches on fatigue properties of aluminum alloys suitable for airplane propellers

Description: Laboratory tests were made to obtain information on the load-resisting properties of X76S-T aluminum alloy when subjected to static, impact, and repeated loads. Results are presented from static-load test of unnotched specimens in tension and in torsion and of notched specimens in tension. Charpy impact values obtained from bend tests on notched specimens and tension impact values for both notched and unnotched specimens tested at several different temperatures are included. The endurance limits obtained from repeated bending fatigue tests made on three different types of testing machine are given for unnotched polished specimens, and the endurance limits of notched specimens subjected to six different ranges of bending stress are also reported. The results indicated that: (a) polished rectangular specimens had an endurance limit about 30 percent less than that obtained for round specimens; (b) a comparison of endurance limits obtained from tests on three different types of machine indicated that there was no apparent effect of speed of testing on the endurance limit for the range of speeds used (1,750 to 13,000 rpm). (c) the fatigue strength (endurance limit) of the X76S-T alloy was greatly decreased by the presence of a notch in the specimens; (d) no complete fractures of the entire specimens occurred in notched fatigue specimens when subjected to stress cycles for which the mean stress at the notch during the cycle was a compressive stress; for this test condition a microscopic cracking occurred near the root of the notch and was used as a criterion of failure of the specimen. (e) as the mean stress at the notch was decreased from a tensile (+) stress to a compressive (-) stress, it was found that the alternating stress that could be superimposed on the mean stress in the cycle without causing failure of the specimens was increased.
Date: June 1, 1942
Creator: Dolan, Thomas J

Flight Tests of Modifications to Improve the Aileron Control Characteristics of a North American XP-51 Airplane (AC No. 41-38)

Description: Investigations were undertaken to improve the ailerons of a P-51 fighter so as to obtain greater effectiveness without increasing the stick forces. Modifications consisted of increasing the deflection range of the aileron to 70 percent and changing the original concave section to a thick section with beveled trailing edge. Results of the modified ailerons showed an increase in effectiveness over the original aileron of 70 percent at low speed and 55 percent at high speeds.
Date: June 1, 1942
Creator: Hoover, Herbert H.

Normal-pressure tests of circular plates with clamped edges

Description: A fixture is described for making normal-pressure tests of flat plates 5 inches in diameter in which particular care was taken to obtain rigid clamping at the edges. Results are given for 19 plates, ranging in thickness from 0.015 to 0.072 inch. The center deflections and the extreme-fiber stresses at low pressures were found to agree with theoretical values; the center deflections at high pressures were 4 to 12 percent greater than the theoretical values. Empirical curves are derived of the pressure for the beginning of permanent set as a function of the dimensions of the plate and the tensile properties of the material.
Date: June 1942
Creator: Mcpherson, Albert E; Ramberg, Walter & Levy, Samuel

On the symmetrical potential flow of compressible fluid past a circular cylinder in the tunnel in the subcritical zone

Description: The two-dimensional symmetrical potential flow of compressible fluid past a circular cylinder placed in the center line of a straight tunnel is analyzed in second approximation according to the Jansen-Rayleigh method. The departure of the profile from the exact circular shape can be kept to the same magnitude as for the incompressible flow. The velocities in the narrowest section of the tunnel wall and at the profile edge are discussed in detail.
Date: June 1, 1942
Creator: Lamla, Ernst

Propeller blade stresses caused by periodic displacement of the propeller shaft

Description: The present report deals with different vibration stresses of the propeller and their removal by an elastic coupling of propeller and engine. A method is described for protecting the propeller from unstable oscillations and herewith from the thus excited alternating gyroscopic moments. The respective vibration equations are set down and the amount of elasticity required is deduced.
Date: June 1, 1942
Creator: Meyer, J

The stability of laminar flow past a sphere

Description: As a contribution to the problem of turbulence on a surface of rotation, the method of small oscillation is applied to the flow past a sphere. It was found that the method developed for two-dimensional flow is applicable without modifications. The frictional layer in the vicinity of the stagnation point of a surface of rotation is less stable against small two-dimensional disturbances than in the stagnation point itself, as proved from an analysis of the velocity distribution made by Homann.
Date: June 1, 1942
Creator: Pretsch, J

Statistical analysis of service stresses in aircraft wings

Description: On the wing structures of modern high speed aircraft, in particular, the comparatively high-service stresses and the consistently increasing number of hours of operation during the life of the separate airplane parts make the studies of strength requirement under recurrent stresses appear of major concern. The DVL has therefore made exhaustive studies for this structural group of airplanes, some results of which are reported here.
Date: June 1, 1942
Creator: Kaul, Hans W.

Strength tests of thin-walled elliptic duralumin cylinders in pure bending and in combined pure bending and torsion

Description: An analysis is presented of the results of tests made by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics on an investigation of the strength of thin-walled circular and elliptic cylinders in pure bending and in combined torsion and bending. In each of the loading conditions, the bending moments were applied in the plane of the major axis of the ellipse.
Date: June 1, 1942
Creator: Lundquist, Eugene E. & Stowell, Elbridge Z.

Strength tests on hulls and floats

Description: The present report deals with strength tests on hulls and floats intended in part for the collection of construction data for the design of these components and in part for the stress analysis of the finished hulls and floats.
Date: June 1, 1942
Creator: Matthaes, K