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The critical compression load for a universal testing machine when the specimen is loaded through knife edges

Description: The results of a theoretical and experimental investigation to determine the critical compression load for a universal testing machine are presented for specimens loaded through knife edges. The critical load for the testing machine is the load at which one of the loading heads becomes laterally instable in relation to the other. For very short specimens the critical load was found to be less than the rated capacity given by the manufacturer for the machine. A load-length diagram is proposed for defining the safe limits of the test region for the machine. Although this report is particularly concerned with a universal testing machine of a certain type, the basic theory which led to the derivation of the general equation for the critical load, P (sub cr) = alpha L can be applied to any testing machine operated in compression where the specimen is loaded through knife edges. In this equation, L is the length of the specimen between knife edges and alpha is the force necessary to displace the upper end of the specimen unit horizontal distance relative to the lower end of the specimen in a direction normal to the knife edges through which the specimen is loaded.
Date: September 1, 1942
Creator: Lundquist, Eugene E. & Schwartz, Edward B.

The direct-stress fatigue strength of 17S-T aluminum alloy throughout the range from 1/2 to 500,000,000 cycles of stress

Description: Fatigue-test were conducted on six specimens made from 3/4-inch-diameter 17S-T rolled-and-drawn rod for the purpose of obtaining additional data on the fatigue life of the material at stresses up to the static strength. The specimens were tested in direct tension using a stress range from zero to a maximum in tension. A static testing machine was used to apply repeated loads in the case of the first three specimens; the other three specimens were tested in a direct tension-compression fatigue machine. The direct-stress fatigue curve obtained for the material indicates that, in the range of stresses above about two-thirds the tensile strength, the fatigue strength is higher than might be expected by simply extrapolating the ordinary curve of stress plotted against the number of cycles determined at lower stresses.
Date: September 1, 1942
Creator: Hartmann, E C & Stickley, G W

The effect of valve cooling upon maximum permissible engine output as limited by knock

Description: A Wright GR-1820-G200 cylinder was tested over a wide range of fuel-air ratios at maximum permissible power output as limited by knock with three different degrees of valve cooling. The valves used were stock valves (solid inlet valve and hollow sodium-cooled exhaust valve), hollow valves with no coolant, and hollow valves with flowing water as a coolant. Curves showing the variation in maximum permissible values of inlet-air pressure, indicated mean effective pressure, cylinder charge, and indicated specific fuel consumption with change in fuel-air ratio and valve cooling are shown. The use of valves cooled by a stream of water passing through their hollow interiors permitted indicated mean effective pressures 10 percent higher than the mean effective pressures permissible with stock valves when the engine was operated with fuel-air ratios from 0.055 to 0.065. Operation of the engine with lean mixtures with uncooled hollow valves resulted in power output below the output obtained with the stock valves. The data show an increase in maximum permissible indicated mean effective pressure due to cooling the valves, which averages only 2.1 percent with fuel-air ratios from 0.075 to 0.105.
Date: September 1, 1942
Creator: Munger, Maurice; Wilsted, H D & Mulcahy, B A

Flight Measurements of the Aileron Characteristics of a Grumman F4F-3 Airplane

Description: The aileron characteristics of a Grumman F4F-3 airplane were determined in flight by means of NACA recording and indicating instruments. The results show that the ailerons met NACA minimum requirements for satisfactory control throughout a limited speed range. A helix angle of approximately 0.07 radian was produced with flaps down at speeds from 90 to 115 miles per hour indicated airspeed and with flaps up from 115 to 200 miles per hour. With flaps up at 90 miles per hour, the helix angle dropped to 0.055 radian; above 200 miles per hour heavy aileron stick forces seriously restricted maneuverability in roll.
Date: September 1, 1942
Creator: Kleckner, Harold F.

The Icing of Aircraft

Description: This technical memorandum presents a theoretical study of the processes accompanying the formation of ice on solid bodies. It discusses vapor pressure and sublimation in two air masses separated by a boundary area.
Date: September 1, 1942
Creator: Robitzsch, M.

An Investigation of Hydrofoils in the NACA Tank I : Effect of Dihedral and Depth of Submersion

Description: Tests were conducted on hydrofoil assemblies approximating an arrangement for use under seaplanes or surface boats. A series of hydrofoils, each supported by two struts, was towed at various depths ranging from partial submersions to a depth of 5-chord lengths. At depths greater than 4 or 5 chords, the influence of the surface of the water is small; hydrofoils operating at low speed will have characteristics similar to those of airfoils of the same section.
Date: September 1, 1942
Creator: Land, Norman S. & Benson, James M.

An investigation of the effectiveness of stiffeners on shear-resistant plate-girder webs

Description: The results of 60 different tests on 2 aluminum alloy 17S-T plate girders are presented to show the influence of size and spacing of stiffeners upon the buckling characteristics of shear-resistant webs within the elastic range. It is demonstrated that stiffeners increase the stability of a web by retarding the formation subdivided panels. An empirical method of proportioning stiffeners is proposed which recognizes both of these stiffener functions, and comparisons are made with design procedures based upon theoretical considerations of the buckling problem. Also, some experimental data are provided to show the effect of stiffener size and spacing upon ultimate web strengths.
Date: September 1, 1942
Creator: Moore, R L

The Navier-Stokes Stress Principle for Viscous Fluids

Description: The Navier-Stokes stress principle is checked in the light of Maxwell's mechanism of friction and in connection herewith the possibility of another theorem is indicated. The Navier-Stokes stress principle is in general predicated upon the conception of the plastic body. Hence the process is a purely phenomenological one, which Newton himself followed with his special theorem for one-dimensional flows. It remained for Maxwell to discover the physical mechanism by which the shear inflow direction is developed: According to it, this shear is only 'fictitious' as it merely represents the substitute for a certain transport on macroscopic motion quantity, as conditioned by Brown's moiecular motion and the diffusion, respectively. It is clear that this mechanism is not bound to the special case of the one-dimensioilal flows, but holds for any flow as expression of the diffusion, by which a fluid differs sharply from a plastic body. If it is remembered, on the other hand, that the cause of the stresses on the plastic body lies in a certain cohesion of the molecules, it appears by no means self evident that this difference in the mechanism of friction between fluid and plastic body should not prevail in the stress principle as well, although it certainly is desirable in any case, at least subsequently, to establish the general theorem in the sense of Maxwell. Actually, a different theorem is suggested which, in contrast to that by Navier-Stokes, has the form of an unsymmetrical matrix. Without anticipating a final decision several reasons are advanced by way of a special flow which seem to affirm this new theorem. To make it clear that the problem involved here still awaits its final solution, is the real purpose behind the present article.
Date: September 1, 1942
Creator: Mohr, Ernst

Tests of an NACA 66,2-420 Airfoil of 5-Foot Chord at High Speed, Special Report

Description: This report covers tests of a 5-foot model of the NACA 66,2-420 low-drag airfoil at high speeds including the critical compressibility speed. Section coefficients of lift, drag, and pitching moment, and extensive pressure-distribution data are presented. The section drag coefficient at the design lift coefficient of 0.4 increased from 0.0042 at low speeds to 0.0052 at a Mach number of 0.56 (390 mph at 25,000 ft altitude). The critical Mach number was about 0.60. The results cover a Reynold number range from 4 millions to 17 millions.
Date: September 1, 1942
Creator: Hood, Manley J. & Anderson, Joseph L.

Thermal Theory of Combustion and Explosion, 3, Theory of Normal Flame Propagation

Description: The technical memorandum covers experimental data on flame propagation, the velocity of flame propagation, analysis of the old theoretical views of flame propagation, confirmation of the theory for simple reactions (theory of combustion of explosive substances and in particular nitroglycol), and check of the theory by example of a chain oxidizing reaction (theory of flame propagation in carbon monoxide, air and carbon monoxide - oxygen mixtures).
Date: September 1, 1942
Creator: Semenov, N. N.